Albert Leffingwell

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Albert Leffingwell

Albert Tracy Leffingwell, M.D. (1845–1916) was an American physician, social reformer, and vocal advocate for vivisection reform. He authored many books bringing light to the cruel abuses of animal experimentation and calling for regulation. At the same time he sought middle ground between the anti-vivisection societies which called for the abolition of all experimentation and those who rejected any restraints. Leffingwell also was concerned with meat safety, believing that lax regulations, in particular allowing cancerous animals into the food chain, were responsible for increases in the incidence of cancer. He also served as the president of the American Humane Association.[1]


  • Rambles in Japan without a Guide. London, 1892.
  • Illegitimacy and the Influence of Seasons upon Conduct. London and New York, 1893.
  • Vivisection in America.[2] New York, 1895.
  • The Vivisection Question. New York, 1901.
  • Illustration of Human Vivisection, 1907 (pamphlet).
  • The Morality of London. London, 1908.
  • The Vivisection Controversy. London, 1908.
  • American Meat. London and New York, 1910.
  • An Ethical Problem. London and New York, 1914.


  1. ^ "Dr. Albert Leffingwell. Author and Ex-President of American Humane Association Dies at 72". The New York Times. September 2, 1916. Retrieved 2011-03-20. Albert Leffingwell, author, physician, and founder and first Secretary of the American Society for the Regulation of Vivisection, died at his home here ...
  2. ^ "Main". Archived from the original on 2009-10-26.

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