Albanian language

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Albanian
shqip
Pronunciation [ʃcip]
Native to Southeastern Europe and Albanian diaspora
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 7.4 million)[1]
Indo-European
  • Albanian
Dialects
Latin (Albanian alphabet)
Albanian Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Albania
 Kosovo[a]
Recognised minority language in
 Italy
 Macedonia
 Montenegro
 Romania
 Serbia
 Greece (as Arvanitika)
Regulated by officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sq
ISO 639-2 alb (B)
sqi (T)
ISO 639-3 sqiinclusive code
Individual codes:
aae – Arbëreshë
aat – Arvanitika
aln – Gheg
als – Tosk
Glottolog alba1267[2]
Linguasphere 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)
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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Albanian (shqip [ʃcip] or gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and Serbia (Presevo Valley). Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian-based dialects can be found scattered in Greece, southern Italy,[3] Sicily, and Ukraine.[4] As a result of a modern diaspora, there are also Albanian speakers elsewhere in those countries and in other parts of the world, including Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Hungary, United Kingdom, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, Brazil, Canada, and the United States.

The earliest written document that mentions the Albanian language is a late-13th-century crime report from Dubrovnik. The first audio recording of the Albanian language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna.[5]

History[edit]

Part of a series on
Albanians
Albania
Nation
Communities
Balkans
Diaspora
Subgroups
Albanian culture
Albanian language
Dialects
Religion
History

The first written mention of the Albanian language was on 14 July 1285 in Dubrovnik, when a certain Matthew, witness of a crime, stated "I heard a voice shouting on the mountainside in the Albanian tongue" (Latin: Audivi unam vocem, clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca).[6][7]

Linguistic affinities[edit]

The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other extant language. (The other extant Indo-European languages in a branch by themselves are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek.) Though sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic based on the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[8] Albanian has been proven to be distinct from these two because this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[9] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[10] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense, and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but this is disputed. (See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.)

Linguistic influences[edit]

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect),[11] whereas the strongest influence was from Latin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.[12] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania) where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[13]

Latin element of the Albanian language[edit]

Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus".[14] Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latin cicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis and "shigjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin c and g are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888)[15] and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914)[16] later corroborated this. Meyer noted the similarity between the Albanian verbs shqipoj and shqiptoj and the Latin word excipio. He believed that the word Shqiptar (meaning Albanian) was derived from the Latin word excipio. Johann Georg von Hahn, an Austrian linguist, previously proposed the same theory in 1854.[17]

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:[18]

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum > "ar", gaudium > "gas", laurus > "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa > "kafshë", laud > "lavd".
  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum > "pemë", hōra > "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian "tetë" etc.
  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus > "kub", medicus > "mjek", paludem > V. Latin padule > "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus > "pagan", plaga > "plagë" etc.
  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius > "ves", ratio > "arsye", radius > "rreze", facies > "faqe", socius > "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

  • Some 85 Latin words have survived in Albanian but not (as inherited) in any Romance language. A few examples include bubulcus > bujk, hibernalia > mërrajë, sarcinarius > shelqëror, trifurcus > tërfurk, accipiter > skifter, musconea > mushkonjë, chersydrus > kuçedër, spleneticum > shpretkë, solanum > shullë.[19]
  • 151 Albanian words of Latin origin were not inherited in Romanian. A few examples include Albanian mik from Latin amicus, or armik from inimicus, arsye from rationem, bekoj from benedicere, qelq from calix (calicis), kështjellë from castellum, qind from centum, gjel from gallus, gjymtyrë from iunctura, mjek from medicus, rrjetë from rete, shpresoj from sperare, vullnet from voluntas (voluntatis).[20]
  • Some Albanian church terminology have phonetic features which demonstrate their very early borrowing from Latin. A few examples include Albanian altar from Latin altare, engjëll from angelus, bekoj from benedicere,i krishterë from christianus, kryq from crux (crucis), kishë from ecclesia, ipeshkv or "episkop" from episcopus, ungjill from evangelium, mallkoj from maledicere, meshë from missa, murg from monacus, "pagan" from paganus.[21]

Other authors[22] have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albanian e vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning "belly band, saddle girth", and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning "old".

Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish and Welsh are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages.

Illyrians, Dacians, Getae and Thracians at 200 BC

Historical presence and location[edit]

The place where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain, but analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region rather than on a plain or seacoast:[23] while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages.[24] A deeper analysis of the vocabulary, however, shows that this could be a consequence of the prolonged Latin domination of the coastal and plain areas of the country, rather than evidence of the original environment where the Albanian language was formed. For example, the word for 'fish' is borrowed from Latin, but not the word for 'gills', which is native. Indigenous are also the words for 'ship', 'raft' and 'navigation', 'sea shelves' and a few names of fish kinds, but not the words for 'sail', 'row', 'harbor', objects pertaining navigation itself and a large part of sea fauna. This rather shows that Proto-Albanians were pushed away from coastal areas in early times (probably after the Latin conquest of the region) thus losing large parts (or the majority) of sea environment lexicon. A similar phenomenon could be observed with agricultural terms. While the words for 'arable land', 'corn', 'wheat', 'cereals', 'vineyard', 'yoke', 'harvesting', cattle breeding etc are native, the words for 'plowing', 'farm' and 'farmer', agricultural practices, and some harvesting tools are foreign. This, again, points to intense contacts with other languages and people, rather than providing evidence of a possible Urheimat.

