Albanian National Awakening

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"Rilindja" redirects here. For the newspaper, see Rilindja (newspaper).

The Albanian National Awakening or the National Renaissance or the National Revival (Albanian: Rilindja Kombëtare) refers to the period in the history of Albania from 1870 until the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912. Its activists are called Revivalists (Albanian: Rilindas).[1][2]

The Albanian National Awakening began in the middle of XIXth century and lasted until 1912, when the Albanians declared the creation of an independent Albania, which included what is now Albania and neighbouring territories.[3] On December 20, 1912 the Conference of Ambassadors in London recognized an independent Albania within its present-day borders.[4]

Background and 1831–1878 Period[edit]

The Pashalik of Scutari (1757-1831) was the last of the Albanian pashaliks to fall.

After the fall of the Yanina Pashalik, the power and influence of the Albanian beys had faded. The remaining beys thus attempted to restore their rule.[5] An assembly was held in Berat in 1828. In this Convention, the leaders were Ismail Bey Qemali, Zylyftar Poda and Shahin bej Delvina. The Ottoman Empire tried to prevent the rise of local beys, which presented a menace to centralized power. In 1830, the Sublime Porte sent an expeditionary force under the command of Reşid Mehmed Pasha to suppress the local Albanian beys. On hearing the news of the Ottoman forces' arrival, the three most powerful local chiefs, Zylyftar Poda, accompanied by the remains of Ali Pasha's faction, Veli Bey (whose power base was around Yannina), and Arslan Bey, along with other less powerful beys, began to prepare their forces to resist a probable Ottoman attack.[5] Realising the seriousness of the situation and the danger of a general uprising, Reşid Mehmed Pasha invited the Albanian beys to a meeting on the pretext that they would be rewarded for their loyalty to the Porte.[6] The beys however, were all killed along with their guards.[5]

The last Albanian pashalik to fall was the Scutari Pashalik. The Bushati dynasty rule ended when an Ottoman army under Mehmed Reshid Pasha besieged the Rozafa Castle and forced Mustafa Reshiti to surrender (1831).[7] The Albanian defeat ended a planned alliance between the Albanians and the Bosnians, who were similarly seeking autonomy.[8] Instead of the pashalik, the vilayets of Scutari and that of Kosovo were created.

Failed pro-Bushati uprisings in Scutari during 1833–1836 were followed by the northern Albanian Revolt of 1844 and southern Albanian Revolt of 1847, which were reactions to the Ottoman Tanzimat reforms. The 1844 revolt was led by Dervish Cara while 1847 revolt was led by three main leaders: Zenel Gjoleka, Rrapo Hekali and Hodo Nivica. All these uprisings failed; however, they increased the national identity and union between Albanians and played a precursory role to the rise of the Albanian National Awakening.

Rise of Albanian Nationalism[edit]

The 4 Ottoman vilayets (Kosovo, Scutari, Monastir and Janina), proposed as Albanian vilayet, by the League of Prizren 1878.

Because of religious ties of the Albanian majority of the population with the ruling Ottomans and the lack of an Albanian state in past, nationalism was less developed among Albanians in the 19th century than among other southeast European nations. Only from the 1870s and onwards did a movement of ‘national awakening‘ (rilindja) evolve among them - greatly delayed, compared to the Greeks and the Serbs.[1] The 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman power in the Balkan Peninsula. The Albanians' fear that the lands they inhabited would be partitioned among Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece fueled the rise of Albanian nationalism. The first postwar treaty, the abortive Treaty of San Stefano signed on March 3, 1878, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria. Austria-Hungary and the United Kingdom blocked the arrangement because it awarded Russia a predominant position in the Balkans and thereby upset the European balance of power. A peace conference to settle the dispute was held later in the year in Berlin.[9]

