Alberta Highway 16
|Length:||634 km (394 mi)|
|West end:||B.C. border at Yellowhead Pass
continues as BC 16
| Hwy 93 in Jasper
Hwy 40 near Hinton
Hwy 32 near Carrot Creek
Hwy 22 near Evansburg and Entwistle
Hwy 43 near Stony Plain
Hwy 44 near Acheson
Hwy 216 in Edmonton
Hwy 2 in Edmonton
Hwy 28 in Edmonton
Hwy 15 in Edmonton and near Mundare
Hwy 21 in Sherwood Park
Hwy 36 near Lavoy
Hwy 41 near Vermilion
Hwy 17 in Lloydminster
|East end:||Saskatchewan border in Lloydminster
continues as Hwy 16 (TCH)
|Jasper, I.D. No. 12, Yellowhead County, Parkland County, Strathcona County, I.D. No. 13, Lamont County, Minburn No. 27 County, Vermilion River County|
|Major cities:||Spruce Grove, Edmonton, Sherwood Park, Lloydminster|
|Towns:||Hinton, Edson, Vegreville, Vermilion|
|Villages:||Wabamun, Innisfree, Mannville, Kitscoty|
Alberta Provincial Highway No. 16, or the Yellowhead Highway, is the main east-west highway traversing central Alberta, Canada. It is designated a core route in Canada's National Highway System and forms the Yellowhead branch of the Trans-Canada Highway. Highway 16 spans approximately 634 km (394 mi) from Alberta's border with British Columbia in the west to its border with Saskatchewan in the east. As of 2010, all but less than 96 km (60 mi) of the route was divided, with a minimum of two lanes in each direction.
Jasper National Park
British Columbia Highway 16 becomes Alberta Highway 16 as it crosses the Continental Divide and Yellowhead Pass into Alberta, entering Jasper National Park. It travels in an easterly direction through the Municipality of Jasper until it reaches the intersection with Highway 93 (Icefields Parkway) and the west access to the Jasper townsite. East of Highway 93, the highway turns to the north, passes the east access to the Jasper townsite, and continues in a northeast direction along the Athabasca River through Improvement District No. 12. The segment of Highway 16 through Jasper National Park is maintained by the Government of Canada.
Jasper National Park to Edmonton
Upon exiting Jasper National Park, Highway 16 is maintained by Alberta Transportation until it reaches the City of Edmonton and travels through the rural municipalities of Yellowhead County and Parkland County. The highway is a two lane, undivided highway for 19 km (12 mi) where it becomes a four lane, divided highway. The highway continues in a northeast direction through the Town of Hinton until it reaches the locality of Obed, where it continues in an easterly direction and crosses Obed Summit, the highest point on the Yellowhead Highway. The highway passes through the Town of Edson, where the highway splits into parallel one-streets, with eastbound traffic following 2nd Avenue and westbound traffic following 4th Avenue. It continues east where it passes by the Hamlets of Niton Junction, Wildwood, Evansburg and Entwistle; through the Hamlet of Gainford before passing; and north of Wabamun Lake where it passes by the Summer Village of Seba Beach, Hamlet of Fallis, Village of Wabamun, and Hamlet of Kapasiwin before intersecting Highway 43. The highway intersects Highway 16A (Parkland Highway), which prior to 1997 was part of Highway 16, and passes through the Town of Stony Plain, City of Spruce Grove, and serves as an alternate route into Edmonton. The present alignment bypasses Stony Plain and serves as the northern boundary of Spruce Grove. Highway 16 is part of the CANAMEX Corridor between Highway 43 and its western intersection with Highway 216 (Anthony Henday Drive).
Main Article: Yellowhead Trail
Highway 16 passes through Edmonton along Yellowhead Trail and is maintained by the City of Edmonton. Most sections of Yellowhead Trail are free-flowing, while numerous intersections between 156 Street and 50 Street are signalized.