The center of Albanian settlement remained the Mat River. In AD 1079 they are recorded farther south in the valley of the Shkumbin river.[25] The Shkumbin, a seasonal stream that lies near the old Via Egnatia, is approximately the boundary of the primary dialect division for Albanian, Tosk-Gheg. The characteristics of Tosk and Gheg in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages are evidence that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans,[26][27][12] which means that in that period (5th to 6th centuries AD) Albanians were occupying pretty much the same area around the Shkumbin river, which straddled the Jirecek line.[28][23]

References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 14th century, but they failed to cite specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "Formula e pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spertit Senit. ("I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit") recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durrës in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period.

The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari, or "missal", was written in 1555 by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric. In 1635, Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin-Albanian dictionary. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë.

Dialects[edit]

Main article: Albanian dialects

Albanian is divided into three major dialects: Gheg, Tosk, and a transitional dialect zone between them.[29] The Shkumbin river is roughly the dividing line, with Gheg spoken north of the Shkumbin and Tosk south of it.[30] There are also other dialects like Arbëresh and Arvanitika, but these dialect exist in some zones of Italy and Greece.

Standard Albanian[edit]

Before World War II the language predominantly used for official purposes was Gheg Albanian because King Zog I was a Gheg leader.[31] Prior to World War II, dictionaries consulted by developers of the standard have included Lexikon tis Alvanikis glossis (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe (Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1904),[32] Fjalori i Bashkimit (1908),[32] and "Fjalori i Gazullit" (1941).[33] After World War II standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect, while standardization was directed by the Institute of Albanian Language and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of Albania.[34] Two dictionaries were published in 1954: an Albanian language dictionary and a Russian–Albanian dictionary. New orthography rules were eventually published in 1967[34] and 1973 (Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe (Orthography of the Albanian Language).[35] More recent dictionaries from the Albanian government are Fjalori Drejtshkrimor i Gjuhës Shqipe (1976) (Orthographic Dictionary of the Albanian Language)[36] and Dictionary of Today's Albanian language (Fjalori i Sotëm i Gjuhës Shqipe) (1980).[34][37]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Albanian is spoken by approximately 7.4 million people,[1] mainly in Albania, Kosovo, Turkey, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Italy (Arbereshe) and by immigrant communities in many other countries, notably the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.

Standard[edit]

Standard Albanian, based on the Tosk dialect of southern Albania, is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and is also official in municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia where ethnic Albanians form more than 20% of the municipal population. It is also an official language of Montenegro, where it is spoken in municipalities with ethnic Albanian populations.

Phonology[edit]

Standard Albanian has 7 vowels and 29 consonants. Gheg uses long and nasal vowels, which are absent in Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ë is lost at the end of the word. The stress is fixed mainly on the last syllable. Gheg n (femën: compare English feminine) changes to r by rhotacism in Tosk (femër).

Consonants[edit]

  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m     n   ɲ ŋ  
Plosive p  b     t  d     k  ɡ  
Affricate       t͡s  d͡z t͡ʃ  d͡ʒ c͡ç  ɟ͡ʝ    
Fricative   f  v θ  ð s  z ʃ  ʒ     h
Trill       r        
Flap       ɾ        
Approximant       l  ɫ   j    
IPA Description Written as Pronounced as in
m Bilabial nasal m man
n Alveolar nasal n not
ɲ Palatal nasal nj ~onion
ŋ Velar nasal ng bang
p Voiceless bilabial plosive p pen
b Voiced bilabial plosive b bat
t Voiceless alveolar plosive t tan
d Voiced alveolar plosive d debt
c͡ç Voiceless palatal affricate q West and Central Norwegian ikkje
ɟ͡ʝ Voiced palatal affricate gj West and Central Norwegian leggja
k Voiceless velar plosive k car
ɡ Voiced velar plosive g go
t͡s Voiceless alveolar affricate c hats
d͡z Voiced alveolar affricate x goods
t͡ʃ Voiceless postalveolar affricate ç chin
d͡ʒ Voiced postalveolar affricate xh jet
f Voiceless labiodental fricative f far
v Voiced labiodental fricative v van
θ Voiceless dental fricative th thin
ð Voiced dental fricative dh then
s Voiceless alveolar fricative s son
z Voiced alveolar fricative z zip
ʃ Voiceless postalveolar fricative sh show
ʒ Voiced postalveolar fricative zh vision
h Voiceless glottal fricative h hat
r Alveolar trill rr Spanish perro
ɾ Alveolar tap r Spanish pero
l Alveolar lateral approximant l lean
ɫ Velarized alveolar lateral approximant ll ball
j Palatal approximant j yes

Notes:

  • The palatal nasal /ɲ/ corresponds to the Spanish ñ and the French and Italian gn. It is pronounced as one sound, not a nasal plus a glide.
  • The ll sound is a velarised lateral, close to English dark L.
  • The contrast between flapped r and trilled rr is the same as in Spanish or Armenian.
  • The letter ç is sometimes written ch due to technical limitations because of its use in English sound and its analogy to the other digraphs xh, sh, and zh. Usually it is written simply c or more rarely q with context resolving any ambiguities.
  • Many speakers merge the palatal sounds q and gj into the palatoalveolar sounds ç and xh. This is especially common in Gheg, but is increasingly the case in Tosk as well.[38]

Vowels[edit]