The Treaty of San Stefano triggered profound anxiety among the Albanians meanwhile, and it spurred their leaders to organize a defense of the lands they inhabited. In the spring of 1878, influential Albanians in Constantinople—including Abdyl Frashëri, one of the first political ideologues[10] of the National Revival-organized a secret committee to direct the Albanians' resistance. In May the group called for a general meeting of representatives from all the Albanian-populated lands. On June 10, 1878, about eighty delegates, mostly Muslim religious leaders, clan chiefs, and other influential people from the four Albanian-populated Ottoman vilayets, met in Prizren. The delegates declared the formation of the League of Prizren which consisted of two branches: the Prizren branch and the southern branch. The Prizren branch was led by Iljas Dibra and it had representatives from the areas of Kirçova (Kicevo), Kalkandelen (Tetovo), Pristine (Pristina), Mitroviça (Kosovska Mitrovica), Viçitirin (Vucitrn), Üsküp (Skopje), Gilan (Gnjilane), Manastir (Bitola), Debar (Debar) and Gostivar. The southern branch, led by Abdyl Frashëri consisted of sixteen representatives from the areas of Kolonjë, Korçë, Arta, Berat, Parga, Gjirokastër, Përmet, Paramythia, Filiates, Margariti, Vlorë, Tepelenë and Delvinë.[11] The League of Prizren was set under the direction of a central committee that had the power to impose taxes and raise an army. The League of Prizren worked to gain autonomy for the Albanians and to thwart implementation of the Treaty of San Stefano, but not to create an independent Albania.[12] Among other things the League requested an official status for the Albanian language in the Albanian-inhabited territories and the foundation of Albanian schools.[13]

At first the Ottoman authorities supported the League of Prizren, but the Sublime Porte pressed the delegates to declare themselves to be first and foremost Ottomans rather than Albanians. Some delegates supported this position and advocated emphasizing Muslim solidarity and the defense of Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other representatives, under Frashëri's leadership, focused on working toward Albanian autonomy and creating a sense of Albanian identity that would cut across religious and tribal lines. Because conservative Muslims constituted a majority of the representatives, the League of Prizren supported maintenance of Ottoman suzerainty.[14]

In July 1878, the league sent a memorandum to the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin, which was called to settle the unresolved problems of Turkish War, demanding that all Albanians be united in a single autonomous Ottoman province.[15]

League of Prizren, group photo, 1878

The Congress of Berlin ignored the league's memorandum, and Germany's Otto von Bismarck even proclaimed that an Albanian nation did not exist.[16] The congress ceded to Montenegro the cities of Bar and Podgorica and areas around the mountain villages of Gusinje and Plav, which Albanian leaders considered Albanian territory. Serbia also won Albanian-inhabited lands. The Albanians, the vast majority loyal to the empire, vehemently opposed the territorial losses. Albanians also feared the possible loss of Epirus to Greece. The League of Prizren organized armed resistance efforts in Gusinje, Plav, Scutari, Prizren, Preveza, and Ioannina. A border tribesman at the time described the frontier as "floating on blood."[14]

Flag used during the Albanian National Awakening and by early 20th-century Albanian rebels.[17]

In August 1878, the Congress of Berlin ordered a commission to trace a border between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro. The congress also directed Greece and the Ottoman Empire to negotiate a solution to their border dispute. The Great Powers expected the Ottomans to ensure that the Albanians would respect the new borders, ignoring that the sultan's military forces were too weak to enforce any settlement and that the Ottomans could only benefit by the Albanians' resistance. The Sublime Porte, in fact, armed the Albanians and allowed them to levy taxes, and when the Ottoman army withdrew from areas awarded to Montenegro under the Treaty of Berlin, Roman Catholic Albanian tribesmen simply took control. The Albanians' successful resistance to the treaty forced the Great Powers to alter the border, returning Gusinje and Plav to the Ottoman Empire and granting Montenegro the Albanian-populated coastal town of Ulcinj. But the Albanians there refused to surrender as well. Finally, the Great Powers blockaded Ulcinj by sea and pressured the Ottoman authorities to bring the Albanians under control. The Great Powers decided in 1881 to cede Greece only Thessaly and the district of Arta.[18]