Edmonton to Lloydminster
Highway 16 exits Edmonton and enters Strathcona County just west of its eastern intersection with Highway 216 (Anthony Henday Drive). The highway travels east and serves as the division between Edmonton and the Urban Service Area of Sherwood Park. The highway continues east past the Hamlet of Ardrossen and through Elk Island National Park. The highway then passes through the rural municipalities of Lamont County, County of Minburn, and the County of Vermilion River. The highway continues in a general southeast direction by Town of Mundare and the Town of Vegreville, where Highway 16A passes directly through the Vegreville. The highway continues by Hamlet of Lavoy, Hamlet of Ranfurly, Village of Innisfree, Hamlet of Minburn, Village of Mannville, Town of Vermilion, Village of Kitscoty, and Hamlet of Blackfoot. The highway is maintained by Alberta Transportation, with the exception of the segment through Elk Island National Park which is maintained by the Government of Canada.
Highway 16 passes through the City of Lloydminster along Ray Nelson Drive (44th Street) and is maintained by the City of Lloydminster. The highway is an arterial street and crosses into Saskatchewan at its intersection with Highway 17 (50 Avenue) where it becomes Saskatchewan Highway 16.
The Yellowhead Highway follows a native trail of the same name. During the early 1800s, Pierre Bostonais, an Iroquois-Métis trapper with streaks of blonde in his hair, worked for the Hudson's Bay Company. Because of his hair colour, French Voyageurs referred to him as "Tête Jaune", literally "Yellow Head". By 1819, Bostonais acted as a guide for the company and had explored a route between the Fraser River and the present city of Prince George. Half a century later, the Grand Trunk Pacific (GTP) and Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) constructed lines along what came to be known as the Yellowhead Trail. The two lines between Evansburg, Alberta, and Red Pass Junction were combined into a joint route in 1917, with portions of both lines abandoned. The GTP and CNoR both became part of the new Canadian National Railway (CNR) by 1924.
Following World War I, as automobile use increased exponentially, CNR surveyor Fred Driscoll and Edmonton Automobile and Good Roads Association president formed a committee lobbying for the creation of the Yellowhead Highway. Driscoll believed the abandoned railway bed would be an ideal base for a road. The Edmonton Automobile Association offered a gold medal to the first person to travel from Edmonton to Victoria through the gap. Charles Neiymer and Frank Silverthorne left in 4×4 on June 17, 1922. The following week, George Gordon and J. Sims departed Edmonton in a Ford Model T, following the same route. On July 4, both pairs arrived in Victoria and were each awarded gold medals.
However, it would take until World War II for any improvements to be made this overland route. The displacement of many Japanese-Canadians from the Pacific coast to internment camps in the interior led to some developments. 30 km (19 mi) of road was constructed along the railway bed, and an additional 40 km (25 mi) through steep terrain. By 1944, the Tote Road was opened through Jasper and into the Fraser Valley.
In August 1948, a motorcade was organized as a demonstration of the need for the highway. The Trans-Canada Highway Act was enacted in 1949, providing a 90% subsidy to upgrade selected routes to modern standards. However, the Tote Highway was not included under this subsidy. During the same time frame, the Trans Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company began looking at the Tote Road as a potential route for a pipeline between Edmonton and Vancouver. Construction began in 1952, and largely resulted in the destruction of the road along the pipeline's path.
Gradually, work progressed to reconstruct the highway. Elsewhere, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway was completed in 1957. The Yellowhead Highway became eligible for federal funding soon thereafter. By 1969, the Tote Road was generally rebuilt and paved. On August 15, 1970, British Columbia Premier W. A. C. Bennett officially opened the Yellowhead Highway.
Alberta Transportation has conducted long term studies to twin Highway 16 between Jasper National Park and Highway 40 and freeway upgrades both west and east of Edmonton. Highway bypass alignments have also been planned for Hinton, Edson, and Lloydminster, all of which have been designated as Provincial Highway No. 16X.