IPA Description Written as Pronounced as in
i Close front unrounded vowel i seed
ɛ Open-mid front unrounded vowel e bed
a Open central unrounded vowel a father, Spanish casa
ə Schwa ë about, the
ɔ Open-mid back rounded vowel o law
y Close front rounded vowel y French tu, German über
u Close back rounded vowel u boot

Schwa[edit]

Although the Indo-European schwa (ə or -h2-) was preserved in Albanian, in some cases it was lost, possibly when a stressed syllable preceded it.[39] Until the standardization of the modern Albanian alphabet, in which the schwa is spelled as ë, as in the work of Gjon Buzuku in the 16th century, various vowels and gliding vowels were employed, including ae by Lekë Matrënga and é by Pjetër Bogdani in the late 16th and early 17th century.[40][41] The schwa in Albanian has a great degree of variability from extreme back to extreme front articulation.[42] Within the borders of Albania, the phoneme is pronounced about the same in both the Tosk and the Gheg dialect due to the influence of standard Albanian. Howevever, in the Gheg dialects spoken in the neighbouring Albanian-speaking areas of Kosovo and Macedonia, the phoneme is still pronounced as back and rounded.[42]

Grammar[edit]

Albanian has a canonical word order of SVO (subject–verb–object) like English and many other Indo-European languages.[43] Albanian nouns are inflected by gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and number (singular and plural). There are five declensions with six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, and vocative), although the vocative only occurs with a limited number of words, and the forms of the genitive and dative are identical (a genitive is produced when the prepositions i/e/të/së are used with the dative). Some dialects also retain a locative case, which is not present in standard Albanian. The cases apply to both definite and indefinite nouns, and there are numerous cases of syncretism.

The following shows the declension of mal (mountain), a masculine noun which takes "i" in the definite singular:

Indefinite singular Indefinite plural Definite singular Definite plural
Nominative një mal (a mountain) male (mountains) mali (the mountain) malet (the mountains)
Accusative një mal male malin malet
Genitive i/e/të/së një mali i/e/të/së maleve i/e/të/së malit i/e/të/së maleve
Dative një mali maleve malit maleve
Ablative (prej) një mali (prej) malesh (prej) malit (prej) maleve

The following shows the declension of the masculine noun zog (bird), a masculine noun which takes "u" in the definite singular:

Indefinite singular Indefinite plural Definite singular Definite plural
Nominative një zog (a bird) zogj (birds) zogu (the bird) zogjtë (the birds)
Accusative një zog zogj zogun zogjtë
Genitive i/e/të/së një zogu i/e/të/së zogjve i/e/të/së zogut i/e/të/së zogjve
Dative një zogu zogjve zogut zogjve
Ablative (prej) një zogu (prej) zogjsh (prej) zogut (prej) zogjve

The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun vajzë (girl):

Indefinite singular Indefinite plural Definite singular Definite plural
Nominative një vajzë (a girl) vajza (girls) vajza (the girl) vajzat (the girls)
Accusative një vajzë vajza vajzën vajzat
Genitive i/e/të/së një vajze i/e/të/së vajzave i/e/të/së vajzës i/e/të/së vajzave
Dative një vajze vajzave vajzës vajzave
Ablative (prej) një vajze (prej) vajzash (prej) vajzës (prej) vajzave

The definite article is placed after the noun as in many other Balkan languages, like in Romanian, Macedonian and Bulgarian.

  • The definite article can be in the form of noun suffixes, which vary with gender and case.
    • For example in singular nominative, masculine nouns add -i, or those ending in -g/-k/-h take -u (to avoid palatalization):
      • mal (mountain) / mali (the mountain);
      • libër (book) / libri (the book);
      • zog (bird) / zogu (the bird).
    • Feminine nouns take the suffix -(j)a:
      • veturë (car) / vetura (the car);
      • shtëpi (house) / shtëpia (the house);
      • lule (flower) / lulja (the flower).
  • Neuter nouns take -t.

Albanian has developed an analytical verbal structure in place of the earlier synthetic system, inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Its complex system of moods (six types) and tenses (three simple and five complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages. There are two general types of conjugations.

Albanian verbs, like those of other Balkan languages, have an "admirative" mood (mënyra habitore) that is used to indicate surprise on the part of the speaker or to imply that an event is known to the speaker by report and not by direct observation. In some contexts, this mood can be translated using English "apparently".

  • Ti flet shqip. "You speak Albanian." (indicative)
  • Ti fliske shqip! "You (surprisingly) speak Albanian!" (admirative)
  • Rruga është e mbyllur. "The street is closed." (indicative)
  • Rruga qenka e mbyllur. "(Apparently,) The street is closed." (admirative)

For more information on verb conjugation and on inflection of other parts of speech, see Albanian morphology.

Word order[edit]

In Albanian, the constituent order is subject–verb–object, and negation is expressed by the particles nuk or s' in front of the verb, for example:

  • Toni nuk flet anglisht "Tony does not speak English";
  • Toni s'flet anglisht "Tony doesn't speak English";
  • Nuk e di "I do not know";
  • S'e di "I don't know".

However, the verb can optionally occur in sentence-initial position, especially with verbs in the non-active form (forma joveprore):

  • Parashikohet një ndërprerje "An interruption is anticipated".

In imperative sentences, the particle mos is used:

  • Mos harro "do not forget!".
  • SVO: Agimi i hëngri të gjithë portokallët.
  • SOV: Agimi të gjithë portokallët i hëngri.
  • OVS: Të gjithë portokallët i hëngri Agimi.
  • OSV: Të gjithë portokallët Agimi i hëngri.
  • VSO: I hëngri Agimi të gjithë portokallët.