Faced with growing international pressure "to pacify" the refractory Albanians, the sultan dispatched a large army under Dervish Turgut Pasha to suppress the League of Prizren and deliver Ulcinj to Montenegro. Albanians loyal to the empire supported the Sublime Porte's military intervention. In April 1881, Dervish Pasha's 10,000 men captured Prizren and later crushed the resistance at Ulcinj. The League of Prizren's leaders and their families were arrested and deported. Frashëri, who originally received a death sentence, was imprisoned until 1885 and exiled until his death seven years later. In the three years it survived, the League of Prizren effectively made the Great Powers aware of the Albanian people and their national interests. Montenegro and Greece received much less Albanian-populated territory than they would have won without the league's resistance.[19]

Formidable barriers frustrated Albanian leaders' efforts to instill in their people an Albanian rather than an Ottoman identity. Divided into four vilayets, Albanians had no common geographical or political nerve center. The Albanians' religious differences forced nationalist leaders to give the national movement a purely secular character that alienated religious leaders. The most significant factor uniting the Albanians, their spoken language, lacked a standard literary form and even a standard alphabet. Each of the three available choices, the Latin, Cyrillic, and Arabic scripts, implied different political and religious orientations opposed by one or another element of the population. In 1878 there were no Albanian-language schools in the most developed of the Albanian-inhabited areas and the choice for education was between Orthodox Church schools, where education was in Greek and Ottoman government schools where education was in Turkish.[20]

Ethnic distribution of Albanians 1898.

The Ottoman Empire continued to crumble after the Congress of Berlin. The empire's financial troubles prevented Sultan Abdül Hamid II from reforming his military, and he resorted to repression to maintain order. The authorities strove without success to control the political situation in the empire's Albanian-populated lands, arresting suspected nationalist activists. When the sultan refused Albanian demands for unification of the four Albanian-populated vilayets, Albanian leaders reorganized the League of Prizren and incited uprisings that brought the Albanian-populated lands, especially Kosovo, to near anarchy. The imperial authorities again disbanded the League of Prizren in 1897, executed its president in 1902, and banned Albanian- language books and correspondence. In Macedonia, where Bulgarian-, Greek-, and Serbian-backed guerrillas were fighting Ottoman authorities and one another for control, Muslim Albanians suffered attacks, and Albanian guerrilla groups retaliated. In 1905 Albanian leaders meeting in Manastir established the Secret Committee for the Liberation of Albania.[21] In September 1906, Albanian patriots assassinated Korçë's Greek Orthodox metropolitan, whose actions had angered the Albanian nationalists.[22]

Albanian warrior costume, c. 1913

In 1906 opposition groups in the Ottoman Empire emerged, one of which evolved into the Committee of Union and Progress, more commonly known as the Young Turks, which proposed restoring constitutional government in Constantinople, by revolution if necessary. In July 1908, a month after a Young Turk rebellion in Macedonia supported by an Albanian uprising in Kosovo and Macedonia escalated into widespread insurrection and mutiny within the imperial army, Sultan Abdül Hamid II agreed to demands by the Young Turks to restore constitutional rule. Many Albanians participated in the Young Turks uprising, hoping that it would gain their people autonomy within the empire. The Young Turks lifted the Ottoman ban on Albanian-language schools and on writing the Albanian language. As a consequence, Albanian intellectuals meeting in Bitola in 1908 chose the Latin alphabet as a standard script. The Young Turks, however, were set on maintaining the empire and not interested in making concessions to the myriad nationalist groups within its borders. After securing the abdication of Abdül Hamid II in April 1909, the new authorities levied taxes, outlawed guerrilla groups and nationalist societies, and attempted to extend Constantinople's control over the northern Albanian mountain men. In addition, the Young Turks legalized the bastinado, or beating with a stick, even for misdemeanors, banned carrying rifles, and denied the existence of an Albanian nationality. The new government also appealed for Islamic solidarity to break the Albanians' unity and used the Muslim clergy to try to impose the Arabic alphabet.[23]

