Alachua County, Florida
|Alachua County, Florida|
Alachua County Courthouse
Location in the state of Florida
Florida's location in the U.S.
|Founded||February 29, 1824|
|Named for||Chua (Timucuan word for "sinkhole")|
|• Total||969 sq mi (2,510 km2)|
|• Land||875 sq mi (2,266 km2)|
|• Water||94 sq mi (243 km2), 9.7%|
|• Density||293/sq mi (113/km²)|
|Congressional districts||3rd, 5th|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Alachua County is included in the Gainesville, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is known for its diverse culture, local music, and artisans. Much of its economy revolves around the university.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Education
- 5 Library
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Politics
- 8 Landfills
- 9 Communities
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 External links
The Alachua area appears to have been the first area occupied in 1740 by the immigrant Oconee, who became part of the Seminole. Their first town was situated on or near the old Alachua plain, now called Payne's Prairie in homage to "King" Payne, chief of the Alachua settlements, upon his death in 1812.
Lieutenant Diego Peña, describe this area in his journal kept during his expedition to Apalachee and Apalachicola in 1716. Of the area between the Ichetucknee and Suwannee rivers in southern Suwannee County he wrote:
|“||The 21st day I left the said site (adjacent to the Itchtucknee River) and camped at a place they call Aquilachua this day I marched five leagues. In this day's march no creeks were encountered but there are good springs of water, and the first (is) named Usichua, (and) the other Usiparachua, and another Afanochua.||”|
The springs without effluent streams may have been sinkholes, as there are many in the area. The names of these watering places all end with chua, suggesting that chua is the Timucuan name for sinkhole. The residents of the county thought that Alachua means sinkhole.
Alachua County proper was organized in 1824. The original county seat was Newnansville located near the current site of the city of Alachua. In 1854, the new railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key bypassed Newnansville and Gainesville, a new town located on the railroad, began to draw business and residents away from Newnansville. Gainesville later became the new county seat that same year.
- Bradford County - north
- Union County - north
- Putnam County - east
- Marion County - southeast
- Levy County - southwest
- Gilchrist County - west
- Columbia County - northwest
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 247,336 people, 100,516 households, and 53,500 families residing in the county. There were 112,766 housing units in the county, an occupancy rate of 89.1%; of the occupied units, 54,768 (54.5%) were owner-occupied and 45,748 (45.5%) were renter-occupied. The population density was 282.91/sq mi (109.24/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 172,156 (69.9%) White, 50,282 (20.3%) Black or African American, 906 (0.3%) Native American, 13,235 (5.4%) Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. 20,752 (8.4%) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 100,516 households, 22.0% included children under the age of 18, 36.4% included a married husband and wife couple, 4.0% had a male head of house with no wife present, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.8% were non-families. 24.8% of all households included at least one child under the age of 18, and 19.6% included at least one member 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91.
The demographic spread showed 17.9% under the age of 18 and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older; 48.4% of the population identified as male and 51.6% as female. The median age was 30.1 years.
The five year American Community Survey completed 2011 gave a median household income of $41,473 (inflation indexed to 2011 dollars) and a median family income of $63,435. Male full-time year round workers had a median income of $42,865, versus $36,351 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,172; 23.6% of the population was living below the poverty line.
As of 2010[update], 86.43% of the population spoke English as their primary language, while Spanish was spoken by 6.38%, 1.18% spoke Chinese, 0.57% were speakers of Korean, and 0.52% spoke French as their native language.
The entire county of Alachua is served by the Alachua County School District, which has some 47 different institutions in the county. Alachua county is also home to the University of Florida and Santa Fe College.
The Alachua County Library District is an independent special taxing district and the sole provider of public library service to approximately 250,000 citizens of Alachua County, Florida. This includes all of the incorporated municipalities in the county. It maintains a Headquarters Library and four other branches in Gainesville. These locations include the Millhopper Branch in northwest Gainesville, the Tower Road Branch in unincorporated Alachua county southwest of Gainesville, the Library Partnership Branch in northeast Gainesville, and the Cone Park Branch in east Gainesville. The district also operates branches in the Alachua County municipalities of Alachua, Archer, Hawthorne, High Springs, Micanopy, Newberry, and Waldo, as well as a branch at the Alachua County Jail. The district operates two bookmobiles which visit more than 25 locations in the county from two to five times a month.