Numerals[edit]

një—one tetëmbëdhjetë—eighteen
dy—two nëntëmbëdhjetë—nineteen
tre—three njëzet—twenty
katër—four njëzetenjë—twenty-one
pesë—five njëzetedy—twenty-two
gjashtë—six tridhjetë—thirty
shtatë—seven dyzet/katërdhjetë—forty
tetë—eight pesëdhjetë—fifty
nëntë—nine gjashtëdhjetë—sixty
dhjetë—ten shtatëdhjetë—seventy
njëmbëdhjetë—eleven tetëdhjetë—eighty
dymbëdhjetë—twelve nëntëdhjetë—ninety
trembëdhjetë—thirteen njëqind—one hundred
katërmbëdhjetë—fourteen pesëqind—five hundred
pesëmbëdhjetë—fifteen njëmijë—one thousand
gjashtëmbëdhjetë—sixteen një milion—one million
shtatëmbëdhjetë—seventeen një miliard—one billion

Orthography[edit]

The Albanian language has been written using many different alphabets since the earliest records from the 15th century. The history of Albanian language orthography is closely related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers.[33] The earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek and sometimes in Turko-Arabic characters. Originally, the Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script. Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets[which?]. More specifically, the writers from Northern Albania and under the influence of the Catholic Church used Latin letters, those in southern Albania and under the influence of the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others throughout Albania and under the influence of Islam used Arabic letters. There were initial attempts to create an original Albanian alphabet during the 1750–1850 period. These attempts intensified after the League of Prizren and culminated with the Congress of Monastir held by Albanian intellectuals from 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (present day Bitola), which decided the alphabet and standardized spelling for standard Albanian down to the present. The alphabet is the Latin alphabet with the addition of the letters ë, ç, and nine digraphs.

Literary tradition[edit]

Earliest undisputed texts[edit]

The earliest known texts in Albanian:

  • the "Formula e Pagëzimit" (Baptismal Formula), which dates back to 1462 and was authored by Pal Engjëlli (or Paulus Angelus) (c. 1417 – 1470), Archbishop of Durrës. Engjëlli was a close friend and counselor of Skanderbeg.[44] It was written in a pastoral letter for a synod at the Holy Trinity in Mat and read in Latin characters as follows: Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et Spertit Senit (standard Albanian: "Unë të pagëzoj në emër të Atit, të Birit e të Shpirtit të Shenjtë" "I baptize you in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"). It was discovered and published in 1915 by Nicolae Iorga.[45]
  • the Fjalori i Arnold von Harfit (Arnold Ritter von Harff's lexicon), a short list of Albanian phrases with German glosses, dated 1496.[46]
  • a song, recorded in the Greek alphabet, retrieved from an old codex that was written in Greek. The document is also called Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Pashkëve" or "Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Shën Mateut ("The Song of the Easter Gospel, or "The Song of Saint Matthew's Gospel"). Although the codex is dated to during the 14th century, the song, written in Albanian by an anonymous writer, seems to be a 16th-century writing. The document was found by Arbëreshë people who had emigrated to Italy in the 15th century.[47]
Meshari of Gjon Buzuku 1554-1555

The first book in Albanian is the Meshari ("The Missal"), written by Gjon Buzuku between 20 March 1554 and 5 January 1555. The book was written in the Gheg dialect in the Latin script with some Slavic letters adapted for Albanian vowels. The book was discovered in 1740 by Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, the Albanian archbishop of Skopje. It contains the liturgies of the main holidays. There are also texts of prayers and rituals and catechetical texts. The grammar and the vocabulary are more archaic than those in the Gheg texts from the 17th century. The 188 pages of the book comprise about 154,000 words with a total vocabulary of c. 1,500 different words. The text is archaic yet easily interpreted because it is mainly a translation of known texts, in particular portions of the Bible. The book also contains passages from the Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, the Book of Jeremiah, the Letters to the Corinthians, and many illustrations. The uniformity of spelling seems to indicate an earlier tradition of writing. The only known copy of the Meshari is held by the Apostolic Library.[48] In 1968 the book was published with transliterations and comments by linguists.

Disputed earlier text[edit]

Possibly the oldest surviving Albanian text, highlighted in red, from the Bellifortis manuscript, written by Konrad Kyeser around 1402–1405.

In 1967 two scholars claimed to have found a brief text in Albanian inserted into the Bellifortis text, a book written in Latin dating to 1402–1405.[49]

"A star has fallen in a place in the woods, distinguish the star, distinguish it.

Distinguish the star from the others, they are ours, they are.
Do you see where the great voice has resounded? Stand beside it
That thunder. It did not fall. It did not fall for you, the one which would do it.
...
Like the ears, you should not believe ... that the moon fell when ...
Try to encompass that which spurts far ...
Call the light when the moon falls and no longer exists ..."