The Albanians refused to submit to the Young Turks' campaign to "Ottomanize" them by force. New Albanian uprisings began in Kosovo and the northern mountains in early April 1910. Ottoman forces quashed these rebellions after three months, outlawed Albanian organizations, disarmed entire regions, and closed down schools and publications. Montenegro, preparing to grab Albanian-populated lands for itself, supported a 1911 uprising by the mountain tribes against the Young Turks regime that grew into a widespread revolt. Unable to control the Albanians by force, the Ottoman government granted concessions on schools, military recruitment, and taxation and sanctioned the use of the Latin script for the Albanian language. The government refused, however, to unite the four Albanian-inhabited vilayets.[24]

Literary revival[edit]

"Albanezul", the newspaper of the Albanian minority in Romania (1889).
Naum Veqilharxhi's Vithkuqi script was the first Albanian alphabet. It was published in 1845

Albanian intellectuals in the late nineteenth century began devising a single, standard Albanian literary language and making demands that it be used in schools. In Constantinople in 1879, Sami Frashëri founded a cultural and educational organization, the Society for the Printing of Albanian Writings, whose membership comprised Muslim, Catholic, and Orthodox Albanians. Naim Frashëri, the most-renowned Albanian poet, joined the society and wrote and edited textbooks. Albanian émigrés in Bulgaria, Egypt, Italy, Romania, and the United States supported the society's work. The Greeks, who dominated the education of Orthodox Albanians, joined the Turks in suppressing the Albanians' culture, especially Albanian-language education. In 1886 the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople threatened to excommunicate anyone found reading or writing Albanian, and priests taught that God would not understand prayers uttered in Albanian.[25] In 1884-5 however, Albanian intellectual Naum Veqilharxhi published his work Evëtori Shqip Fort i Shkurtër (English: The short Albanian Evëtor) which was an alphabet that included thirty three letters which were invented by himself.[26] He avoided the use of Latin, Greek or Arabic alphabets and characters because of their religious associations and divisions.[27] In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul.

The Commission of the Manastir Congress in a rare photo (1908).

One of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians. In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, which was mainly in Latin letters. A plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldn't finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools.[28] Although this commission had gathered and delivered an alphabet in 1870, the writers from the North still used the Latin-based alphabet, whereas in Southern Albania writers used mostly the Greek letters.The turning point was the aftermath of the League of Prizren (1878) events when in 1879 Sami Frashëri and Naim Frashëri formed the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings. Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet.[29] After a long time strugglimg with obstacles coming from the Ottoman authorities, the first school of Albanian language was opened on the initiative of individual teachers and other intellectuals on 7 March 1887 in Korce. Diamanti Tërpo, a citizen of the city, offered her house to serve as a school building. The first director and teacher of the school was Pandeli Sotiri.[30]

One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe) of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, after the author's death. The dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet.[28] In 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia. The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi ("unity") club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mit'hat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, and Gjergj D. Qiriazi. There was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul, Bashkimi and Agimi. However, the Congress was unable to make a clear decision and opted for a compromise solution of using both the widely used Istanbul, with minor changes, and a modified version of the Bashkimi alphabet. Usage of the alphabet of Istanbul declined rapidly and it was essentially extinct over the following decades. The Bashkimi alphabet is at the origin of the official alphabet of the Albanian language in use today.[31]

A major role during the Albanian National Awakening was played by literature, which served to many Rilindas as a way to express their ideas. It was imbued with the spirit of national liberation, with the nostalgia of the émigré and the rhetorical pathos of past heroic wars. This literary school developed the poetry most. Regarding the motifs and poetical forms, its hero was the ethical man, the fighting Albanian, and to a lesser degree the tragic man. Because its major purpose was to awaken national consciousness it was closely linked with the folklore tradition.

