Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg

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Albrecht III Achilles
Elector of Brandenburg
AlbrechtAchilles.jpg
Portrait of Albrecht Achilles,
St. Gumbertus, Ansbach (1484)
Born (1414-11-09)9 November 1414
Tangermünde, Brandenburg
Died 11 March 1486(1486-03-11) (aged 71)
Imperial City of Frankfurt
Buried Heilsbronn Abbey
Noble family House of Hohenzollern
Spouse(s) Margaret of Baden
Anna of Saxony
Father Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg
Mother Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut

Albert III (German: Albrecht III.) (9 November 1414 – 11 March 1486) was Elector of Brandenburg from 1471 until his death, the third from the House of Hohenzollern. A member of the Order of the Swan, he received the cognomen Achilles because of his knightly qualities and virtues. He also ruled in the Franconian principalities of Ansbach from 1440 and Kulmbach from 1464 (as Albrecht I).

Early life[edit]

Albert was born at the Brandenburg residence of Tangermünde as the third son of the Nuremberg burgrave Frederick I and his wife, the Wittelsbach princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut. His father served as governor in Brandenburg; a few months after Albert's birth, he was enfeoffed with the electorate at the Council of Constance by the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund.

After passing some time at the court of Emperor Sigismund, Albert took part in the Hussite Wars, and afterwards distinguished himself whilst assisting Sigismund's successor, the Habsburg king Albert II of Germany, against the Hussites and their Polish allies.[1] In 1435, he and is eldest brother John went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Reign in Franconia[edit]

On the division of territory which followed his father's death in 1440, Albert received the Principality of Ansbach, while John took over the rule as Brandenburg elector. Although Albert's resources were meager, he soon took a leading place among the German princes and was especially prominent in resisting the attempts of the towns to obtain self-government.[1]

Nevertheless, Albert's plans to re-unite the former Duchy of Franconia under his rule failed: in 1443, he formed a league directed mainly against the Imperial City of Nuremberg, over which his late father had formerly exercised the rights of burgrave. It was not until 1448, however, that he found a pretext for attack. After initial military successes in the First Margrave War, he was defeated at the Battle of Pillenreuther Weiher, resulting in the Treaty of Bamberg (22 June 1450), which forced Albert to return all of the conquered territory and to recognize the independence of Nuremberg and its associated towns.[1]

Albert supported the Habsburg emperor Frederick III in his struggle with the princes who desired reforms in the Holy Roman Empire, and in return for this loyalty received many marks of favour from Frederick, including extensive judicial rights which aroused considerable irritation among neighbouring rulers.[1]

In 1457, Albert arranged a marriage between his eldest son John, and Margaret, daughter of William III, Landgrave of Thuringia, who inherited the claims upon Hungary and Bohemia of her mother, a granddaughter of Emperor Sigismund. The attempt to secure these thrones for the Hohenzollerns through this marriage failed, and a similar fate befell Albert's efforts to revive in his own favour the disused title of duke of Franconia.[1]

The sharp dissensions which existed among the princes over the question of reform culminated in the Bavarian War from 1459 to 1463, when Albert was confronted with a league under the leadership of Elector Palatine Frederick I and his Wittelsbach cousin Duke Louis IX of Bavaria-Landshut. Though defeated in the struggle, Albert continued fighting against Prince-bishop Rudolf II of Würzburg and even forged an alliance with his former enemy, the Bohemian king George of Poděbrady, a step which caused Pope Paul II to place him under the ban.[1]

Elector Albrecht Achilles, 17th century engraving

Albert permanently resided at Ansbach from 1460; he also inherited the Principality of Kulmbach upon the death of his brother John in 1464.

Brandenburg elector[edit]

In 1471, Albert became Elector of Brandenburg, owing to the abdication of his remaining brother, Elector Frederick II, the year before. Now sole ruler over the entire Hohenzollern estates, he was soon actively engaged in their administration. By the 1472 Treaty of Prenzlau he ended the War of the Succession of Stettin, bringing the Duchy of Pomerania also under his supremacy.

Having established his right to levy a tonnage on wines in the mark, he issued in February 1473 the Dispositio Achillea, which decreed that the Margraviate of Brandenburg should descend in its entirety to the eldest son, while the younger sons should receive the Franconian possessions of the family.[1] After treating in vain for a marriage between one of his sons and Princess Mary of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Duke Charles the Bold, Albert handed over the government of Brandenburg to his eldest son John Cicero, and returned to his Franconian possessions.[1]

Albert's main attention afterwards was claimed by the business of the empire. Seriously ill, he took part in the imperial election of 1486 which selected Maximilian of Habsburg as King of the Romans at Frankfurt Cathedral. A few weeks later, in March, Albert died while still staying in Frankfurt; he was buried in the Heilsbronn Abbey church near Ansbach. He left a considerable amount of treasure.[1]

Family and children[edit]

Albert with his second consort Anna of Saxony (c. 1625)

Albert was married twice. First, he married 12 November 1446 Margaret of Baden, daughter of Margrave Jakob I of Baden and Catherine of Lorraine. From this marriage he had following children:

  1. Wolfgang, born and died in 1450.
  2. John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg (1455–99).
  3. Friedrich, died young.
  4. Ursula (25 September 1450 – 25 October 1508, Breslau), married Duke Henry I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels.
  5. Elisabeth, (29 October 1451, Ansbach – 28 March 1524, Nürtingen), married Eberhard II, Duke of Württemberg.
  6. Margareta (18 April 1453 – 27 April 1509), abbess of the Poor Clares convent at Hof.