Dr. Robert Elsie, a specialist in Albanian studies, considers that "The Todericiu/Polena Romanian translation of the non-Latin lines, although it may offer some clues if the text is indeed Albanian, is fanciful and based, among other things, on a false reading of the manuscript, including the exclusion of a whole line."[50]

Ottoman period[edit]

In 1635, Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) published in Rome his Dictionarum latinum-epiroticum, the first known Latin-Albanian dictionary. Other scholars who studied the language during the 17th century include Andrea Bogdani (1600–1685), author of the first Latin-Albanian grammar book, Nilo Katalanos (1637–1694) and others.[51]

Classification[edit]

Albanian was demonstrated to be an Indo-European language in 1854 by the philologist Franz Bopp. The Albanian language constitutes its own branch of the Indo-European language family.[52]

Albanian was formerly compared by some Indo-Europeanists with Balto-Slavic and Germanic,[53] both of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Moreover, Albanian has undergone a vowel shift in which stressed, long o has fallen to a, much like in the former and opposite the latter. Likewise, Albanian has taken the old relative jos and innovatively used it exclusively to qualify adjectives, much in the way Balto-Slavic has used this word to provide the definite ending of adjectives. Other linguists link Albanian with Greek and Armenian, while placing Germanic and Balto-Slavic in another branch of Indo-European.[54][55][56] Nakhleh, Ringe, and Warnow argued that Albanian can be placed at a variety of points within the Indo-European tree with equally good fit; determining its correct placement is hampered by the loss of much of its former diagnostic inflectional morphology and vocabulary.[57]

Origin[edit]

Albanian is often seen as the descendant of Illyrian,[58] although this hypothesis has been challenged by some linguists, who maintain that it derives from Dacian or Thracian.[59] (Illyrian, Dacian, and Thracian, however, may have formed a subgroup or a Sprachbund; see Thraco-Illyrian).

(Old) Albanian[edit]

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. This little-known language is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[60]

Proto-IE features[edit]

The demonstrative pronoun ko is ancestral to Albanian ky/kjo and English he.

Albanian is compared to other Indo-European languages below, but note that Albanian has exhibited some notable instances of semantic drift (such as motër meaning "sister" rather than "mother" or the Latin loans gjelbër and verdhë having become switched in meaning).

Albanian and other Indo-European languages
Albanian muaj ri nënë motër natë hundë tre zi kuqe gjelbër verdhë ujk
Other Indo-European languages
Indo-European mḗh₁n̥s newijos méh₂tēr swésōr nókʷts nas treies necrós rudhrós chelwos bhlāwos wĺ̥kʷos
English month new mother sister night nose three black red green yellow wolf
Spanish mes nuevo madre hermana noche nariz tres negro rojo verde amarillo lobo
German Monat neu Mutter Schwester Nacht Nase drei schwarz rot grün gelb Wolf
Lithuanian mėnesis naujas motina sesuo naktis nosis trys juodas raudonas žalias geltonas vilkas
Old Church Slavonic мѣсѧць
měsęcь
новъ
novъ
мати
mati
сестра
sestra
ношть
noštь
носъ
nosъ
три, триѥ
tri, trije
чрънъ
črъnъ
чръвенъ
črъvenъ
зеленъ
zelenъ
жльтъ
žlьtъ
влькъ
vlьkъ
Czech měsíc nový matka sestra noc nos tři černý červený zelený žlutý vlk
Ancient Greek μήν
mḗn
νέος
néos
μήτηρ
mḗtēr
ἀδελφή
adelphḗ
νύξ
núks
ῥίς
rhís
τρεῖς
treîs
μέλας
mélas
ἐρυθρός
eruthrós
χλωρός
khlōrós
ξανθός
ksanthós
λύκος
lúkos
Armenian ամիս
amis
նոր
nor
մայր
mayr
քույր
k'uyr
գիշեր
gišer
քիթ
k'it
երեք
yerek'
սեւ
sev
կարմիր
karmir
կանաչ
kanač
դեղին
deġin
գայլ
gayl
Latin mēnsis novus māter soror nox nāsus trēs āter, niger ruber viridis flāvus lupus
Irish nua máthair deirfiúr oíche srón trí dubh dearg glas buí faolchú
Sanskrit मास
māsa
नव
nava
मातृ
mātṛ
स्वसृ
svasṛ
नक्त/निश्
nakta/nish
नस
nasa
त्रि
tri
काल
kāla
रुधिर
rudhira
हरि
hari
पीत
pīta
वृक
vṛka
French mois nouveau mere sœur nuit nez trois noir rouge vert jaune loup
Afrikaans maand nuwe ma suster nag neus drie swart rooi groen geel wolf
Russian месяц
mesyats
новый
novyy
мать
maht'
сестра
sestra
ночь
noch'
нос
nos
три
tri
черный
chernyy
красный
krasnyy
зеленый
zelenyy
желтый
zheltyy
волк
volk

Albanian-PIE phonological correspondences[edit]

Phonologically Albanian is not so conservative. Like many IE stocks it has merged the two series of voiced stops (e.g., both became d). In addition the voiced stops tend to disappear in between vowels. There is almost complete loss of final syllables and very widespread loss of other unstressed syllables (e.g., mik, "friend" from Lat. amicus). PIE o appears as a (also, if e appears as a high front vowel i follows), while ē and ā become o, and PIE ō appears as e. The palatals, velars, and labiovelars all remain distinct before front vowels, a conservation found otherwise in Luvian and related Anatolian languages. Thus PIE , k, and become th, q, and s, respectively (before back vowels becomes th, while k and merge as k).[citation needed] Another remarkable retention is the preservation of initial h4 as Alb. h (all other laryngeals disappear completely).[61][dubious ]

