Alberta Highway 16

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Highway 16 shieldAlberta Yellowhead Highway shield

Highway 16
Yellowhead Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
Alberta Highway 16 Map.png
Highway 16 highlighted in red
Route information
Length 633.5 km[1] (393.6 mi)
Major junctions
West end Hwy 16 (TCH) at British Columbia border at Yellowhead Pass
 
East end Saskatchewan Highway 16.svg SK 16 at Saskatchewan border in Lloydminster
Location
Specialized
and rural
municipalities
Jasper, I.D. No. 12, Yellowhead, Parkland, Strathcona, I.D. No. 13, Lamont, Minburn, Vermilion River
Major cities Spruce Grove, Edmonton, Sherwood Park, Lloydminster
Towns Hinton, Edson, Vegreville, Vermilion
Villages Wabamun, Innisfree, Mannville, Kitscoty
Highway system

Provincial highways in Alberta

Hwy 15Hwy 16A

Alberta Provincial Highway No. 16, commonly referred to as Highway 16, is a major east–west highway in central Alberta, Canada, connecting Jasper to Lloydminster via Edmonton. It forms a portion of the Yellowhead Highway, a major interprovincial route of the Trans-Canada Highway system that stretches from Masset, British Columbia to Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, near Winnipeg. Highway 16 spans approximately 634 km (394 mi) from Alberta's border with British Columbia in the west to its border with Saskatchewan in the east.[2][3] As of 2010, all but less than 96 km (60 mi) of the route was divided, with a minimum of two lanes in each direction.[3] It is designated a core route in Canada's National Highway System.[4]

Route description[edit]

Jasper National Park[edit]

British Columbia Highway 16 becomes Alberta Highway 16 as it crosses the Continental Divide and Yellowhead Pass into Alberta, entering Jasper National Park. It travels in an easterly direction through the Municipality of Jasper until it reaches the intersection with Highway 93 (Icefields Parkway) and the west access to the Jasper townsite. East of Highway 93, the highway turns to the north, passes the east access to the Jasper townsite, and continues in a northeast direction along the Athabasca River through Improvement District No. 12. The segment of Highway 16 through Jasper National Park is maintained by the Government of Canada.[5]

Jasper National Park to Edmonton[edit]

Westbound Highway 16 in Hinton

Upon exiting Jasper National Park, Highway 16 is maintained by Alberta Transportation until it reaches the City of Edmonton and travels through the rural municipalities of Yellowhead County and Parkland County. The highway is a two lane, undivided highway for 19 km (12 mi) where it becomes a four lane, divided highway.[1] The highway continues in a northeast direction through the Town of Hinton until it reaches the locality of Obed, where it continues in an easterly direction and crosses Obed Summit, the highest point on the Yellowhead Highway.[6] The highway passes through the Town of Edson, where the highway splits into parallel one-streets, with eastbound traffic following 2 Avenue and westbound traffic following 4 Avenue.[1] It continues east where it passes by the Hamlets of Niton Junction, Wildwood, Evansburg and Entwistle; through the Hamlet of Gainford before passing; and north of Wabamun Lake where it passes by the Summer Village of Seba Beach, Hamlet of Fallis, Village of Wabamun, and Hamlet of Kapasiwin before intersecting Highway 43. The highway intersects Highway 16A (Parkland Highway), which prior to 1997 was part of Highway 16,[7] and passes through the Town of Stony Plain, City of Spruce Grove, and serves as an alternate route into Edmonton. The present alignment bypasses Stony Plain and serves as the northern boundary of Spruce Grove. Highway 16 is part of the CANAMEX Corridor between Highway 43 and its western intersection with Anthony Henday Drive.

Edmonton[edit]

Highway 16 passes through Edmonton as a major expressway called Yellowhead Trail, maintained by the City of Edmonton. Most sections of Yellowhead Trail are free-flowing, while numerous intersections between 156 Street and 50 Street are signalized.

Edmonton to Lloydminster[edit]

Westbound Highway 16 near Vegreville

Highway 16 exits Edmonton and enters Strathcona County just west of its eastern intersection with Anthony Henday Drive (Highway 216). The highway travels east and serves as the division between Edmonton and the Urban Service Area of Sherwood Park. The highway continues east past the Hamlet of Ardrossan, through Elk Island National Park, and past the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village. The highway then passes through the rural municipalities of Lamont County, County of Minburn, and the County of Vermilion River. The highway continues in a general southeast direction by Town of Mundare and the Town of Vegreville, where Highway 16A passes directly through the Vegreville. The highway continues by Hamlet of Lavoy, Hamlet of Ranfurly, Village of Innisfree, Hamlet of Minburn, Village of Mannville, Town of Vermilion, Village of Kitscoty, and Hamlet of Blackfoot. The highway is maintained by Alberta Transportation, with the exception of the segment through Elk Island National Park which is maintained by the Government of Canada.[5] Highway 16 passes through the City of Lloydminster along Ray Nelson Drive (44 Street) and is maintained by the City of Lloydminster.[1][8] The highway is an arterial street and crosses into Saskatchewan at its intersection with Highway 17 (50 Avenue) where it becomes Saskatchewan Highway 16.

