Alcoa logo designed by Saul Bass in 1963
|Founded||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. (1888)|
|Founder||Charles Martin Hall|
|Headquarters||Lever House, Midtown Manhattan, New York City
(Operational base in Pittsburgh)
(Chairman and CEO)
|Products||Value-added products made of titanium, nickel and aluminum, as well as bauxite, alumina and primary aluminum|
|Revenue||$ 22.5 billion (2015)|
|$ 1.9 billion (2015)|
|$ -121 million (2015)|
|Total assets||$ 36.7 billion (2015)|
|Total equity||$ 14.3 billion (2015)|
Number of employees
|60,000 (December 2015)|
Alcoa Inc. (from Aluminum Company of America) is an American public company best known for its work with lightweight metals and advanced manufacturing techniques. The world's third largest producer of aluminum, behind Chinalco and Rusal, the company has corporate headquarters in New York City. From its operational base in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States, Alcoa conducts operations in 30 countries. It is one of the world's largest lightweight metal manufacturers of products made of aluminum, titanium and nickel. Alcoa’s products are used worldwide in aircraft, automobiles, commercial transportation, packaging, building and construction, oil and gas, defense, and industrial applications. Alcoa's products include fastening systems for the Airbus A380 jet, sheets for Ford's F-150 truck, and the first aluminum fan blade for Pratt & Whitney jet engines. Alcoa also supplies aerospace-grade aluminum produced in South Korea to Samsung Electronics for its Galaxy S6 and Galaxy S7 model line-up. Alcoa is a major producer of primary aluminum, fabricated aluminum, and alumina combined, through its participation in all major aspects of the industry: technology, mining, refining, smelting, fabricating, and recycling. As of 2015, the company has $36.7 billion in assets and 60,000 employees.
Its operations are made up of three business groups: Engineered Products and Solutions (EPS); Global Rolled Products (GRP); and Global Primary Products (GPP). EPS consists of five businesses: aerospace, gas turbines, building and construction, and commercial transportation. EPS mainly concerns the manufacturing operations, such as production of airfoils, fasteners and architectural systems. The GRP segment possesses two units: Global Packaging (producing beverage containers, industrial packing and foil); and Aerospace, Transportation and Industrial, which manufactures aluminum plates and sheets for these markets. The GPP manages the commodity segment, wherein the mining, refining, smelting and energy operations are run. The company's largest business unit, GRP, generated 31% of its revenue in 2014, while the EPS business made up 25%. The primary metals unit, or GPP, accounted for 28% of revenue, while the production of alumina contributed the remainder.
As of 2016, Alcoa will be split into two publicly traded entities, an aluminum commodity business and a higher-value manufacturing operations company. The former will keep the Alcoa name, while the latter's name is Arconic. While the aluminum company will possess five business units including bauxite and aluminum, the second entity's portfolio will comprise EPS, GRP and Transportation and Construction Solutions (TCS). The split is to be finalised by mid 2016. The "new Alcoa" consists of 64 facilities, a staff of roughly 17000 and a yearly revenue of $13.2 billion for 2014. The second company spans 157 sites and employs about 43000 workers, having a comparative revenue of $14.5 billion.
As of 2007, the company has undergone a divestment from primary aluminum, focusing on higher-profit value added metal products, such as aluminum sheets and titanium castings instead. Since that year, Alcoa has closed or sold 1.3 million tons of its smelting capacity (and will continue to do so), according to the Wall Street Journal. The change in strategy has produced a favourable turnaround, with the company seeing its best operating results since 2008, with a net profit of $368 million in 2014.
Alcoa owns several businesses, such as Kawneer and Howmet Castings. Rank Group Limited, a New Zealand-based company bought Alcoa's Packaging and Consumer businesses for $2.7 billion. The sale was announced on December 21, 2007, and closed in the first quarter of 2008. Alcoa was a member of the Dow Jones Industrial Average until 2013, when it was replaced by Nike.
- 1 History
- 2 Environmental record
- 3 Operations
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early History - Mining, Smelting and Manufacturing
In 1886, Charles Martin Hall, a graduate of Oberlin College, discovered the process of smelting aluminum affordably, almost simultaneously with Paul Héroult in France. He realized that by passing an electric current through a bath of cryolite and aluminum oxide, the then semi-rare metal aluminum remained as a byproduct. This discovery, now called the Hall-Héroult process, is still the only process used to make aluminum (however, see also Bayer process).
In 1887, Hall made an agreement to try his process at the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company plant in Lockport, New York, but it was not used and Hall left after one year. On Thanksgiving Day 1888, with the help of Alfred E. Hunt, he started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company with an experimental smelting plant on Smallman Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of Alcoa's first products was its aluminum tea kettle. Aluminum was selling for $2 a pound in 1890. In 1891, the company went into production in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. At this point the company began establishing its smelting and extraction businesses while also maintaining a solid manufacturing base in its New Kensington Works. 1894 saw the company buy its first small bauxite deposits in the state of Georgia; the company later expanded by buying deposits in Arkansas. By 1909, the U.S. government alleged Alcoa owned 90% of the country's economically viable bauxite deposits.
In 1895, a third site opened at Niagara Falls. In 1901, Alcoa began lightweighting automobiles. The Wright Brothers' first manned flight at Kitty Hawk was made with a plane containing an Alcoa aluminum engine block and crankcase, to save weight in order to accomplish the feat. By about 1903, after a settlement with Hall's former employer, and while its patents were in force, the company was the only legal supplier of aluminum in the US. By the turn of the century, worldwide aluminum output was just 8000 metric tons.