Proto-Indo-European Labial Stops in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*p p *pékʷo—"cook" pjek "to cook, roast, bake"
*b b *sorbéi̯e/o—"drink, slurp" gjerb "to drink"
*bʰ b *aḱeh₂—"bean" bathë "broad bean"
Proto-Indo-European Coronal Stops in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*t t *túh₂—"thou" ti "you (singular)"
*d d *diHtis—"light" ditë "day"
dh[* 1] *pérde/o—"fart" pjerdh "to fart"
g *dl̥h₁gʰós—"long" gjatë "long" (Tosk dial. glatë)
*dʰ d *égʷʰe/o—"burn" djeg "to burn"
dh[* 1] *gʰóros—"enclosure" gardh "fence"
  1. ^ a b Between vowels or after r
Proto-Indo-European Palatal Stops in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*ḱ th *éh₁mi—"I say" them "I say"
s[* 1] *uk—"horn" sutë "doe"
k[* 2] *reh₂u—"limb" krah "arm"
ç/c[* 3] *entro—"to stick" çandër "prop"
dh *ǵómbʰos—"tooth, peg" dhëmb "tooth"
d[* 4] *ǵēusnō—"to enjoy" dua "to love, want"
*ǵʰ dh *ǵʰedi̯e/o—"to defecate" dhjes "to defecate"
d[* 4] *ǵʰr̥sdʰi—"grain, barley" drithë "grain"
  1. ^ Before u̯/u or i̯/i
  2. ^ Before sonorant
  3. ^ Archaic relic
  4. ^ a b Syllable-initial and followed by sibilant
Proto-Indo-European Velar Stops in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*k k *kágʰmi—"I catch, grasp" kam "I have"
q *klau-ei̯e/o—"to weep" qaj "to weep, cry" (Gheg qanj, Salamis kla)
*g g *h₃lígos—"sick" ligë "bad"
gj *h₁reuge—"to retch" regj "to tan hides"
*gʰ g *órdʰos—"enclosure" gardh "fence"
gj *édni̯e/o—"get" gjej "to find" (Gheg gjêj)
Proto-Indo-European Labialized Velar Stops in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*kʷ k *eh₂sleh₂—"cough" kollë "cough"
s *éle/o—"turn" sjell "to fetch, bring"
q *ṓd—"that" që "that"
*gʷ g *—"stone" gur "stone"
z *ērHu—"heaviness" zor "heaviness; trouble"
*gʷʰ g *dʰégʷʰe/o—"to burn" djeg "to burn"
z *h1en-dʰogʷʰéi̯e/o—"to ignite" ndez "to kindle, turn on"
Proto-Indo-European *s in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*s gj[* 1] *séḱstis—"six" gjashtë "six"
h[* 2] *nosōm—"us" (gen.) nahe "us" (dat.)
sh[* 3] *bʰreusinos—"break" breshër "hail"
th[* 4] *gʷésdos—"leaf" gjeth "leaf"
h[* 5] *sḱi-eh₂—"shadow" hije "shadow"
f[* 6] *spélnom—"speech" fjalë "word"
sht[* 7] *h₂osti "bone" asht "bone"
th[* 8] *suh₁s—"swine" thi "boar"
h₁ésmi—"am" jam "to be"
  1. ^ Initial
  2. ^ Between vowels
  3. ^ Between vowels and after u̯/i̯/r/k (ruki law)
  4. ^ Cluster -sd-
  5. ^ Cluster -sḱ-
  6. ^ Cluster -sp-
  7. ^ Cluster -st-
  8. ^ Dissimilation with following vowel
Proto-Indo-European Sonorant Consonants in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*i̯ gj[* 1] *ése/o—"to ferment" gjesh "to knead"
j[* 2] *uHs—"you" (nom.) ju "you (plural)"
[* 3] *bʰérō—"bear, carry" bie(r) "to bring"
h[* 4] *streh₂eh₂—"straw" strohë "kennel"
*u̯ v *oséi̯e/o—"to dress" vesh "to wear, dress"
*m m *meh₂tr-eh₂—"maternal" motër "sister"
*n n *nōs—"we" (acc.) ne "we"
nj *eni-h₁ói-no—"that one" një "one" (Gheg njâ, njo)
∅/^ *pénkʷe—"five" pe, Gheg pês "five"
r *ǵʰeimen—"winter" dimër "winter" (Gheg dimën)
*l l *h₃lígos—"sick" ligë "bad"
ll *kʷéle/o—"turn" sjell "to fetch, bring"
*r r *repe/o—"take" rjep "peel"
rr *u̯rh₁ḗn—"sheep" rrunjë "yearling lamb"
*n̥ e *h₁men—"name" emër "name"
*m̥ e *u̯iḱti—"twenty" (një)zet "twenty"
*l̥ uj *u̯ĺ̥kʷos—"wolf" ujk "wolf" (Chamian ulk)
*r̥ ri, ir *ǵʰsdom—"grain, barley" drithë "grain"
  1. ^ Before i, e, a
  2. ^ Before back vowels
  3. ^ After front vowels
  4. ^ After all other vowels
Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*h1 *h₁ésmi—"am" jam "to be"
*h2 *h₂r̥tḱos—"bear" ari "bear"
*h3 *h₃ónr̥—"dream" ëndërr "dream"
*h4 h *h4órǵʰii̯eh₂—"testicle" herdhe "testicle"
Proto-Indo-European Vowels in Albanian
PIE Albanian PIE Albanian
*i i *sínos—"bosom" gji "bosom, breast"
e *du̯igʰeh₂—"twig" de "branch"
i *dīHtis—"light" di "day"
*e e *pénkʷe—"five" pe "five" (Gheg pês)
je *u̯étos—"year" (loc.) vjet "last year"
o *ǵʰēsreh₂—"hand" do "hand"
*a a *bʰaḱeh₂- "bean" bathë "bean"
e *h₂élbʰit—"barley" elb "barley"
*o a *gʰórdʰos—"enclosure" gardh "fence"
e *h₂oḱtōtis—"eight" te "eight"
*u u *supnos—"sleep" gju "sleep"
y *suHsos—"grandfather" gjysh "grandfather"
i *mūs—"mouse" mi "mouse"