History[edit]

Alberta-Saskatchewan border marker as seen from Highway 16 in Lloydminster

The Yellowhead Highway follows a native trail of the same name. During the early 1800s, Pierre Bostonais, an Iroquois-Métis trapper with streaks of blonde in his hair, worked for the Hudson's Bay Company. Because of his hair colour, French Voyageurs referred to him as "Tête Jaune", literally "Yellow Head". By 1819, Bostonais acted as a guide for the company and had explored a route between the Fraser River and the present city of Prince George.[9] Half a century later, the Grand Trunk Pacific (GTP) and Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) constructed lines along what came to be known as the Yellowhead Trail.[10] The two lines between Evansburg, Alberta, and Red Pass Junction were combined into a joint route in 1917, with portions of both lines abandoned. The GTP and CNoR both became part of the new Canadian National Railway (CNR) by 1924.

Following World War I, as automobile use increased exponentially, CNR surveyor Fred Driscoll and Edmonton Automobile and Good Roads Association president formed a committee lobbying for the creation of the Yellowhead Highway. Driscoll believed the abandoned railway bed would be an ideal base for a road. The Edmonton Automobile Association offered a gold medal to the first person to travel from Edmonton to Victoria through the gap. Charles Neiymer and Frank Silverthorne left in 4×4 on June 17, 1922. The following week, George Gordon and J. Sims departed Edmonton in a Ford Model T, following the same route. On July 4, both pairs arrived in Victoria and were each awarded gold medals.[10]

However, it would take until World War II for any improvements to be made this overland route. The displacement of many Japanese-Canadians from the Pacific coast to internment camps in the interior led to some developments. 30 km (19 mi) of road was constructed along the railway bed, and an additional 40 km (25 mi) through steep terrain. By 1944, the Tote Road was opened through Jasper and into the Fraser Valley.[10]

In August 1948, a motorcade was organized as a demonstration of the need for the highway. The Trans-Canada Highway Act was enacted in 1949, providing a 90% subsidy to upgrade selected routes to modern standards. However, the Tote Highway was not included under this subsidy.[10] During the same time frame, the Trans Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company began looking at the Tote Road as a potential route for a pipeline between Edmonton and Vancouver. Construction began in 1952, and largely resulted in the destruction of the road along the pipeline's path.[10]

Gradually, work progressed to reconstruct the highway. Elsewhere, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway was completed in 1957. The Yellowhead Highway became eligible for federal funding soon thereafter.[11] By 1969, the Tote Road was generally rebuilt and paved. On August 15, 1970, British Columbia Premier W. A. C. Bennett officially opened the Yellowhead Highway.[12]

Future[edit]

Alberta Transportation has conducted long term studies to twin Highway 16 between Jasper National Park and Highway 40[13] and freeway upgrades both west and east of Edmonton.[14][15] Highway bypass alignments have also been planned for Hinton, Edson, and Lloydminster, all of which have been designated as Highway 16X.[2][15]

The City of Edmonton has plans for replacement of all signalized intersections with interchanges, flyovers and closures to bring Yellowhead Trail up to freeway standards by the year 2041.[16][17]

Major intersections[edit]

The following is a list of major intersections along Alberta Highway 16 from west to east, including exit numbers where applied.[2][3]

