Heavy whitish foam in urine. Swelling of the ankles, hands, belly or the face may occur.
The amount of protein being lost in the urine can be quantified by collecting the urine for 24 hours, measuring a sample of the pooled urine, and extrapolating to the volume collected.
Also a urine dipstick test for proteinuria can give a rough estimate of albuminuria. This is because albumin is by far the dominant plasma protein, and bromphenol blue the agent used in the dipstick is specific to albumin.
The kidneys normally do not filter large molecules into the urine, so albuminuria can be an indicator of damage to the kidneys or excessive salt intake. It can also occur in patients with long-standing diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes.
Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted.
- The nephrotic syndrome usually results in the excretion of about 3.0 to 3.5 grams per 24 hours.
- Nephritic syndrome results in far less albuminuria.
- Microalbuminuria (between 30 and 300 mg/24h, mg/l of urine or µg/mg of creatinine) can be a forerunner of diabetic nephropathy.
Though there is some evidence that dietary interventions (to lower red meat intake) can be helpful in lowering albuminuria levels, there is currently no evidence that low protein interventions correlate to improvement in kidney function.
- Page 291 in: Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. ISBN 978-1-58528-180-0. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Person—microalbumin level (measured) at Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 01/03/2005
-  Justesen, T.; Petersen, J.; Ekbom, P.; Damm, P.; Mathiesen, E. (2006). "Albumin-to-creatinine ratio in random urine samples might replace 24-h urine collections in screening for micro- and macroalbuminuria in pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care 29 (4): 924–925. doi:10.2337/diacare.29.04.06.dc06-1555. PMID 16567839.
- de Mello, V. D. F. et al. "Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83.5 (2006): 1032.
- Pan Yu et al. "Low-protein diet for diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2008): 660-666.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Albuminuria.|