Vocabulary[edit]

Cognates with Illyrian[edit]

  • Andena/Andes/Andio/Antis - personal Illyrian names based on a root-word and- or ant-, found in both the southern and the Dalmatian-Pannonian (including modern Bosnia and Herzegovina) onomastic provinces; cf. Alb. andë (northern Albanian dialect, or Gheg) and ëndë (southern Albanian dialect or Tosk) "appetite, pleasure, desire, wish"; Andi proper name, Andizetes, an Illyrian people inhabiting the Roman province of Panonia.[62]
  • Ardiaioi/Ardiaei, name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ardhja "arrival" or "descent", connected to hardhi "vine-branch, grape-vine", with a sense development similar to Germanic *stamniz, meaning both stem, tree stalk and tribe, lineage. However, the insufficiency of this theory is that so far there is no certainty as to the historical or etymological development of either ardhja/hardhi or Ardiaioi, as with many other words.[62]
  • Bindo/Bindus, an Illyrian deity from Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina; cf. Alb. bind "to convince" or "to make believe", përbindësh "monster".[63]
  • brisa, "husk of grapes"; cf. Alb bërsí "lees, dregs; mash" ( < PA *brutiā)[64]
  • Daesitiates, a name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. dash "ram", corresponding contextually with south Slavonic dasa "ace", which might represent a borrowing and adaptation from Illyrian (or some other ancient language).[62]
  • mal, "mountain"; cf. Alb mal[65]
  • bardi, "white"; cf. Alb bardhë[66]
  • drakoina "supper"; cf. Alb. darke, dreke[67]
  • drenis, "deer"; cf. Alb dre, dreni[68]
  • delme "sheep"; cf. Alb dele[69]
  • dard, "pear"; cf. Alb dardhë[70]
  • Hyllus (the name of an Illyrian king); cf. Alb. yll (hyll in some northern dialects) "star", also Alb. hyj "god", Ylli proper name.[67]
  • sīca, "dagger"; cf. Alb thikë or thika "knife"[71]
  • Ulc-, "wolf" (pln. Ulcinium); cf. Alb ujk "wolf":[72]
  • loúgeon, "pool"; cf. Alb lag, legen "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" ( < PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" ( < PA *leugatâ), lakshte "dew" ( < PA laugista)[73]
  • mantía "bramblebush"; Old and dial. Alb mandë "berry, mulberry" (mod. Alb mën, man)[citation needed]
  • rhinos, "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb ren "cloud" (mod. Alb re, rê) ( < PA *rina)[74]
  • Vendum "place"; cf. Proto-Alb. wen-ta (Mod. Alb. vend)[67]

Early Greek loans[edit]

There are some 30 Ancient Greek loanwords in Albanian.[75] Many of these reflect a dialect which voiced its aspirants, as did the Macedonian dialect. Other loanwords are Doric; these words mainly refer to commodity items and trade goods and probably came through trade with a now-extinct intermediary.[11]

  • bletë; "hive, bee" < Attic mélitta "bee" (vs. Ionic mélissa).[76]
  • drapër; "sickle" < (NW) drápanon[77]
  • kumbull; "plum" < kokkúmelon[77]
  • lakër; "cabbage, green vegetables" < láchanon "green; vegetable"[78]
  • lëpjetë; "orach, dock" < lápathon[79]
  • lyej; "to smear, oil" < *liwenj < *elaiwā < Gk elai(w)ṓn "oil"
  • mokër; "millstone" < (NW) māchaná "device, instrument"[75]
  • mollë; "apple" < mēlon "fruit"[80]
  • pjepër; "melon" < pépōn
  • presh; "leek" < práson[78]
  • shpellë; "cave" < spḗlaion
  • trumzë; "thyme" < (NW) thýmbrā, thrýmbrē[77]

Gothic loans[edit]

Some Gothic loanwords were borrowed through Late Latin, while others came from the Ostrogothic expansion into parts of Praevalitana around Nakšić and the Gulf of Kotor in Montenegro.

  • fat; "groom, husband" < Goth brūþfaþs "bridegroom"[81]
  • gomar; "donkey, ass", gegish "magjer" < *margë < Goth *marh "horse"[citation needed]
  • horr; "scoundrel", horrë; "hussy, whore" < Goth hors "adulterer", *hora "whore"[citation needed]
  • petkë, petëk; "clothes, garment", petk; "herder's coat" < Goth paida; cf. OHG pfeit, OE pād[citation needed]
  • shkulkë; "boundary marker for pastures made of branches" < Late Latin sculca < Goth skulka "guardian"[citation needed]
  • shkumë; "foam" < Late Latin < Goth skūma[citation needed]
  • tirq; "trousers" < Late Latin tubrucus < Goth *þiobrok "knee-britches"; cf. OHG dioh-bruoh, Eng thigh, breeches[citation needed]

The earliest accepted document in the Albanian language is from the 15th century AD. It is assumed that Greek and Balkan Latin (which was the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages) would exert a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend).

