Albert Einstein College of Medicine

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Coordinates: 40°51′03″N 73°50′42″W / 40.850852°N 73.844949°W / 40.850852; -73.844949

Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Albert Einstein logo post-Montefiore merger.png
Type Private, Not-for-profit, Nonsectarian
Established 1953
Parent institution
Montefiore Medical Center
Dean Allen M. Spiegel, M.D.
Academic staff
2,000+ full-time
Students
Location The Bronx, New York City, NY, U.S.A.
Campus Urban
Nickname Einstein
Website http://www.einstein.yu.edu/

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine ("Einstein"), a part of Montefiore Medical Center, is a not-for-profit, private, nonsectarian medical school located in the Morris Park neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City. In addition to M.D. degrees, Einstein offers graduate biomedical degrees through its Sue Golding Graduate Division. Allen M. Spiegel, M.D., has served as The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean since June 1, 2006.[1]

Einstein’s areas of focus are medical education, basic research, and clinical research. The school is well known for its humanistic approach to medicine and the diversity of its student body. The class of 2019 includes 183 students from 23 different states. In addition, 18% were born outside the U.S., and 12% identify themselves as belonging to groups considered underrepresented in medicine.[2]

Einstein is a major biomedical and clinical research facility. Faculty members received $157 million in research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2014, ranking 25th out of 138 medical schools in the U.S. The N.I.H. funding includes major amounts for research in aging, disorders of intellectual development, diabetes, cancer, liver disease, and AIDS.[3]

History[edit]

Dr. Samuel Belkin president of Yeshiva University, began planning a new medical school as early as 1945. Six years later, Dr. Belkin and New York City Mayor Vincent Impellitteri entered into an agreement to begin its construction. Around the same time, world-renowned physicist and humanitarian Albert Einstein sent a letter to Dr. Belkin. He remarked that such an endeavor would be "unique" in that the school would "welcome students of all creeds and races".[4] Two years later, on his 74th birthday, March 14, 1953, Albert Einstein agreed to have his name attached to the medical school.

The first classes began September 12, 1955, with 56 students. It was the first new medical school to open in New York City since 1897. The Sue Golding Graduate Division was established in 1957 to offer Ph.D. degrees in biomedical disciplines.[5] The Medical Scientist Training Program, a combined M.D.-Ph.D. program, was started 1964.[6] The Clinical Research Training Program, which confers M.S. degrees in clinical research methods, began in July 1998.[7]

Notable research and achievements[edit]

 Price Center
The Michael F. Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine and Harold and Muriel Block Research Pavilion, 2008

Einstein has been the site of major medical achievements and accomplishments, including:[8]

  • In 1964, Einstein was the first medical school in the United States to establish a Department of Genetics.
  • In 1965, Einstein opened one of the first General Clinical Research Centers in the U.S., funded by the N.I.H.
  • The residency program in Social Medicine was established in 1970, in part to address the shortage of primary care clinicians in underserved communities.
  • In 1974, Einstein's Liver Research Center – now the Marion Bessin Liver Research Center – became the first institute in the United States for the study of liver disease and injury.
  • In 1976, researchers at Einstein identified the mechanism of action of Taxol, an important cancer drug. (Susan B. Horwitz, Ph.D.)
  • In 1978, Einstein was designated a Diabetes Research and Training Center, one of seven in the U.S. The Center has been home to prominent scientists involved in research on the insulin receptor, the mechanisms of diabetes complications, glucose toxicity, control of metabolism by the brain, and hypoglycemia.
  • In 1988, one of the first Centers for AIDS Research in the country funded by the N.I.H. was created at Einstein. Researchers at the center were among the first to identify pediatric AIDS as a distinct disease and established the first day-care center in the world for children with AIDS. (Arye Rubinstein, M.D.)
  • In 1994, Einstein became the only New York City medical school selected by the N.I.H. to participate in the Women's Health Initiative, the largest research study of women's health ever undertaken. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D., principal investigator)
  • In 2006, Einstein became the only medical institution in the Northeast to serve as a research site for the Hispanic Community Health Study, the largest research study of Hispanic health ever conducted. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D., principal investigator)
  • Einstein researchers demonstrated the association between reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, and heart disease.
  • Einstein researchers identified a neurotransmitter missing from the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, a finding that influenced much subsequent Alzheimer's disease research. (Peter Davies, Ph.D.)
  • Researchers at Einstein discovered structural abnormalities of brain cells that explain deficiencies in cognitive development, greatly contributing to the understanding of mental retardation. (Dominick P. Purpura, M.D.)
  • Einstein researchers helped discover the mechanisms responsible for the diversity of antibodies and their precision in immune responses. (Matthew D. Scharff, M.D.)
  • Scientists at Einstein pioneered research that has led to improved methods of avoiding organ transplant rejection. (Stanley G. Nathenson, M.D.)
  • Einstein researchers have conducted important epidemiologic research in migraines and other types of headaches. (Richard B. Lipton, M.D.)
  • The Division of Substance Abuse is the largest addiction treatment program in the Bronx, the second largest public treatment program in New York State, and the largest in the world operating under the auspices of a medical school. It serves more than 3,600 people, and provides comprehensive opioid addiction treatment at nine community-based outpatient facilities located throughout the borough, as well as ambulatory services for all substances of abuse at the Division’s Chemical Dependency Wellness Services program in facilities located in the North and South Bronx.