|Continues as BC 16 west – Mount Robson Provincial Park, Tête Jaune Cache, Prince George, Kamloops|
|Municipality of Jasper
(Jasper National Park)
|0||0||Alberta – British Columbia border
Yellowhead Pass (1,131 m / 3,711 ft)
|Enters Jasper National Park
|25||16||Hwy 93 south (Icefields Parkway) / Connaught Drive – Lake Louise, Banff||Traffic signals
|26||16||Hwy 93A south / Hazel Avenue|
|29||18||Connaught Drive / Cottonwood Creek Road|
|31||19||Maligne Lake Road|
|I.D. No. 12
(Jasper National Park)
|||47||29||Crosses Athabasca River —|
|Pocahontas||70||43||Miette Hot Springs Road – Miette Hot Springs|
|||77||48||Exits Jasper National Park —|
|Yellowhead County||||96||60||Divided Highway Begins —|
|Entrance||97||60||Hwy 40 north (Big Horn Highway) – Grande Cache, Grande Prairie|| Hwy 40 concurrency begins
|Hinton||99||62||Hwy 40 south (Big Horn Highway) – Cadomin||Hwy 40 concurrency ends
|103||64||Switzer Drive||Traffic signals
|||125||78||Obed Summet (1,163.9 m / 3,819 ft) —
Highest point on Yellowhead Highway
|||180||110||177|| Hwy 47 south – Robb
Future Hwy 947 north
|Eastbound grade separated
Westbound at grade
|Edson||186||116||One-way pair begins —|
|190||120||51 Street To Hwy 748|
|191||119||One-way pair ends —|
|||197||122||Crosses McLeod River —|
|||222||138||Hwy 32 north – Whitecourt, Swan Hills|
|Niton Junction||235||146||Range Road 130|
|Nojack||247||153||Hwy 751 north – MacKay|
|||258||160||Hwy 753 south – Cynthia, Lodgepole|
|Wildwood||271||168||Range Road 92A|
|272||169||Service Road||Westbound exit
|||277||172||Hwy 16A east – Evansburg, Entwistle|
|||280||170||Hwy 22 north (Cowboy Trail) – Mayerthorpe|| Hwy 22 concurrency begins
|Evansburg||285||177||Urban Approach Road 115 north
Range Road 75
|↑ / ↓||286||178||Crosses Pembina River —|
|Parkland County||Entwistle||287||178||289|| Hwy 22 south (Cowboy Trail) – Drayton Valley
Hwy 16A west – Entwistle
Hwy 22 concurrency ends
|||296||184||Hwy 757 north – Sangudo|
|Gainford||301||187||Range Road 62|
|Seba Beach||304||189||306||Hwy 31 to Hwy 759 south – Seba Beach, Tomahawk||Interchange
|Fallis||311||193||Range Road 52|
|||314||195||Hwy 765 north – Darwell||Interchange
|Wabamun||323||201||324||Range Road 40B||Interchange
|||326||203||327||Range Road 35 – Kapasiwin, Wabamun Lake Provincial Park
Former Hwy 30
|||331||206||Range Road 32 – Duffield|
|Manly Corner||338||210||Hwy 770 south – Carvel, Warburg|
|339||211||340||Hwy 43 north – Whitecourt, Valleyview, Grande Prairie, Peace River||Interchange
CANAMEX Corridor concurrency begins
|||343||213||344||Hwy 16A east (Parkland Highway) – Stony Plain, Spruce Grove, Edmonton||Eastbound exit, westbound entrance
|||353||219||355||Hwy 779 – Stony Plain, Calahoo||Interchange
|Spruce Grove||358||222||360||Jennifer Heil Way / Range Road 274||Interchange
|359||223||Former Hwy 788||Intersection closed
|361||224||363||Century Road / Range Road 272||Interchange
|||366||227||368||Hwy 44 north / Township Road 531A – Villeneuve, Westlock, Slave Lake||Interchange
|Acheson||369||229||371||Hwy 60 south (Devonian Way) / Range Road 263 – Devon||Interchange
|City of Edmonton||374||232||376||Winterburn Road (215 Street)||Interchange
|379||235||378|| Hwy 216 / Anthony Henday Drive (Exit 25)
Hwy 2 south – Red Deer, Calgary (unsigned highway)
|CANAMEX Corridor concurrency ends
Hwy 2 hidden concurrency begins
|383||238||381||St. Albert Trail
Hwy 2 north – St. Albert, Athabasca, Slave Lake, Peace River
Hwy 2 hidden concurrency ends
|385||239||121 Street – Via Rail Station|
|387||240||107 Street||Traffic signals
No westbound exit
|387||240||389||Hwy 28 north / 97 Street – Cold Lake, Fort McMurray||Interchange
|390||240||392||Fort Road / Wayne Gretzky Drive||Interchange
|393||244||394||Hwy 15 north / 50 Street – Fort Saskatchewan, Fort McMurray||Interchange
|395||245||397||118 Avenue / Victoria Trail||Interchange
|396||246||Crosses North Saskatchewan River —
Beverly Bridge (eastbound) and Clover Bar Bridge (westbound)
|397||247||397||Hayter Road / 17 Street NW||Interchange
|398||247||400||Hwy 216 / Anthony Henday Drive (Exit 54)||Interchange under construction
|399||248||400C||Broadmoor Boulevard / 17 Street NE||Interchange under construction
