Alan R. Templeton is an American geneticist and statistician at Washington University in St. Louis, where he is the Charles Rebstock emeritus professor of biology, and also at the University of Haifa, where he holds a professorship in the Institute of Evolution and the Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology. He is known for his work demonstrating the degree of genetic diversity among humans and the biological unreality of human races.
In 2002, Templeton published a genetic analysis showing that some gene variants that are present in modern populations existed already in Asia hundreds of thousands of years ago. This meant that even if our male line (Y chromosome) and our female line (mitochondrial DNA) came out of Africa in the last 100,000 years or so, we have inherited other genes from populations that were already outside of Africa. Since this study other studies have been done using much more data (see Phylogeography).
According to Templeton's research, perceived differences in races are more related to cultural perceptions and biases than any underlying genetic reality. For example, Templeton's statistical analysis of the human genome shows that much greater genetic diversity exists between populations of chimpanzees than humans.
Using data from the International HapMap Project and the 1000 Genomes project, Templeton and a team of researchers looked at mutations encompassing the gephyrin gene of chromosome 14 and were able to trace the split back to the last common ancestor.
- "Washington University in St. Louis Department of Biology Faculty".
- Templeton, Alan R. (September 2013). "Biological races in humans". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 44 (3): 262–271. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2013.04.010. PMC 3737365. PMID 23684745.
- Templeton, A. R. (2002). "Out of Africa again and again" (PDF). Nature. 416 (6876): 45–51. doi:10.1038/416045a. PMID 11882887.
- A plea to lose the race The Age, July 15, 2004
- "Big data allows computer engineers to find genetic clues in humans". March 27, 2015.
- Climer, Sharlee; Templeton, Alan R.; Zhang, Weixiong (March 27, 2015). "Human gephyrin is encompassed within giant functional noncoding yin–yang sequences". Nature Communications. 6. doi:10.1038/ncomms7534. PMC 4380243. PMID 25813846.