Rural/specialized municipalityLocationkm[1]miExitDestinationsNotes
Municipality of Jasper
(Jasper National Park)
0.00.0British Columbia border at Yellowhead Pass – 1,131 m (3,711 ft)
Hwy 16 (TCH) (Yellowhead Highway) continues towards Prince George and Kamloops
3.72.3West gate of Jasper National Park
Jasper24.615.3 Hwy 93 south (Icefields Parkway) / Connaught Drive – Lake Louise, BanffTraffic signals
25.816.0 Hwy 93A south / Hazel Avenue
28.817.9Connaught Drive / Cottonwood Creek Road
30.719.1Maligne Lake Road – Jasper Park Lodge
I.D. No. 12
(Jasper National Park)
46.629.0Crosses Athabasca River
69.443.1Miette Hot Springs Road – Pocahontas, Miette Hot Springs
76.447.5East gate of Jasper National Park
Yellowhead County95.759.5West extent of divided highway
96.660.0 Hwy 40 north (Big Horn Highway) – Grande Cache, Grande PrairieWest end of Hwy 40 concurrency
Hinton98.561.2 Hwy 40 south (Big Horn Highway) – CadominEast end of Hwy 40 concurrency
103.264.1Switzer Drive – Hinton Valley DistrictTraffic signals
125.277.8Obed Summit – 1,163.9 m (3,819 ft)
179.5111.5177 Hwy 47 south – RobbEastbound grade separated; westbound at grade
Edson186.4115.8West end of one-way pair
189.7117.9 To Hwy 748 / 51 Street
191.2118.8East end of one-way pair
196.5122.1Crosses McLeod River
221.7137.8 Hwy 32 north – Peers, Whitecourt
Niton Junction235.0146.0Range Road 130
Nojack247.4153.7 Hwy 751 north – MacKay
258.0160.3 Hwy 753 south – Cynthia, Lodgepole
Wildwood270.7168.2Range Road 92A
272.3169.2Service RoadWestbound exit
276.9172.1 Hwy 16A east – Evansburg, Entwistle
279.5173.7 Hwy 22 north (Cowboy Trail) – MayerthorpeWest end of Hwy 22 concurrency
Evansburg285.2177.2UAR 115 north (Range Road 75)
↑ / ↓286.5178.0Crosses Pembina River
Parkland CountyEntwistle287.5178.6289 Hwy 22 south (Cowboy Trail) – Drayton Valley
Hwy 16A west – Entwistle
Interchange; east end of Hwy 22 concurrency
296.0183.9 Hwy 757 north – Magnolia, Sangudo
Gainford301.1187.1Range Road 62
Seba Beach304.4189.1306 Hwy 31 to Hwy 759 south – Seba Beach, TomahawkInterchange
310.8193.1Range Road 52 – Fallis
314.0195.1 Hwy 765 north – DarwellInterchange
Wabamun322.7200.5324Range Road 40BInterchange
325.7202.4327Range Road 35 – Kapasiwin, Wabamun Lake Provincial ParkInterchange; former Hwy 30
330.6205.4Range Road 32 – Duffield
338.4210.3 Hwy 770 south – Carvel, Warburg
338.8210.5340 Hwy 43 north – Whitecourt, Valleyview, Grande Prairie, Peace RiverInterchange; west end of CANAMEX Corridor
343.0213.1344 Hwy 16A east (Parkland Highway) – Stony Plain, Spruce Grove, Edmonton City CentreEastbound exit, westbound entrance
353.5219.7355 Hwy 779 – Stony Plain, CalahooInterchange
Fifth Meridian, 114° Longitude
Spruce Grove357.9222.4360Jennifer Heil Way / Range Road 274Interchange
359.4223.3Former Hwy 788 (Calahoo Road)Intersection closed
361.1224.4363Century Road / Range Road 272Interchange
366.1227.5368 Hwy 44 north / Township Road 531A – Villeneuve, Westlock, Slave LakeInterchange
Acheson369.1229.3371 Hwy 60 south (Devonian Way) / Range Road 263 – DevonInterchange; truck bypass to Hwy 2 south
City of Edmonton374.0232.4376Winterburn Road (215 Street)Interchange
375.9233.6378 Anthony Henday Drive (Hwy 216) – Cold Lake, Fort McMurray
To Hwy 2 south – Red Deer, Calgary (unsigned highway)
Exit 25 on Hwy 216; west end of Hwy 2 hidden concurrency;
east end of CANAMEX Corridor (follows Hwy 216 south)
377.4234.5379184 Street – St. AlbertInterchange
379.0235.5381170 Street – St. Albert, West Edmonton MallInterchange
380.8236.6383156 Street – St. AlbertInterchange
381.6237.1149 Street
382.4237.6142 Street
383.0238.0381 St. Albert Trail (Hwy 2 north) – St. Albert, AthabascaInterchange; east end of Hwy 2 hidden concurrency
384.0238.6127 Street
384.4238.9124 Street
385.0239.2121 Street
386.4240.1107 StreetTraffic signals; no westbound exit
387.3240.7389 97 Street (Hwy 28 north) – Cold Lake, Fort McMurrayInterchange
388.9241.739182 Street – NorthlandsInterchange
390.0242.3392Fort Road / Wayne Gretzky Drive – NorthlandsInterchange
390.7242.866 Street
392.5243.9394 50 Street (Hwy 15 north) – Fort Saskatchewan, Fort McMurrayInterchange
395.0245.4397118 Avenue / Victoria TrailInterchange
395.8245.9Crosses North Saskatchewan River
Beverly Bridge (eastbound) and Clover Bar Bridge (westbound)
396.4246.3399Hayter Road / 17 Street NWInterchange
Strathcona County
Edmonton[a]
Sherwood Park397.7247.1400 Anthony Henday Drive (Hwy 216) – Cold Lake, Fort McMurray, CalgaryInterchange; Exit 54 on Hwy 216;
