Albanians in Montenegro

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Albanians of Montenegro
Total population

30,439 Albanians
4.91% of Montenegro population (2011)
[1]

32,671 Native Albanian speakers
5.27% of Montenegro population (2011)
Regions with significant populations
 Montenegro
Ulcinj Municipality 14,076
Podgorica Municipality 9,538
Bar Municipality 2,515
Gusinje Municipality 1,642
Rožaje Municipality 1,158
Plav Municipality 833
Other municipalities 677
Languages
Albanian (Gheg dialect), Montenegrin
Religion
Sunni Islam, Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Albanians, Arbëreshë, Arbanasi

Albanians in Montenegro (Serbo-Croatian: Albanci u Crnoj Gori, Albanian: Shqiptarët e Malit të Zi) constitute 4.91% of the county's total population.[2] Albanians of Montenegro are Ghegs[3] who mainly live in southeastern and eastern Montenegro, mainly in the following municipalities: Ulcinj (71% of population), Plav (19%), Bar (6%), Podgorica (5%) and Rožaje (5%).[4]

The largest city of Albanians in Montenegro is Ulcinj, where the headquarters of Albanian National Council are located.

History[edit]

Albanians in Cetinje (1906)

Albanians in Montenegro are autochthonous population. After the territorial expansion of Montenegro towards the Albanian-inhabited territories in 1878, Albanians for the first time became citizens of that country. Albanians that obtained Montenegrin citizenship were Muslims and Catholics, and lived in the cities of Bar and Ulcinj, including their surroundings, in the bank of river Bojana and shore of Lake Skadar, as well as in Zatrijebač.[5]

After the Balkan wars, new territories inhabited by Albanians became part of Montenegro. Montenegro then gained a part of Malesija, respectively Hoti and Gruda, with Tuzi as center, Ana e Malit, Plav, Gusinje, Skadarska Krajina, Rugovo, Peć and Gjakova. In the regions of Plav, Gusinje and Peć Montenegrin local authorities committed, in the first months of 1913, major crimes against Muslim Albanian population.[5]

With the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after the World War I, Albanians in Montenegro have been discriminated and deprived from their rights. Albanian position will improve somewhat in Tito's Yugoslavia. In the mid-twentieth century, in Montenegro lived 20,000 Albanians and their number will grow by the end of that century. By the end of XX century the number of Albanians began to fall as a result of immigration.[5]

Geography[edit]

Montenegrin settlements with Albanian population (2011)

Albanians in Montenegro are widespread in southeast and eastern parts of the country. Ulcinj Municipality, consisting Ulcinj (Albanian: Ulqin) with the surroundings and Ana e Malit region, is the only municipality where Albanians are majority (71% of the population). Albanians are also majority in Malesija (Malësia) region, consisting of Kuči, Hoti, Gruda and Zatrijebač (Kojë, Hot, Grudë and Triesh in Albanian), that is part of Urban Municipality of Tuzi, a territorial unit of the Podgorica Municipality, which continuously seeks to acquire the status of a municipality, but without success.[6] Also a large number of Albanians lives in the following regions: Bar (Tivar) and Skadarska Krajina (Krajë) in Bar Municipality (2,515 Albanians or 6% of the population), Plav (Plavë) and Gusinje (Guci) in Plav Municipality (2,475 or 19%) and Rožaje (Rozhajë) in Rožaje Municipality (1,158 or 5%).[4]

Largest Albanian settlement is Ulcinj, followed by Tuzi.

Tribes[edit]

There are four Malësor Albanian tribes: Hoti, Gruda, Trieshi and Koja.[7][full citation needed]

Culture[edit]

Albanian outpost in Montenegro

Montenegrin Albanian culture in this region is closely related to the culture of Albanians in Albania, and the city of Shkodër in particular. Their Albanian language dialect is Gheg as of Albanians in Northern Albania.

Religion[edit]

According to the 2003 census, 73.37% of Albanians living in Montenegro were Muslim and 26.08% were Roman Catholic.[8] The religious life of Muslim Albanians is organized by the Islamic Community of Montenegro, comprising not only Albanians, but also other Muslim minorities in Montenegro.[9] Catholic Albanians, generally living in Malesija, Šestani and some in the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, are members of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, whose members are mainly Albanians, but which also includes a small number of Slavs. The current Archbishop, Zef Gashi, is an ethnic Albanian.[9]

Language[edit]

Albanians in Montenegro speak Gheg Albanian language, namely the northwestern variant, while according to the 2011 Census, there are 32,671 native speakers of the Albanian language (or 5.27% of the population).[4]

According to Article 13 of the Constitution of Montenegro, Albanian language (alongside Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian) is a language in official use, officially recognized as minority language.[10]

Education[edit]

The government of Montenegro provides Albanian-language education in the local primary and secondary schools. There is one department in the University of Montenegro, located in Podgorica, offered in Albanian, namely teacher education[5]

Politics[edit]

The first political party created by Albanians in this country is the Democratic League in Montenegro, founded by Mehmet Bardhi in 1990. Most Albanians support the country's integration into the EU and have anti-Yugoslav views: during the 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum, in Ulcinj Municipality, where Albanians at that time accounted over 72% of the population, 88.50% of voters voted for independent Montenegro. Overall, it was the voice of the Albanian minority that gave the country's secession from Yugoslavia.[11]

In 2008, Albanian National Council (Albanian: Këshilli Kombëtar i Shqiptarëve, abb. KKSH), the highest institution of self-governance of the Albanians in this country, was established. The current chairman of the KKSH is Genci Nimanbegu.

Prominent Individuals[edit]

History and Politics[edit]

Science and Academia[edit]

Music and Entertainment[edit]

Television and Cinema[edit]

Sports[edit]

See also[edit]

Part of a series on
Albanians
Albania
States
Communities
Subgroups
People

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011" (PDF). July 12, 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World music: the rough guide. Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. Retrieved 13 July 2013. Most of the ethnic Albanians that live outside the country are Ghegs, although there is a small Tosk population clustered around the shores of lakes Presp and Ohrid in the south of Macedonia. 
  4. ^ a b c Stanovništvo Crne Gore prema polu, tipu naselja, nacionalnoj, odnosno etničkoj pripadnosti, vjeroispovijesti i maternjem jeziku po opštinama u Crnoj Gorimonstat.org
  5. ^ a b c d Istorijski Leksikon Crne Gore, Grup of authors, Daily press: Podgorica, 2006 ISBN 86-7706-169-X
  6. ^ Partitë Shqiptare Kërkojnë Referendum për Komunën e Tuzitgazetajnk.com
  7. ^ Recherches albanologiques: Folklore et ethnologie (in French). Pristina: Instituti Albanologijik i Prishtinës. 1982. 
  8. ^ http://www.njegos.org/census/index.htm
  9. ^ a b Bieber, Florian (2003). Montenegro in Transition – Problems of Identity and Statehood. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-8329-0072-4. 
  10. ^ KUSHETUTA E MALIT TË ZIminmanj.gov.me
  11. ^ The Minority Report: Jobless Ethnic Albanians “Let Down by the State” :: Balkan Insight

SHKA Gruda