1910 & 1911 uprisings[edit]

Further information: Battle of Deçiq
Idriz Seferi with his rebels entering Ferizaj in 1910
Isa Boletini

In 1910 due to the new centralization policies of the Young Turk Ottoman government towards Albanians[32] Albanian nationalists Isa Boletini and Idriz Seferi started an uprising against the Ottomans in the Kosovo vilayet. After subduing the Ottoman garrisons in towns such as Prishtina and Ferizaj, the Ottoman government declared martial law and sent a military expedition of 16,000 men led by Shefqet Turgut Pasha[33] Simultaneously forces under Idriz Seferi captured the Kaçanik pass. They successfully defended the pass from the Ottoman expeditionary force thus, forcing them to send a force of 40,000 men.[33] After two weeks the pass was lost to the Ottomans[34] After fierce fighting, the rebels retreated to Drenica and the Ottoms seized control of Prizren, Gjakova and Peja[35] Afterwards Ottoman forces incurred into Northern Albania and Macedonia. Ottoman forces were stopped for more than 20 days in the Agri Pass, from the Albanian forces of Shalë, Shoshë, Nikaj and Mërtur areas, led by Prel Tuli, Mehmet Shpendi, and Marash Delia. Unable to repress their resistance, this column took another way to Scutari, passing from the Pukë region.[35] On July 24, 1910, Ottoman forces entered the city of Scutari. During this period martial courts were put in action and summary executions took place. A large number of firearms were collected and many villages and properties were burned by the Ottoman army.[36]

In 1911, the Albanian National Committee was formed. In a meeting of the comittee held in Podgorica from 2 to 4 February 1911, under the leadership of Nikolla bey Ivanaj and Sokol Baci Ivezaj, it was decided to organize an Albanian uprising.[37] Terenzio Tocci gathered the Mirdite chieftains on 26 April 1911 in Orosh, proclaimed the independence of Albania, raised the flag of Albania (according to Robert Elsie it was raised for the first time after Skanderbeg's death) and established the provisional government.[38] Shefqet Turgut Pasha wanted to meet this threat and returned to the region with 8.000 soldiers. As soon as he reached Shkodër on 11 May, he issued a general proclamation which declared martial law and offered an amnesty for all rebels (except for Malësor chieftains) if they immediately return to their homes. After Ottoman troops entered the area Tocci fled the empire abandoning his activities.[39] After months of intense fighting, the rebels were trapped and decided to escape to Montenegro.[40]

On 23 June 1911 in the village of Gerče in Montenegro an assembly of the tribal leaders of the revolt was held to adopt the "Gerče Memorandum". This memorandum was signed by 22 Albanian chieftains, four from each tribe of Hoti, Grudë and Skrel, five from Kastrati, three from Klemendi and two from Shalë.[41]

Sokol Baci Ivezaj — one of the leaders of the 1911 revolt

Requests of the memorandum included:

  1. general amnesty for all participants in the revolt
  2. demand for recognition of the Albanian ethnicity
  3. election of the deputies of Albanian ethnicity for the Ottoman Parliament according to the proportional system
  4. Albanian language in schools
  5. governor and other appointed high officials have to know Albanian language and all other positions in the administration have to be reserved only for people of Albanian ethnicity
  6. men who are ethnic Albanians to serve army only in Albania during the peacetime
  7. confiscated arms to be returned
  8. all Albanian property damaged by Ottoman troops to be compensated[36]

The Memorandum was submitted to the representatives of Great Powers in Cetinje, Montenegro.[42]

Ottoman representatives managed to deal with the leaders of Albanian rebels in Kosovo Vilayet and Scutari Vilayet separately, because they were not united and lacked central control. They promised to meet most of their demands, like general amnesty, the opening of Albanian language schools, and the restriction that military service was to be performed only in the territory of the vilayets with substantial Albanian population. Other demands included requiring administrative officers to learn the Albanian language, and that the possession of weapons would be permitted.[43]

Albanian Revolt of 1912[edit]

Skopje after being captured by Albanian revolutionaries in August, 1912 who defeated the Ottoman forces holding the city.
Further information: Albanian Revolt of 1912