|401||249||403||Sherwood Drive / Range Road 232||Interchange under construction
|Sherwood Park||403||250||405||Clover Bar Road / Range Road 231||Interchange
|404||251||406||Hwy 21 – Camrose, Fort Saskatchewan||Interchange
|Ardrossan||411||255||413||Hwy 824 south||Interchange
|||416||258||Hwy 830 – Josephburg|
|I.D. No. 13
(Elk Island National Park)
|||424||263||Enters Elk Island National Park —|
|||431||268||Elk Island Parkway to Hwy 831 north – Lamont|
|||434||270||Exits Elk Island National Park —|
|Lamont County||||444||276||Hwy 834 – Chipman, Tofield|
|Mundare||465||289|| Hwy 15 west – Lamont, Fort Saskatchewan
Hwy 855 – Andrew, Holden, Ryley
|County of Minburn No. 27||||475||295||Hwy 631 east|
|Vegreville||479||298||481||Hwy 16A east (50 Avenue) – Vegreville||Eastbound exit, westbound entrance
|488||303||Hwy 857 – Bruce, Willingdon|
|490||300||492||Hwy 16A west (50 Avenue) – Vegreville||Westbound exit, Eastbound entrance
|Lavoy||501||311||Range Road 134|
|||506||314||Hwy 36 (Veterans Memorial Highway) – Viking, Two Hills||Interchange proposed
|Ranfurly||515||320||Urban Approach Road 199 north|
|Innisfree||526||327||Hwy 870 – Morecambe, Kinsella|
|Minburn||540||340||Urban Approach Road 216 north
Range Road 102
|Mannville||553||344||Hwy 881 – Irma, Myrnam, St. Paul|
|County of Vermilion River||Vermilion||575||357||577||Hwy 41 (Buffalo Trail) – Wainwright, Bonnyville, Cold Lake||Interchange
|||595||370||Hwy 893 – Islay, Dewberry|
|Kitscoty||611||380||Hwy 897 – Paradise Valley, Marwayne||Interchange proposed
|Blackfoot||621||386||Township Road 500B||Blackfoot access
|622||386||Range Road 21
Future Hwy 16X east
Future Lloydminster bypass
|City of Lloydminster||632||393||62 Avenue|
|634||394|| Hwy 17 (50 Avenue) – Onion Lake, Macklin
Alberta – Saskatchewan border
|Continues as Hwy 16 (TCH) east – Maidstone, The Battlefords, Saskatoon|
- Provincial Highways Designation Order, Alberta Transportation, p. 4
- "National Highway System". Transport Canada. 2009-12-13. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- "2010 Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Series Progress Chart" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. March 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- Alberta Official Road Map (Map) (2010 ed.). Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation. § J–2, J–3, I–3, I-4, I–5, I–6, I–7, J–7, I–8, and J–8.
- "The Trans-Canada Highway: Backgrounder". Transport Canada. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- "Obed Summit". Waymarking.com. 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Highways 16 and 16X Renumbered to Provide Greater Consistency". 2009-09-10. Government of Alberta. 1997-06-04.
- Gibson, Chad; Crawford, Murray (2010-09-24). "Lloydminster loses prominent figure". Lloydminster Meridian Booster. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- "History of The Yellowhead Highway" (PDF). Trans Canada Yellowhead Highway Association. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- Waugh, Jeff. "Jasper National Park History: The Yellowhead Highway". Jasper National Park. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- "Saskatchewan's Highway Network". Department of Highways. Saskatchewan Government. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
- Anderson, Frank W. (1998). The Yellowhead Trail in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Box 9055, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Frank W. Anderson. p. 105.
- "West Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Edmonton & Area Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "East Provincial Highway Projects". Highway 16. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Yellowhead Freeway in 2041". 630 CHED. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- R. Gibbard/R. Toohey (June 14, 2011). "Yellowhead Trail Strategic Plan" (PDF). Project Status Report. City of Edmonton. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- 2010 Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Series Progress Chart (map, 8 MB) by Alberta Transportation.
BC Highway 16
SK Highway 16