Allegations of discrimination[edit]

The College of Medicine has been the center of several allegations of discrimination. In 1994, Einstein was sued by Heidi Weissmann, a researcher in nuclear medicine and former associate professor of radiology, for sexual discrimination for not promoting her due to gender bias. The case was settled for $900,000.[9] In 1998, Yeshiva University and Einstein were sued by the American Civil Liberties Union for discrimination of two medical students over their sexual orientation by not allowing their non-student, non-married partners to live with them in student housing.[10]

Recent transfer from Yeshiva University to Montefiore[edit]

In February 2015, Yeshiva University announced the transfer of ownership of Einstein to the Montefiore Health System, to eliminate a large deficit from the university's financial statements. The medical school accounted for approximately two-thirds of the university's annual operating deficits, which had reached about $100 million before the announcement.[11] On September 9, 2015, the agreement between Yeshiva and Montefiore was finalized, and financial and operational control of Albert Einstein College of Medicine was transferred to Montefiore.[12] Yeshiva University plans to continue to grant Einstein's degrees until 2018, when Einstein's application for its own degree-granting authority is expected to be approved.[13]

Leadership[edit]

  • Marcus D. Kogel, M.D., founding dean, November 1, 1953–1967.[14][15]
  • Harry H. Gordon, M.D., dean, 1967–1970.[16]
  • Ernst R. Jaffé, M.D., acting dean, 1972–September 1, 1974, 1983–August 1, 1984.[17]
  • Labe C. Scheinberg, M.D., dean, 1970–1972.[18][19]
  • Ephraim Friedman, M.D., dean, September 1, 1974–1983.[20]
  • Dominick P. Purpura, M.D., The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean, August 1, 1984–June 1, 2006. His 22 years as dean are a record for the head of a medical school.[21][22]
  • Allen M. Spiegel, M.D., The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean, June 1, 2006–present. Dr. Spiegel was previously the director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, where he worked for over 30 years.[1]

Academic programs[edit]

The school offers M.D. and Ph.D. degrees and has a Medical Scientist Training Program that gives combined M.D.-Ph.D. degrees. Students pursuing Ph.D. or M.D.-Ph.D. degrees get full tuition remission and a stipend of $33,000.[23] Einstein also offers M.S. degrees in clinical research methods and in bioethics. The school is well known for promoting community medical awareness, and for humanism in social, ethical, and medical realms through its hospital affiliations, free Einstein Community Health Outreach clinic, and Bronx community health fairs.

It is currently ranked #39 in research by U.S. News & World Report out of 153 medical schools.[24] A study published by researchers at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, which sought to eliminate the subjective metrics present in the U.S. News & World Report rankings, gave a rank of #13 to Einstein relative to other schools in the United States, placing it among the nation's top 10 percent of medical schools.[25][26]

Affiliations[edit]

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine is affiliated with five medical centers: Montefiore Medical Center, [27] the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein; Jacobi Medical Center, Einstein’s founding hospital and first affiliate, and three other hospital systems: Bronx Lebanon Hospital, North Shore-LIJ Health System on Long Island, and Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. Through its affiliation network, Einstein runs the largest postgraduate medical training program in the U.S.