westbound signed as exits 400A (south) and 400B (north)
399.4248.2401Broadmoor Boulevard / 17 Street NEInterchange
401.0249.2403Sherwood Drive / Range Road 232Interchange
Strathcona County402.6250.2405Clover Bar Road / Range Road 231Interchange
404.2251.2406 Hwy 21 – Camrose, Fort SaskatchewanInterchange
Eastbound signed as exits 406A (south) and 406B (north)
Ardrossan410.7255.2413 Hwy 824 southInterchange
415.6258.2 Hwy 830 – Josephburg
I.D. No. 13
(Elk Island National Park)
423.7263.3West end of Elk Island National Park
431.1267.9Elk Island Parkway to Hwy 831 north – Lamont
433.6269.4East end of Elk Island National Park
Lamont County443.4275.5 Hwy 834 – Chipman, Tofield
Mundare464.5288.6 Hwy 15 west – Chipman, Lamont, Fort Saskatchewan
Hwy 855 – Andrew, Holden, Ryley
County of Minburn No. 27475.3295.3 Hwy 631 east
Vegreville479.2297.8481 Hwy 16A east (50 Avenue) – VegrevilleEastbound exit, westbound entrance
488.1303.3 Hwy 857 – Bruce, Willingdon
490.0304.5492 Hwy 16A west (50 Avenue) – VegrevilleWestbound exit, Eastbound entrance
Lavoy500.6311.1Range Road 134
506.2314.5 Hwy 36 (Veterans Memorial Highway) – Viking, Two HillsInterchange proposed (no construction timeline)[18]
Ranfurly515.2320.1UAR 199 north
526.3327.0 Hwy 870 – Innisfree, Morecambe, Kinsella
539.6335.3UAR 216 north – Minburn
Mannville553.1343.7 Hwy 881 – Irma, Myrnam, St. Paul
County of Vermilion RiverVermilion574.4356.9577 Hwy 41 (Buffalo Trail) – Elk Point, Cold Lake, WainwrightInterchange
595.0369.7 Hwy 893 – Islay, Dewberry
Kitscoty610.7379.5 Hwy 897 – Marwayne, Paradise Valley
Blackfoot623.8387.6Range Road 20
City of Lloydminster631.6392.562 AvenueBypass route to Hwy 17
633.5393.6 50 Avenue (Hwy 17) – Onion Lake, Macklin
Saskatchewan border
Hwy 16 (Yellowhead Highway) continues east towards The Battlefords and Saskatoon
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Highway 16 is within Strathcona County, Edmonton city limits are along the north right of way.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Google (2017-10-10). "Highway 16 in Alberta" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2017-10-10. 
  2. ^ a b c "2015 Provincial Highway 1-216 Progress Chart" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. March 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Alberta Official Road Map (Map) (2010 ed.). Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation. § J–2, J–3, I–3, I-4, I–5, I–6, I–7, J–7, I–8, and J–8. 
  4. ^ "National Highway System". Transport Canada. December 13, 2009. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "The Trans-Canada Highway: Backgrounder". Transport Canada. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  6. ^ "Obed Summit". Waymarking.com. 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  7. ^ "Highways 16 and 16X Renumbered to Provide Greater Consistency". 2009-09-10. Government of Alberta. 1997-06-04. 
  8. ^ Gibson, Chad; Crawford, Murray (2010-09-24). "Lloydminster loses prominent figure". Lloydminster Meridian Booster. Retrieved 2016-04-12. 
  9. ^ "History of The Yellowhead Highway" (PDF). Trans Canada Yellowhead Highway Association. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Waugh, Jeff. "Jasper National Park History: The Yellowhead Highway". Jasper National Park. Retrieved 2016-04-12. 
  11. ^ "Saskatchewan's Highway Network". Department of Highways. Saskatchewan Government. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2008. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Frank W. (1998). The Yellowhead Trail in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Box 9055, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Frank W. Anderson. p. 105. 
  13. ^ "West Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  14. ^ "Edmonton & Area Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  15. ^ a b "East Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  16. ^ "Yellowhead Freeway in 2041". 630 CHED. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  17. ^ R. Gibbard/R. Toohey (June 14, 2011). "Yellowhead Trail Strategic Plan" (PDF). Project Status Report. City of Edmonton. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Highway 16 / Highway 36 Functional Plan Study" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. Al-Terra Engineering. Retrieved July 24, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google

KML is from Wikidata
Yellowhead Highway
Previous province:
British Columbia
Alberta Next province:
Saskatchewan