The Albanian Revolt of 1912 was one of many Albanian revolts in the Ottoman Empire and lasted from January until August 1912. Albanian soldiers and officers deserted the Ottoman military service and joined the insurgents.[44][45] After a series of successes, Albanian revolutionaries managed to capture the city of Skopje, the administrative centre of Kosovo vilayet within the Ottoman rule.[46][47][48] On August 9, 1912, Albanian rebels presented a new list of demands (the so-called list of Fourteen Points), related to the Albanian vilayet, that can be summarized as follows:[49]

  • autonomous system of administration and justice of four vilayets populated with Albanians (Albanian vilayet)
  • Albanians to perform military service only in territory of four vilayets populated with Albanians, except in time of war
  • employing officials who know local language and customs, but not necessarily Albanians,
  • establishment of new licees and agricultural schools in the bigger districts
  • reorganization and modernization of the religious schools and use of Albanian language in secular schools
  • freedom to establish private schools and societies
  • the development of trade, agriculture and public works
  • general amnesty for all Albanians involved in revolt
  • court martial for those Ottoman officers who attempted to suppress the revolt

The revolt ended when the Ottoman government agreed to fulfill the rebels' demands, except of the last one, on September 4, 1912.[50] The autonomous system of administration and justice of the four vilayets with the substantial Albanian population, accepted by Ottoman Empire,[49] as autonomous Albanian vilayet was included in the agenda of the Albanian National Awakening during League of Prizren.[51]

Balkan Wars and Creation of Independent Albania[edit]

Members of the Assembly of Vlorë photographed in November 1912

The First Balkan War, however, erupted before a final settlement could be worked out. The Balkan allies—Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece—quickly drove the Ottomans to the walls of Constantinople. The Montenegrins surrounded Scutari.

An assembly of Muslim and Christian leaders meeting in Vlorë in November 1912 declared Albania an independent country. The complete text of the declaration[52] was:

Ismail Qemali and his cabinet during the celebration of the first anniversary of independence in Vlorë on 28 November 1913.

In Vlora, on the 15th/28th of November. That time the President was Ismail Kemal Bey, in which he spoke of the great perils facing Albania today, the delegates have all decided unanimously that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent.

A second session of the Assembly of Vlorë was held on December 4, 1912. During that session members of the assembly established the Provisional Government of Albania. It was a government that consisted of ten members, led by Ismail Qemali until his resignation on 22 January 1914.[53] The Assembly established the Senate (Albanian: Pleqësi) with an advisory role to the government, consisting of 18 members of the Assembly.[54] An ambassadorial conference that opened in London in December decided the major questions concerning the Albanians after the First Balkan War in its concluding Treaty of London of May 1913. The Albanian delegation in London was assisted by Aubrey Herbert, MP, a passionate advocate of their cause.[citation needed]

Recognized borders of Albania.

One of Serbia's primary war aims was to gain an Adriatic port, preferably Durrës. Austria-Hungary and Italy opposed giving Serbia an outlet to the Adriatic, which they feared would become a Russian port. They instead supported the creation of an autonomous Albania. Russia backed Serbia's and Montenegro's claims to Albanian-inhabited lands. Britain and Germany remained neutral. Chaired by Britain's foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, the ambassadors' conference initially decided to create an autonomous Albania under continued Ottoman rule, but with the protection of the Great Powers. This solution, as detailed in the Treaty of London, was abandoned in the summer of 1913 when it became obvious that the Ottoman Empire would, in the Second Balkan War, lose Macedonia and hence its overland connection with the Albanian-inhabited lands.[55]