Einstein runs the Rose F. Kennedy Center, which conducts research and treatment for people with developmental disabilities.

Departments[edit]

Einstein has many departments in various fields of academic medicine and basic science. Ph.D. and M.D.-Ph.D. degrees are offered in:[28]

  • Anatomy and Structural Biology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Cell Biology
  • Dentistry
  • Developmental and Molecular Biology
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Epidemiology and Population Health
  • Family and Social Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Medicine (Divisions)
    • Allergy and Immunology
    • Cardiology
    • Critical Care Medicine
    • Dermatology
    • Endocrinology
    • Gastroenterology
    • General Internal Medicine
    • Geriatrics
    • Hematology
    • Hepatology
    • Infectious Diseases
    • Nephrology
    • Oncology
    • Pulmonary Medicine
    • Rheumatology
  • Microbiology and Immunology [29]
  • Molecular Pharmacology [30]
  • Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery
  • The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology
  • Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women's Health
  • Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
  • Orthopedic Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery
  • Pathology
  • Pediatrics
  • Physiology and Biophysics [31]
  • Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Radiology
  • The Arthur S. Abramson Department of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Sound View Throgs Neck Community Mental Health Center
  • Surgery
  • Systems & Computational Biology
  • Urology

Centers and Institutes[edit]

  • The Children's Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center is the main clinical arm of the Rose F. Kennedy Center, one of 67 similar centers in the United States. Composed of ten interdisciplinary teams, the CERC provides care for approximately 8,000 children and adults with developmental and other disabilities.[32] Under the direction of Dr. Robert W. Marion, a medical geneticist, the CERC provides care to children with disabilities and to their families, educates students and professionals with an interest in the field of neurodevelopmental disabilities, and conducts research into the causes and potential treatments of the conditions that affect patients. The research arm of CERC is headed by Dr. John J. Foxe.[33]
    • The CERC is home to one of 36 Leadership in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities programs in the U.S., and offers hands-on education to professionals in developmental and behavioral pediatrics, special care and general dentistry, medical genetics and genetic counseling, psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and other specialties. Each year, more than 1,000 medical, dental, nursing, and other professionals participate in its educational programs.
    • Since 2007, the CERC has also developed a substantial clinical research program, investigating the causes and treatments of such conditions as autism and autism spectrum disorder, sensorineural hearing loss, and cerebral palsy.
  • The Center for Ethics at Yeshiva University and the Institute for Public Health Sciences are affiliated with the medical school.
  • Albert Einstein Cancer Center [34]
  • Center for AIDS Research[35]
  • Diabetes Research and Training Center[36]
  • Hispanic Center of Excellence [37]
  • Institute for Aging Research [38]
  • Institute for Clinical and Translational Research [39]
  • Institute for Onco-Physics [40]
  • See all centers[41]

Campus[edit]

The Falk Center, with one of the three student housing apartment buildings in the background

The Einstein Campus is named for Jack and Pearl Resnick. Its main features are:

  • The Leo Forchheimer Medical Sciences Building (1953) was the school's first building. It contains Robbins auditorium (the second-year medical students' lecture hall), Max and Sadie Friedman Lounge, biological research labs and anatomy labs, other lecture halls for graduate courses, and the school's D. Samuel Gottesman Library. In 2007, the building caught on fire twice, severely disrupting classes and research.
  • The Mazer Building contains the Lubin Student Center, which is the school's kosher dining hall, the Singer faculty club, and faculty offices.
  • The Ullmann Research Center for Health Sciences (1964) contains research laboratories.
  • The Arthur B. and Diane Belfer Educational Center for Health Sciences (1972) is the school's main educational building and houses the first-year medical students' lecture hall (Riklis Auditorium), instructional labs, classrooms, conference rooms, and administrative offices.
  • The Irwin B. and Sylvia Chanin Institute for Cancer Research (1978) has laboratories for cancer research
  • The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center.[42]
  • The Samuel H. and Rachel Golding Building (1996) is a 10-story biomedical research facility that is an addition to the original Forchheimer building.
  • Morris Park Avenue bisects the campus, separating the majority of academic and research buildings from the residential buildings and new construction.
  • The Michael F. Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine is a $220 million research building, opened and dedicated on June 12, 2008. It is 201,000 square feet (18,700 m2), houses 40 laboratories, including a BSL-3 laboratory for infectious disease research.
  • The Van Etten Building contains the Ruth L. Gottesman Clinical Skills Center, a 22,700-square-foot (2,110 m2) space of classrooms and 23 examination rooms for the clinical instruction of first and second year medical students.[43][44]
  • The Eastchester Road Residence Complex, three 28-story apartment buildings containing 634 apartments, provides housing to M.D. and Ph.D. students, post-doctoral fellows, and their families.
  • The Falk Recreation Center, which opened in 1987, houses a gym, pool, indoor track, and basketball, squash and racquetball courts.
  • The Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, a division of Montefiore Medical Center.

The Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development is on the adjacent campus of Jacobi Medical Center. The Rhinelander Hall Residence Complex, several blocks away on Rhinelander Avenue, houses post-doctoral fellows and medical students.

Student life[edit]

Einstein is located in Morris Park, a residential neighborhood in the northeast Bronx, several miles from Manhattan. The Wildlife Conservation Park, better known as the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Garden and its Enid Haupt Conservatory are nearby. The fishing community of City Island, which features marinas and a broad selection of seafood restaurants is also a short distance away.[45]

There are more than 50 student clubs organized around a variety of activities, medical specialties, and a wide range of religious, political, and ethnic affiliations. Offerings include dance and movie clubs, an arts and literary magazine, and the Einstein Community Health Outreach, which launched New York State’s first student-coordinated free clinic.[46]

Notable alumni and faculty[edit]

Alumni[edit]

Faculty[edit]

  • Alfred A. Angrist, M.D. Professor and founding Chairman of the Department of Pathology, 1954-1969.[70][71]
  • Nir Barzilai, M.D. Director of the Institute for Aging Research and the Director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Human Aging Research and of the National Institutes of Health’s Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging, 1993-current.[72][73]
  • Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, 1991-2011, and Chairman of Microbiology and Immunology, 2007-2011.[74]
  • Marie Daly, Ph.D. Professor of Biochemistry and Medicine, 1960-1986.[75]
  • Leo M. Davidoff, M.D. Professor and founding Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, 1955-1966.[70][76]
  • Harry Eagle, M.D. Professor of Pathology, 1961-1988.[77]
  • Alfred Gilman, Ph.D. Professor, founding Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, 1956–1973.[70][78]
  • Jeffrey P. Gold, M.D. Professor and Chairman of the Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgeon-in-Chief at Montefiore Medical Center, 1996-2005.
  • Susan Band Horwitz, Ph.D. Professor of Molecular Pharmacology, 1967-current.[79]
  • William R. Jacobs Jr., PhD. Professor of Microbiology and Immunology Professor of Genetics, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, 1987-current.[80][81]
  • Geoffrey Kabat, Ph.D. Professor of Epidemiology.
  • Irving M. London, M.D. Professor of Medicine and founding Chairman of the Department of Medicine, 1955-1970.[70][78]
  • Gertie Marx, M.D. Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and pioneer of obstetric anesthesiology, 1955-1995.[82]
  • Mary Jane Osborn, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biochemistry, 1963-1968.[83]
  • Isabelle Rapin, M.D. Professor of Neurology and of Pediatrics, 1958-2012.[84][85]
  • Oliver Sacks, M.D. Professor, Department of Neurology, 1966-2007.[86]
  • Berta Scharrer, Ph.D. Professor, Departments of Anatomy and Structural Biology and of Neuroscience, 1955-1995.[87]
  • Ernst Scharrer, Ph.D. Professor, founding Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, 1954-1965.[70][88][89]
  • Theodore Spaet, M.D. Professor of Medicine, 1965-1985.[90]
  • Wolfgang A. Tomé, Ph.D. Professor of Radiation Oncology, founding Director of Medical Physics of the Institute for Onco-Physics, Director of the Division of Therapeutic Medical Physics in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Montefiore Medical Center, 2012-current.[40]
  • Jan Vijg, Ph.D. Lola and Saul Kramer Chair in Molecular Genetics.[91]
  • Abraham White, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, 1955-1962.[92]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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