Albert Benjamin Simpson
Albert Benjamin Simpson (December 15, 1843 – October 29, 1919), also known as A. B. Simpson, was a Canadian preacher, theologian, author, and founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA), an evangelical and Keswickian denomination with an emphasis on global evangelism.
Early life and ministry
Simpson was born in Bayview, near Cavendish, Prince Edward Island, Canada, as the third son and fourth child of James Simpson, Jr. and Janet Clark. Author Harold H. Simpson has gathered an extensive genealogy of Cavendish families in Cavendish: Its History, Its People. His research establishes the Clark family (A. B. Simpson's mother's side) as one of the founding families of Cavendish in 1790, along with the Simpson family, and he traces common ancestors between Albert B. Simpson and Lucy Maud Montgomery, the author of Anne of Green Gables.
The young Albert was raised in a strict Calvinistic Scottish Presbyterian and Puritan tradition. His conversion of faith began under the ministry of Henry Grattan Guinness, a visiting evangelist from Ireland during the revival of 1859. Simpson spent some time in the Chatham, Ontario area, and received his theological training in Toronto at Knox College, University of Toronto. After graduating in 1865, Simpson was subsequently ordained in the Canada Presbyterian Church, the largest of the Presbyterian groups in Canada that merged after his departure for the United States. At age 21, he accepted a call to the large Knox Presbyterian Church (closed in 1971) in nearby Hamilton, Ontario.
In December 1873, at age 30, Simpson left Canada and assumed the pulpit of the largest Presbyterian church in Louisville, Kentucky, the Chestnut Street Presbyterian Church. It was in Louisville that he first conceived of preaching the gospel to the common man by building a simple tabernacle for that purpose. Despite his success at the Chestnut Street Church, Simpson was frustrated by their reluctance to embrace this burden for wider evangelistic endeavor.
In 1880, Simpson was called to the Thirteenth Street Presbyterian Church in New York City where he immediately began reaching out to the world with the gospel. By 1881, after only two fruitful years at Thirteenth Presbyterian, he resigned in order to begin an independent gospel ministry to the many new immigrants and the neglected masses of New York City. Beside active evangelistic work in the church, he published in 1882 a missionary journal, The Gospel in All Lands, the first missionary journal with pictures. Simpson also founded and began publishing an illustrated magazine entitled The Word, Work, and World. By 1911, this magazine became known as The Alliance Weekly, then Alliance Life. It is the official publication of The Christian and Missionary Alliance, in the US and Canada.
In 1882, Simpson began informal training classes in order to reach "the neglected peoples of the world with the neglected resources of the church". By 1883, a formal program was in place and ministers and missionaries were being trained in a multi-cultural context (This school was the beginning of Nyack College and Alliance Theological Seminary). In 1889, Simpson and his church family moved into their new home at the corner of 44th St. and 8th Av. called the New York Tabernacle. This became the base not only of his ministry of evangelism in the city, but also of his growing work of worldwide missions.
Simpson's disciplined upbringing and his natural genius made him a most effective communicator of the Word of God. He preached a unique gospel of Jesus which became known as the Fourfold Gospel: "Jesus our Savior, Sanctifier, Healer, and Coming King". The Fourfold Gospel is symbolized in the logo of the C&MA: the Cross (Savior), the Laver (Sanctifier), the Pitcher (Healer), and the Crown (Coming King). He came to his special emphasis in ministry through his absolute Christ-centeredness in doctrine and experience.
Plagued by illness for much of his life since childhood, Simpson believed he experienced divine healing after understanding it to be part of the blessing of abiding in Christ as Life and healing. He emphasized healing in his Fourfold Gospel and usually devoted one meeting a week for teaching, testimonies and prayer on these lines. Although such teaching isolated him (and the C&MA) from the mainline churches that either did not emphasize or outright rejected healing, Simpson was uncompromising in his beliefs.
Simpson's heart for evangelism was to become the driving force behind the creation of the C&MA. Initially, the Christian and Missionary Alliance was not founded as a denomination, but as an organized movement of world evangelism. Today, the C&MA plays a leadership role in global evangelism.