In July 1913, the Great Powers opted to recognize an independent, neutral Albanian state ruled by a constitutional monarchy and under the protection of the Great Powers. The August 1913 Treaty of Bucharest established that independent Albania was a country with borders that gave the new state about 28,000 square kilometers of territory and a population of 800,000. Montenegro had to surrender Scutari after having lost 10,000 men in the process of taking the town. Serbia reluctantly succumbed to an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy to withdraw from northern Albania. The treaty, however, left large areas with majority Albanian populations, notably Kosovo and western Macedonia, outside the new state and failed to solve the region's nationality problems.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karl Kaser, Frank Kressing. Albania – A country in transition Aspects of changing identities in a south-east European country. Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag Extracts, 2002, p. 15
  2. ^ Hurst, Michael. "7. The Albanian National Awakening, 1878–1912. By Stavro Skendi. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press, 1968. Pp. 498. 110s.". The Historical Journal. 12 (02): 380. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00004416. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia at peace and at war: selected writings, 1983 - 2007
  4. ^ Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: prelude to the First World War
  5. ^ a b c Tozer, Henry Fanshawe (2009). Researches in the highlands of Turkey; including visits to mounts Ida, Athos, Olympus, and Pelion. pp. 167–169. ISBN 1-115-99203-1. 
  6. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999-01-01). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 9781860645419. 
  7. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9. 
  8. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1999) [1983]. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6. 
  9. ^ Arthur Bullard,The Diplomacy of the Great War, BiblioBazaar 2009 ISBN 1-110-00529-6, ISBN 978-1-110-00529-1. Length 360 pages
  10. ^ Kopeček, Michal; Ersoy, Ahmed; Gorni, Maciej; Kechriotis, Vangelis; Manchev, Boyan; Trencsenyi, Balazs; Turda, Marius (2006), Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 1, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, p. 348, ISBN 963-7326-52-9, the first political ideologue of the Albanian Revival.. 
  11. ^ Skendi, Stavro. "Beginnings of Albanian Nationalist and Autonomous Trends: The Albanian League, 1878-1881Author". American Slavic and East European Review. American Slavic and East European Review. 12: 4. JSTOR 2491677. The southern branch of the League was formed at Gjinokastër (Argyrokastro), where;Albanian leaders held a meeting at which the districts of Janina, Gjinokastër, Delvina, Përmet, Berat, Vlora (Valona), Filat, Margariti, Ajdonat, Parga, Preveza, Arta, Tepelena, Kolonja, and Korca were represented. 
  12. ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453, Edition 2, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0 Length 970 pages. page 502
  13. ^ Selçuk Akşin Somel (2001). The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire, 1839-1908: Islamization, Autocracy, and Discipline. BRILL. p. 210. ISBN 90-04-11903-5. This organization appealed for the administrative unification of the Albanian vilayets into a single province, the introduction of Albanian as an official language in Albanian regions and the foundation of Albanian schools. 
  14. ^ a b Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182, page 63 ]
  15. ^ Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182 pages, page 63
  16. ^ Isolationist States in an Interdependent World Author Helga Turku Publisher Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5, page 63 (length 182 pages)
  17. ^ Elsie 2010, "Flag, Albanian", p. 140: "The eagle was a common heraldic symbol for many Albanian dynasties in the Late Middle Ages and came to be a symbol of the Albanians in general. It is also said to have been the flag of Skanderbeg.... As a symbol of modern Albania, the flag began to be seen during the years of the national awakening and was in common use during the uprisings of 1909–1912."
  18. ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453 Edition 2, illustrated Publisher C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0. page 503. Length 970 pages
  19. ^ Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5, page 64
  20. ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453 Edition 2, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0. page 504-505 (Length 970 pages)
  21. ^ Albania, general information. "8 Nëntori". 1984. p. 33. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  22. ^ History of the Balkans: Twentieth century Volume 2 of History of the Balkans, Barbara Jelavich History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, Barbara Jelavich Volume 12 of Publication series, Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Cambridge paperback library Author Barbara Jelavich Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-521-27459-1, ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3 Length 476 pages page 87 link [1]