Margaret died 24 October 1457 and in 1458 Albert married Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony and Margarete of Austria. Their children were:

  1. Frederick I, (German: Friedrich II. von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach or Friedrich der Ältere; 1460–1536), Margrave in Ansbach since 1486 and Bayreuth since 1495.
  2. Amalie (1 October 1461, Plassenburg – 3 September 1481, Baden-Baden), married Kaspar, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken.
  3. Anna, born and died in 1462.
  4. Barbara (30 May 1464, Ansbach – 4 September 1515, Ansbach), married:
    1. in Berlin 11 October 1472 to Duke Henry XI of Głogów;
    2. in Frankfurt (Oder) 20 August 1476 to King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.
  5. Albrecht, born and died in 1466.
  6. Sibylle (31 May 1467, Ansbach – 9 July 1524, Kaster), married Duke Wilhelm IV of Jülich and Berg.
  7. Siegmund, Margrave in Bayreuth, (27 September 1468, Ansbach – 26 February 1495, Ansbach).
  8. Albrecht, born and died in 1470.
  9. Georg (30 December 1472, Berlin – 5 December 1476, Kadolzburg).
  10. Dorothea (12 December 1471, Berlin – 13 February 1520, Bamberg), Abbess in Bamberg.
  11. Elisabeth (8 April 1474, Ansbach – 25 April 1507, Römhild), married Count Hermann VIII of Henneberg-Aschach (1470–1535)
  12. Magdalene (29 July 1476, Berlin – before 4 February 1480).
  13. Anastasia (14 March 1478, Ansbach – 4 July 1534, Ilmenau), married Count William IV of Henneberg-Schleusingen (1478–1559)

Dynastic marriages of his children[edit]

In 1474, Albert married his daughter Barbara to Duke Henry XI of Głogów, who left his possessions on his death in 1476 to his widow with reversion to her family, an arrangement which was resisted by Henry's kinsman, Duke Jan II of Żagań. Aided by King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, Jan of Żagań invaded Brandenburg, and the Pomeranians seized the opportunity to revolt. Under these circumstances Albert returned to Brandenburg in 1478, compelled the Pomeranians to recognize his supremacy, and, after a stubborn struggle, secured a part of Duke Henry's lands for his daughter in 1482. [1]

Ancestry[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. John II, Burgrave of Nuremberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Margaret of Carinthia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Berthold VII, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Adelheid of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Elisabeth of Lobdaburg-Arnshaugk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Elisabeth of Meissen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Mathilde of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Beatrix of Silesia-Glogau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Albrecht III, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Beatrix of Silesia-Glogau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Frederick III of Sicily
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Elisabeth of Sicily
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Eleanor of Anjou
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Stefano Visconti
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Bernabò Visconti
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Valentina Doria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Maddalena Visconti
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Mastino II della Scala
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Beatrice Regina della Scala
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Taddea da Carrara
 
 
 
 
 
 

References[edit]

  • Mario Müller (Ed.): Kurfürst Albrecht Achilles (1414–1486). Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Burggraf von Nürnberg (Jahrbuch des Historischen Vereins für Mittelfranken, vol. 102), Ansbach 2014. ISSN 0341-9339.

Attribution:

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albert III.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 494–495.  Endnote: See
    • Das kaiserliche Buch des Markgrafen Albrecht Achilles, Vorkurfürstliche Periode, 1440–1470, edited by C. Höfler (Bayreuth, 1850)
    • Kurfürstliche Periode, edited by J. von Minutoli (Berlin, 1850)
    • Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des Hauses Hohenzollern, Band I., edited by C. A. H. Burkhardt (Jena, 1857)
    • O. Franklin, Albrecht Achilles und die Nuremberger, 1444–1453 (Berlin, 1866)
    • Politische Korrespondenz des Kurfürsten Albrecht Achilles, 1486, edited by F. Priebatsch (Leipzig, 1894–1898)
    • J. G. Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1835-1886).
Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg
Born: 9 November 1414 Died: 11 March 1486
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick I
Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1440–1486
Succeeded by
Frederick II
Preceded by
John "the Alchemist"
Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
1457–1486
Succeeded by
Siegmund
Preceded by
Frederick II
Elector of Brandenburg
1471–1486
Succeeded by
John Cicero

External links[edit]