In his 1890 book, A Larger Christian Life, Simpson discussed his vision for the church:
He [Jesus] is showing us the plan for a Christian Church that is much more than an association of congenial friends to listen once a week to an intellectual discourse and musical entertainment and carry on by proxy a mechanism of Christian work; but rather a Church that can be at once the mother and home of every form of help and blessing which Jesus came to give to lost and suffering men, the birthplace and the home of souls, the fountain of healing and cleansing, the sheltering home for the orphan and distressed, the school for the culture and training of God's children, the armory where they are equipped for the battle of the Lord and the army which fights those battles in His name. Such a center of population in this sad and sinful world!
His missionary vision is illustrated by these words of his hymn, "The Missionary Cry":
The Master's coming draweth near.
The Son of Man will soon appear,
His Kingdom is at hand.
But ere that glorious day can be,
The Gospel of the Kingdom, we
Must preach in every land.
Influence on Pentecostalism
During the beginning of the twentieth century, Simpson became closely involved with the growing Pentecostal movement, an offshoot of the Holiness movement. It was common for Pentecostal pastors and missionaries to receive their training at the Missionary Training Institute, now Nyack College, Nyack, New York, that Simpson founded. Because of this, Simpson and the C&MA had a great influence on Pentecostalism, in particular the Assemblies of God and the Church of the Foursquare Gospel. This influence included evangelistic emphasis, C&MA doctrine (especially on healing and his articulation of a Fourfold Gospel), and Simpson's hymns and books.
A severe division developed within the C&MA organization over "the initial evidence doctrine" within Pentecostalism. While Simpson and the C&MA wholeheartedly embraced the Filling of the Holy Spirit and the spiritual gifts, including speaking with tongues, they rejected the position that tongues was the only initial evidence for that Baptism experience; instead, they held that the primary evidence is the Fruit of the Holy Spirit (found in Galatians 5:22-23 of the New Testament of the Christian Bible) and that "fruitful ministry" is another strong proof of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
A number of C&MA churches bear Simpson's name, including (i) Simpson University in Redding, California, (ii) the Albert B. Simpson school in Lima, Peru, (iii) the A. B. Simpson Alliance School in Zamboanga City, Philippines, (iv)Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Simpson (Simpson Theological College) in[circular reference]Ungaran, Indonesia and (v) the Simpson Memorial Church (established in 1923) in Jamalpur, Ahmedabad, India. A. B. Simpson and his wife, Margaret (née Margaret L. Henry; 1841–1924), are buried on the Rockland County Campus of Nyack College in Nyack, New York.
- The Gospel of Healing, New York: Word, Work & World Publishing Company; London: John Snow & Co. (1885); OCLC 55213901
- The Self Life and the Christ Life, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Christian Publications (1886); OCLC 4308382
- Divine Emblems in the Book of Genesis, New York: Word, Work and World Publishing Co. (1888); OCLC 41986359
- Divine Emblems in the Book of Exodus New York: Word, Work and World Publishing Co. (1888); OCLC 883437060
- The Four-Fold Gospel, New York: Word, Work & World Publishing Co. (1888); OCLC 742275515
- Hymns and Songs of the Four-Fold Gospel, and the Fullness of Jesus, New York: Christian Alliance Publishing Co.(1890); OCLC 1111873456, 18862939
- Wholly Sanctified, New York: Christian Alliance Publishing Co. (1890); OCLC 32463133
- The Gospel of Healing (4th ed.), New York: Christian Alliance Publishing Co. (1890); OCLC 907378823
- A Larger Christian Life, New York: Christian Alliance Publishing Co. (1890); OCLC 1079825080
- The Life of Prayer (1890)
- The Christ of the Forty Days (1890)
- The Names of Jesus (1892)
- The Love Life of the Lord (3rd ed. rev. 1895)
- 'The Holy Spirit' or 'Power From on High,' New York: Christian Alliance Publications (1895); OCLC 38367937
- Part I: The Old Testament
- Part II: The New Testament
- Part I: The Old Testament
- Christ in the Tabernacle (1896)
- Days of Heaven Upon Earth: A Year Book of Scripture Texts and Living Truths (1897)
- Hymns of the Christian Life, Numbers One and Two (1897)
- Present Truths or the Supernatural (1897)
- Danger Lines in the Deeper Life (1898)
- But God: The Resources and Sufficiency of God (1899)
- Heart Messages for Sabbaths at Home (1899)
- Service for the King (1900)
- The Sweetest Christian Life (1899)
- The Apostolic Church (1900)
- The Cross of Christ (1910)