The Alachua County Library District traces its origins to 1905, when the Twentieth Century Club in Gainesville started a subscription library. The Gainesville Public Library, which was a subscription library operated by the Library Association, opened in 1906. The Twentieth Century Club donated the books from its subscription library, and the new library also received books from the library of the East Florida Seminary, which had been absorbed by the newly founded University of Florida. The Gainesville Public Library became a free library in 1918, supported by funds from city taxes, and in a building constructed with the aid of a Carnegie grant. The library became a department of the City of Gainesville in 1949. A branch of the Gainesville Public Library, the Carver Branch Library, was opened in 1953 to provide library services to the African-American population of Gainesville. The Carver Branch closed in 1969, after the main library had been desegregated. In 1958, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County agreed to jointly operate the library for the whole county. Branch libraries were opened in High springs, Hawthorne and Micanopy the next year, and a bookmobile was put into service. Alachua County joined with Bradford County to operate the Santa Fe Regional Library. After Bradford County withdrew from the Regional Library, the Alachua County Library District was formally established in 1986. The Millhopper and Tower Road branches opened in 1992, and the branches in Alachua, Archer, Newberry and Waldo were all opened by 1997. The Library Partnership Branch opened in 2009, and the Cone Park Branch in 2011. A new, permanent location for the Cone Park Branch Library was opened near the Eastside Community Center in Gainesville on December 14, 2013.
- Gainesville Regional Airport-Gainesville
- Flying Ten Airport-Archer
- Oak Tree Landing Airport-High Springs
- Gleim Field Airport-Gainesville
According to the Secretary of State's office, Democrats are a plurality of Alachua County's registered voters.
|Alachua County Voter Registration & Party Enrollment as of September 30, 2015|
|Political Party||Total Voters||Percentage|
Like many other counties containing large state universities, Alachua County regularly supports the Democratic Party. It has voted for the Democratic candidate for president in the past five elections. The county last supported a Republican presidential candidate in 1988, when it narrowly went for George H. W. Bush.
|2012||40.40% 48,797||57.71% 69,699||1.89% 2,277|
|2008||38.51% 48,513||59.99% 75,565||1.50% 1,889|
|2004||42.90% 47,762||56.14% 62,504||0.96% 1,062|
|2000||39.80% 34,135||55.25% 47,380||4.95% 4,242|
|1996||33.97% 25,303||53.90% 40,144||12.13% 9,037|
|1992||29.87% 22,806||49.61% 37,876||20.52% 15,668|
|2014||39.79% 31,097||56.37% 44,052||3.84% 3,004|
|2010||38.03% 28,129||59.40% 43,933||2.57% 1,899|
|2006||42.74% 30,139||54.94% 38,741||2.32% 1,636|
|2002||41.38% 29,118||57.73% 40,621||0.90% 629|
|1998||44.79% 23,812||55.19% 29,343||0.03% 14|
|1994||38.16% 21,624||61.82% 35,030||0.01% 7 56,661|
Alachua County is the site of five closed landfills—Southwest Landfill, Southeast Landfill, Northwest Landfill, Northeast Landfill, and Northeast Auxiliary Landfill. Since 1999, all solid waste from Alachua County has been hauled to the New River Solid Waste Facility in Raiford, in neighboring Union County.
- Alachua County Library District
- Florida State Parks in Alachua County
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Alachua County, Florida
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Simpson, J. Clarence (1956). Mark F. Boyd, ed. Florida Place-Names of Indian Derivation. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Geological Survey.
- "History of Alachua". Alachua Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- "2007-2011 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.
- "Modern Language Association Data Center Results, Alachua County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "Locations | Alachua County Library District". www.aclib.us. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- "Alachua County Sheriff's Office". www.alachuasheriff.org. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- "Bookmobile stops | Alachua County Library District". www.aclib.us. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- "Florida Library History Project".
- "Alachua County Library District Heritage Collection". heritage.acld.lib.fl.us. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- "Cone Park library hosting grand opening". Gainesville.com. Retrieved 2015-12-04.
- "Landfills". Alachua County, Florida. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- "Brief History of the Environmental Park". Alachua County, Florida. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alachua County, Florida.|
- Alachua County / Board of County Commissioners
- Alachua County Supervisor of Elections
- Alachua County Property Appraiser
- Alachua County Sheriff's Office
- Alachua County Tax Collector
- Alachua County Public Schools
- Suwannee River Water Management District
- St. Johns River Water Management District
- Alachua County Library District
Judicial branch of State
- Alachua County Clerk of Courts
- Office of the State Attorney, 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Gilchrist, Levy and Union Counties
- Circuit and County Court for the 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida
Conservation and environmental organizations
||Columbia County||Bradford County and Union County|
|Gilchrist County||Putnam County|
|Levy County||Marion County|