Albanians in Montenegro
5.27% of Montenegro population (2011)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Albanian (Gheg dialect), Montenegrin|
|Sunni Islam, Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Albanians, Arbëreshë, Arbanasi|
Albanians in Montenegro (Serbo-Croatian: Albanci u Crnoj Gori, Albanian: Shqiptarët e Malit të Zi) constitute 4.91% of the county's total population. Albanians of Montenegro are Ghegs who mainly live in southeastern and eastern Montenegro, mainly in the following municipalities: Ulcinj (71% of population), Plav (19%), Bar (6%), Podgorica (5%) and Rožaje (5%).
Albanians in Montenegro are autochthonous population. After the territorial expansion of Montenegro towards the Albanian-inhabited territories in 1878, Albanians for the first time became citizens of that country. Albanians that obtained Montenegrin citizenship were Muslims and Catholics, and lived in the cities of Bar and Ulcinj, including their surroundings, in the bank of river Bojana and shore of Lake Skadar, as well as in Zatrijebač.
After the Balkan wars, new territories inhabited by Albanians became part of Montenegro. Montenegro then gained a part of Malesija, respectively Hoti and Gruda, with Tuzi as center, Ana e Malit, Plav, Gusinje, Skadarska Krajina, Rugovo, Peć and Gjakova. In the regions of Plav, Gusinje and Peć Montenegrin local authorities committed, in the first months of 1913, major crimes against Muslim Albanian population.
With the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after the World War I, Albanians in Montenegro have been discriminated and deprived from their rights. Albanian position will improve somewhat in Tito's Yugoslavia. In the mid-twentieth century, in Montenegro lived 20,000 Albanians and their number will grow by the end of that century. By the end of XX century the number of Albanians began to fall as a result of immigration.
Albanians in Montenegro are widespread in southeast and eastern parts of the country. Ulcinj Municipality, consisting Ulcinj (Albanian: Ulqin) with the surroundings and Ana e Malit region, is the only municipality where Albanians are majority (71% of the population). Albanians are also majority in Malesija (Malësia) region, consisting of Kuči, Hoti, Gruda and Zatrijebač (Kojë, Hot, Grudë and Triesh in Albanian), that is part of Urban Municipality of Tuzi, a territorial unit of the Podgorica Municipality, which continuously seeks to acquire the status of a municipality, but without success. Also a large number of Albanians lives in the following regions: Bar (Tivar) and Skadarska Krajina (Krajë) in Bar Municipality (2,515 Albanians or 6% of the population), Plav (Plavë) and Gusinje (Guci) in Plav Municipality (2,475 or 19%) and Rožaje (Rozhajë) in Rožaje Municipality (1,158 or 5%).
Montenegrin Albanian culture in this region is closely related to the culture of Albanians in Albania, and the city of Shkodër in particular. Their Albanian language dialect is Gheg as of Albanians in Northern Albania.
According to the 2003 census, 73.37% of Albanians living in Montenegro were Muslim and 26.08% were Roman Catholic. The religious life of Muslim Albanians is organized by the Islamic Community of Montenegro, comprising not only Albanians, but also other Muslim minorities in Montenegro. Catholic Albanians, generally living in Malesija, Šestani and some in the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, are members of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, whose members are mainly Albanians, but which also includes a small number of Slavs. The current Archbishop, Zef Gashi, is an ethnic Albanian.
Albanians in Montenegro speak Gheg Albanian language, namely the northwestern variant, while according to the 2011 Census, there are 32,671 native speakers of the Albanian language (or 5.27% of the population).
The government of Montenegro provides Albanian-language education in the local primary and secondary schools. There is one department in the University of Montenegro, located in Podgorica, offered in Albanian, namely teacher education
The first political party created by Albanians in this country is the Democratic League in Montenegro, founded by Mehmet Bardhi in 1990. Most Albanians support the country's integration into the EU and have anti-Yugoslav views: during the 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum, in Ulcinj Municipality, where Albanians at that time accounted over 72% of the population, 88.50% of voters voted for independent Montenegro. Overall, it was the voice of the Albanian minority that gave the country's secession from Yugoslavia.
In 2008, Albanian National Council (Albanian: Këshilli Kombëtar i Shqiptarëve, abb. KKSH), the highest institution of self-governance of the Albanians in this country, was established. The current chairman of the KKSH is Genci Nimanbegu.
History and Politics
- Ded Gjo Luli - (1840–1915) leading nationalists of the Albanian revolt against Turkey.
- Sokol Baci - Albanian leader in the liberation of Malesia from Ottoman rule.
- Baca Kurti Gjokaj - Albanian nationalist
- Cafo Beg Ulqini - Albanian nationalist
- Rexhep Qosja - prominent Albanian academic (lives in Kosovo)
- Mujo Ulqinaku - officer in the Royal Albanian Army and People's Hero of Albania
- Mark Gjonaj - politician Democratic Party for District 80 in the New York State Assembly
Science and Academia
- Gjon Buzuku - Albanian Catholic priest who wrote the first known printed book in the Albanian language: Meshari
- Nokë Sinishtaj - Albanian writer and poet
- Gjelosh Gjokaj - Albanian painter, and graphic artist.
- Mark Lucgjonaj - Albanian poet
Music and Entertainment
- Emina Cunmulaj - Albanian-American model
- Malësor Prenkoçaj - Albanian singer
- Afërdita Dreshaj - Albanian-American model
- Hana Cakuli - singer
- Adrian Lulgjuraj - Albanian singer, winner of the Festivali i Këngës 51.
- Nikollë Nikprelaj - Albanian singer
Television and Cinema
- Nickola Shreli - Albanian-American actor
- Victor Gojcaj - Albanian-American actor
- Pjetër Gjoka - actor and People's Artist of Albania
- Pjeter Malota - Albanian actor,martial artist.
- Enver Gjokaj - Albanian-American actor
|Part of a series on|
- Malesija, Montenegro
- Greater Albania
- Albanian Language
- Albanians in Kosovo
- Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia
- Albanians in Central Serbia
- "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011" (PDF). July 12, 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World music: the rough guide. Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
Most of the ethnic Albanians that live outside the country are Ghegs, although there is a small Tosk population clustered around the shores of lakes Presp and Ohrid in the south of Macedonia.
- Stanovništvo Crne Gore prema polu, tipu naselja, nacionalnoj, odnosno etničkoj pripadnosti, vjeroispovijesti i maternjem jeziku po opštinama u Crnoj Gori – monstat.org
- Istorijski Leksikon Crne Gore, Grup of authors, Daily press: Podgorica, 2006 ISBN 86-7706-169-X
- Partitë Shqiptare Kërkojnë Referendum për Komunën e Tuzit – gazetajnk.com
- Recherches albanologiques: Folklore et ethnologie (in French). Pristina: Instituti Albanologijik i Prishtinës. 1982.
- Bieber, Florian (2003). Montenegro in Transition – Problems of Identity and Statehood. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-8329-0072-4.
- KUSHETUTA E MALIT TË ZI – minmanj.gov.me
- The Minority Report: Jobless Ethnic Albanians “Let Down by the State” :: Balkan Insight