- When the Comforter came; thirty-one meditations on the Holy Spirit--one for each day in the month (1911)
- Life More Abundantly (1912)
- The Coming One (1912)
- Michele Nardi: The Italian Evangelist; His Life and Work (1916)
- The Gentle Love of the Holy Spirit
- Songs of the Spirit: Hitherto Unpublished Poems and a Few Old Favorites (1920)
- Missionary Message (1925)
- Standing on Faith and Talks on the Self Life London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott (1932); OCLC 27093970
- Walking in the Spirit: A Series of Arresting Addresses on the Subject of the Holy Spirit in Christian Experience Harrisburg: Christian Publications (1952); OCLC 3463184
Works about A. B. Simpson
- The Life of A.B. Simpson, by Albert E. Thompson, Brooklyn: The Christian Alliance Publishing Company (1920); OCLC 1141352704
- A.B. Simpson, His Life and Work (reprint of the 1920 edition), by Albert E. Thompson, Harrisburg: Christian Publications (1960); OCLC 613708917
- A.B.: The Unlikely Founder of a Global Movement (1st ed.), by David P. Jones, Colorado Springs: The Christian and Missionary Alliance (2019); OCLC 1114965579
- Knight III, Henry H. (11 August 2010). From Aldersgate to Azusa Street: Wesleyan, Holiness, and Pentecostal Visions of the New Creation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 365. ISBN 978-1-63087-656-2.
- George A. Rawlyk, Aspects of the Canadian Evangelical Experience, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, Canada, 1997, page 271
- Austin, Alvyn (2007). China's millions: the China Inland Mission and late Qing society, 1832–1905. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8028-2975-7. OCLC 76828852.
- Klaus Fiedler, The Story of Faith Missions: From Hudson Taylor to Present Day Africa, Wipf and Stock Publishers, USA, 2011, page
- J. Gordon Melton and Martin Baumann, Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, page 605
- William Kostlevy, Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement, Scarecrow Press, USA, 2009, page 270
- Randall Herbert Balmer, Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism, Westminster John Knox Press, USA, 2002, page 128
- Wu, Dongsheng John (1 April 2012). Understanding Watchman Nee: Spirituality, Knowledge, and Formation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-63087-573-2.
D. D. Bundy notes that A. B. Simpson (1843–1919)—Presbyterian founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance—who never accepted the Wesleyan doctrine of eradication of sin, accepted the Keswickian understanding of sanctification.
- III, Henry H. Knight (1 February 2014). Anticipating Heaven Below: Optimism of Grace from Wesley to the Pentecostals. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-63087-125-3.
It is the other christological strand, that of the indwelling Christ, that is the heart of the distinctive sanctification theology of A. B. Simpson. A Presbyterian who ultimately founded the Christian and Missionary Alliance, Simpson operates within a Keswick framework while also drawing upon Wesleyan ideals. Like Wesley, Simpson described sin as in the motive or intent of the heart most especially lack of love for God and neighbour. While he agrees with Keswick that we can't ever be freed from this sinful nature in this life, he insisted, as Van De Walle puts it, "the power of the resurrected Christ would more than enable the believer to consider the sin nature a vanquished foe and to behave as though it were.
- A. B. Simpson, A Larger Christian Life. p. 153.
- "People " Simpson, A. B. (Albert B.), 1843–1919 " Texts". Hymnary.org. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Hymns of the Christian Life: A Book of Worship in Song Emphasizing Evangelism, Missions, and the Deeper Life, 1962 revised and enlarged edition. Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications, 1962.
- Hymn 338, Hymns of the Christian Life, No. 2, 1897
- Blumhofer, Edith L. The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of American Pentecostalism Volume 1—To 1941. Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, 1989. ISBN 0-88243-457-8. Pages 29–31.
- The Christian and Missionary Alliance. "Spiritual Gifts", Official Position Paper
- Austin, Alvyn (2007). China's Millions: The China Inland Mission and Late Qing Society. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2975-7.
- Tozer, A.W. (1943). Wingspread: Albert B. Simpson—a Study in Spiritual Altitude. Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications.
- Van De Walle, Bernie A. (2009). The Heart of the Gospel: A. B. Simpson, the Fourfold Gospel, and Late Nineteenth-Century Evangelical Theology. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN 978-1-55635-940-8.
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