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  40. ^ Treadway, John D. (1998-01-01). The Falcon and the Eagle: Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914. Purdue University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781557531469. 
  41. ^ Gawrych, George (2006-12-26). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 187. ISBN 9781845112875. 
  42. ^ Mikić, Đorđe (1983-01-01). Austro-Ugarska i Mladoturci: 1908-1912 (in Serbian). Institut za istoriju u Banjaluci. p. 273. 
  43. ^ Abas, Ermenji. "Vendi që zë Skënderbeu në historinë e Shqipërisë". Por n'atë kohë u muarën vesh propozimet e reja që po iu bënte qeveria turke malësorëvet të Mbishkodrës t'arratisur në Podgoricë...Premtimet ishin pak më të gjera nga ato që iu qenë bërë malësorëvet të Mbishkodrës, sepse parashikohej një falje e përgjithshme, hapja e shkollave shqipe me ndihmën financiare të shtetit dhe mësimi i shqipes në shkollat turqishte. Taksat do të caktohëshin sipas gjendjes së popullit, shërbimi ushtarak do të kryhej në vilajetet shqiptare, nëpunësit e administratës duhej të dinin gjuhën dhe zakonet e vendit, armët mund të mbahëshin me lejë. 
  44. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000). "Albania and Albanian Identities". International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011. In December 1911, a group of Albanian members of the Ottoman parliament, guided by Ismail Qemal, started a parliamentary debate in order to make Constantinople grant the Albanians national rights in the cultural and administrative spheres. 
  45. ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije (November 2000) [1984]. "Albanski pokreti 1908-1912.". In Antonije Isaković. Knjiga o Kosovu (in Serbian). 2. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011. ... ustanici su uspeli da ... ovladaju celim kosovskim vilajetom do polovine avgusta 1912, što znači da su tada imali u svojim rukama Prištinu, Novi Pazar, Sjenicu pa čak i Skoplje... U srednjoj i južnoj Albaniji ustanici su držali Permet, Leskoviku, Konicu, Elbasan, a u Makedoniji Debar... 
  46. ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije (November 2000) [1984]. "Albanski pokreti 1908–1912.". In Antonije Isaković. Knjiga o Kosovu (in Serbian). 2. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved January 9, 2011. ustanici su uspeli da slomiju otpor turske armije, da ovladaju celim kosovskim vilajetom do polovine avgusta 1912, što znači da su tada imali u svojim rukama Prištinu, Novi Pazar, Sjenicu pa čak i Skoplje 
  47. ^ Phillips, John (2004). "The rise of Albanian nationalism". Macedonia: warlords and rebels in the Balkans. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 29. ISBN 1-86064-841-X. An Albanian uprising in Kosovo for independent schools in May 1912 led to capture of Skopje by rebels in August 
  48. ^ Bahl, Taru; M.H. Syed (2003). "The Balkan Wars and creation of Independent Albania". Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World. New Delhi: Anmol publications PVT. Ltd. p. 53. ISBN 81-261-1419-3. The Albanians once more raise against Ottoman Empire in May 1912 and took Macedonian capitol of Skopje by August 
  49. ^ a b Shaw, Stanford J.; Ezel Kural Shaw (2002) [1977]. "Clearing the Decks: Ending the Tripolitanian War and the Albanian Revolt". History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey. 2. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-29166-6. Retrieved January 10, 2011. 
  50. ^ Shaw, Stanford J.; Ezel Kural Shaw (2002) [1977]. "Clearing the Decks: Ending the Tripolitanian War and the Albanian Revolt". History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey. 2. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-29166-6. Retrieved January 10, 2011. Therefore, with only final point being ignored, on September 4, 1912 the government accepted proposals and the Albanian revolt was over 
  51. ^ Kopeček, Michal, Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 2, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, ISBN 963-7326-60-X, retrieved January 18, 2011, Soon after this first meeting,....mainly under the influence of ... Abdyl Frashëri ... new agenda included ... the fonding of an autonomous Albanian Vilayet 
  52. ^ Pollo, Stefanaq; Selami Pulaha (1978). "175". Akte të rilindjes kombëtare shqiptare 1878-1912 (Memorandume, vendime, protesta, thirrje). Tirana: Akademia e Shkencave të RPS të Shqipërisë. p. 261. Vendimi është hartuar shqip dhe turqisht ... 
  53. ^ Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved January 24, 2011. ... a provisional government, consisting of ten members and led by Vlora, was formed on 4 December. 
  54. ^ Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved January 24, 2011. From its own members congress elected a senate (Pleqësi), composed of 18 members, which assumed advisory role to the government. 
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Literature[edit]