He studied medicine at the University of Erlangen, and from 1893 to 1897 was an associate professor of gynecology and obstetrics at the University of Leipzig. Afterwards, he was a full professor at the Universities of Groningen (1897), Tübingen (from 1897 to 1907) and Munich (from 1907 to 1934).
He is considered one the founders of gynecological bacteriology. He was among the first to use radiotherapeutics in cancer therapy and is credited with introducing rubber gloves in obstetrics and gynecology. His name is associated with the Döderlein vaginal bacillus, a large, gram-positive bacterium that he first described in 1892.
- Leitfaden für den geburtshilflichen Operationskurs, Leipzig 1893.
- Über Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Geburtshülfe, Leipzig 1897.
- Operative Gynäkologie, Leipzig 1905; (with Bernhard Krönig).
- Handbuch der Geburtshilfe, 4 volumes, Wiesbaden 1915-1921.
- Döderlein, Albert Siegmund Gustav at Deutsche Biographie
- Prof. Dr. med. Albert Siegmund Gustav Döderlein Professorenkatalog der Universität Leipzig
- Albert and Gustav Döderlein -- a critical view to the biographies of two German professors Zentralbl Gynakol. 2006 Apr;128(2):56-9.
- A Study of Döderlein's Vaginal Bacillus JSTOR
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