After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Many Albanian names (such as Enver Hoxha) are of Turkish origin. Surprisingly[editorializing] the Persian words seem to have been absorbed the most. Some loanwords from Modern Greek also exist especially in the south of Albania. A lot of the borrowed words have been re-substituted from Albanian rooted words or modern Latinized (international) words.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 107 out of 193 United Nations member states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Albanian at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Arbëreshë at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Arvanitika at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Gheg at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Tosk at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Albanian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ http://www.minorityrights.org/1617/italy/albanians.html
  4. ^ http://www.albanianlanguage.net/
  5. ^ Robert Elsie (2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-8108-6188-6. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond (1976). Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8155-5047-1. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  7. ^ Zeitschrift für Balkanologie. R. Trofenik. 1990. p. 102. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Watkins 1998, p. 38.
  9. ^ Labov 1994, p. 42.
  10. ^ Hamp 1994, pp. 66–67.
  11. ^ a b Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245–253. 
  12. ^ a b Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 9.
  13. ^ FWF.ac.at
  14. ^ Kopitar 1829, p. 254.
  15. ^ Meyer 1888, p. 805.
  16. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1914, p. 32.
  17. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj (2010). Wir sind die Deinen. Studien zur albanischen Sprache, Literatur und Kulturgeschichte, dem Gedenken an Martin Camaj (1925–1992) gewidmet. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06221-3. 
  18. ^ Çabej 1962, pp. 13–51.
  19. ^ Mihaescu 1966, pp. 1, 30.
  20. ^ Mihaescu 1966, pp. 1, 21.
  21. ^ Mihaescu 1966, pp. 1–2.
  22. ^ Rosetti 1986, pp. 195–197.
  23. ^ a b Hamp 1963.
  24. ^ Fine 1991, p. 10.
  25. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 52–53.
  26. ^ Brown & Ogilvie 2008, p. 23.
  27. ^ Fortson 2004, p. 392.
  28. ^ Demiraj 1999.
  29. ^ Gjinari, Jorgji. Dialektologjia shqiptare
  30. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier, 2008 ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7
  31. ^ Peter John de la Fosse Wiles (1971). The Prediction of Communist Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-521-07885-6. Retrieved 15 July 2013. "... the late King Zog was a leader of the Ghegs and that the Gheg dialect predominated in official usage before the War" 
  32. ^ a b Lloshi, p. 9.
  33. ^ a b Lloshi, p. 12.
  34. ^ a b c Lloshi, p. 10.
  35. ^ Kostallari, Androkli (1973). Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe. "Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë" ( in "Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë", today today "Akademia e Shkencave e Republikës së Shqipërisë"),. 
  36. ^ Kostallari, Androkli (1976). Fjalori+drejtshkrimor+i+gjuh%C3%ABs+shqipe&cd=2 Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe. "Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë" (in "Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë", today "Akademia e Shkencave e Republikës së Shqipërisë"),. 
  37. ^ "Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë", today "Akademia e Shkencave e Republikës së Shqipërisë" , "Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë" (Albania). (1980). Fjalori i Gjuhës së Sotme Shqipe. Tirana: Academy of Sciences of Albania. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
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  63. ^ Ushaku, Ruzhdi, Hulumtime etnoliguistike, chapter: The continuation of Illyrian Bind in Albanian Mythology and Language, Fakulteti filologjise, Prishtine, 2000, p. 46-48
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  69. ^ Diokletian und die Tetrarchie: Aspekte einer Zeitenwende. Millennium Studies. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
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  73. ^ An Albanian historical grammar. 1977. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  74. ^ Indo-european language and culture: an introduction Blackwell textbooks in linguistics Author Benjamin W. Fortson Edition 2, illustrated, reprint Publisher John Wiley and Sons, 2009 ISBN 1-4051-8896-0, ISBN 978-1-4051-8896-8 p.465
  75. ^ a b The Field of Linguistics, Volume 2 Volume 1 of World of linguistics Authors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Editors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Publisher Walter de Gruyter, 2010 ISBN 3-11-022025-3, ISBN 978-3-11-022025-4 p.412
  76. ^ Vladimir Orel (2000) postulates a Vulgar Latin intermediary for no good reason. Mallory & Adams (1997) erroneously give the word as native, from *melítiā, the protoform underlying Greek mélissa; however, this protoform gave Albanian mjalcë "bee", which is a natural derivative of Proto-Albanian *melita "honey" (mod. mjaltë).
  77. ^ a b c Ancient Indo-European dialects: proceedings, Volume 1963 Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Authors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Editors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel Publisher University of California Press, 1966 p.102
  78. ^ a b A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian Author Vladimir Ė. Orel Publisher BRILL, 2000 ISBN 90-04-11647-8, ISBN 978-90-04-11647-4 p.23
  79. ^ A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian Author Vladimir Ė. Orel Publisher BRILL, 2000 ISBN 90-04-11647-8, ISBN 978-90-04-11647-4 p.102
  80. ^ Guillaum Bonnet, Les mots latins de l'albanais (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1998), 324.
  81. ^ The word fat has both the meaning of "fate, luck" and "groom, husband". This may indicate two separate words that are homophones, one derived from Gothic and the other from Latin fātum; although, Orel (2000) sees them as the same word. Similarly, compare Albanian shortë "fate; spouse, wife" which mirrors the dichotomy in meaning of fat but is considered to stem from one single source—Latin sortem "fate".

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External links[edit]

Samples of various Albanian dialects
Dictionaries