By 1902 New Kensington consisted of 173,000 sq. feet on 15 acres with 276 employees and the company operated hydropower and reduction plants in Niagara Falls, NY (1895), Shawinigan Falls, Quebec (1900), mining operations in Bauxite, AR (1901) and reduction facilities in East St. Louis, IL (1902). "The Aluminum Company of America" became the firm's new name on January 1, 1907. By this time, the company was producing 15 million lb of aluminum per year. The acronym "Alcoa" was coined in 1910, given as a name to two of the locales where major corporate facilities were located (although one of these has since been changed), and in 1999 was adopted as the official corporate name.
The company's expansion of operations to the Dutch and British Guianas during the early years of the twentieth century established the company as the "dominant actor" in the bauxite industry throughout the interwar period, being in control of the best deposits in the region. Alcoa operating in the British Empire's soil had to concede to an agreement with the British government, which consisted of accepting that bauxite from "public properties already leased" was to be placed at the government's disposal. An alumina refinery was built in Canada during the early 1930s to accommodate to these demands, wherein in case of an emergency the government would be able to seize the aluminum it needed. During WWII, this policy proved useful for the war effort, and some output from Alcan smelters was used.
From 1902 until 1915 additional plants in Massena, New York (1903); Alcoa, Tennessee (1911); Edgewater, New Jersey (1915); and Badin, North Carolina (1915) came online while New Kensington had 31 buildings in the complex housing six departments (tubes, sheets, rods, bar and wire, extrusion, jobbing, foil) and two subsidiaries (Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company and Aluminum Seal Company). In 1907 it created the "company town" of Pine Grove, New York, for workers outside Massena. In Badin, Alcoa, Maryville and elsewhere the company funded the construction of schools, parks, playgrounds and medical facilities. In 1910, Alcoa introduced its aluminum foil. By 1912, Alcoa had extensive holdings in Europe, including Norway, France, Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia, England and Germany.
By 1917, the US military used 90% of Alcoa's aluminum production for the war effort, producing equipment such as helmets, gas masks and identification tags. By the end of World War I Alcoa's New Kensington facility accounted for 3,292 workers—a fifth of the local population—and covered over 1 million square feet of manufacturing space on 75 acres. Alcoa had roughly half of the world's capacity in aluminum by 1928, signifying a total of approximately 150000 metric tons. At this time, a new holding termed Aluminum Limited of Canada, based in Montreal, was created to encompass all international operations of the company. It was later renamed Alcan in 1966. It retained an Alcoa management, and notably at this time both companies remained the world's two biggest aluminum producers.
During the interwar period, Alcoa purchased several European companies to exclude them from the American market. Amelia Earhart's plane during her last flight in 1937 was supplied by Alcoa. In 1938, the Justice Department charged Alcoa with illegal monopolization, and demanded that the company be dissolved. The case of United States v. Alcoa was settled six years later. During World War II, Alcoa built 20 plants in 3 years to meet the wartime demands. For instance, its Cleveland Works facility was put in place as part of the Air Force Heavy Press Program and still remains in use.
Notably, 5704 Alcoa Aluminum spandrels were used to build the Empire State Building. In 1952, Alcoa built the first aluminum-sheathed skyscraper in the U.S.; the Alcoa Building in Pittsburgh served as its headquarters. During the next 6 years, Alcoa aluminum-sheathed buildings across the U.S. numbered over 600. In 1955, Alcoa produced the first aluminum wheel for a passenger car, the Cadillac Eldorado. At the turn of the decade, in 1961, Alcoa of Australia was formed, with intentions of mining the country's vast bauxite reserves. Under the termed Mineral Lease, Alcoa developed mines along the Darling Range, extending from east of Perth to Collie. The first mine at Jarrahdale was opened in 1963. The Lease was reduced to 7129 km2 in 1994, and bioremediation of the unused areas began.
In 1962, Alcoa developed the first canned beer easy opener system, which was adopted by the Pittsburgh Brewing Company for its Iron City beer. Alcoa's Technical Center outside of Pittsburgh was founded three years later, becoming the company's light metals research center, still in operations to this day. October 1979 saw the incorporation of the Alcoa Recycling Company, at the time reprocessing 110 million pounds of scrap aluminum. As of 2015 it processes 1.3 billion pounds of scrap aluminum annually.
Alcoa purchased an 8% stake of Aluminium Corporation of China (Chalco) in 2001. It tried to form a strategic alliance with China's largest aluminum producer, at its Pingguo facility; however, it was unsuccessful. Alcoa sold their stake in Chalco on September 12, 2007, for around $2 billion. In 2001, Alcoa was selected as a component of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, featuring on it for 14 consecutive years.
In 2004, Alcoa's specialty chemicals business was sold to two private equity firms led by Rhône Group for an enterprise value of $342 million, which included the assumption of debt and other unfunded obligations. Rhône Group then changed the name to Almatis, Inc. Almatis has been operated by Dubai International Capital since 2007. This year saw the development of Alcoa's first aluminum beer bottle, also by Iron City.
In 2005 Alcoa acquired two major production facilities in Russia, at Samara and Belaya Kalitva. Also in that year, Alcoa began construction in Iceland on Alcoa Fjarðaál, a state-of-the-art aluminum smelter and the company's first greenfield smelter in more than 20 years, albeit under heavy criticism by local and international NGOs related to a controversial dam project exclusively dedicated to supplying electricity to this smelter. This dam is the largest concrete-face rock-fill embankment dam in Europe.
In 2006, Alcoa relocated its top executives from Pittsburgh to New York City. Although the company's principal office is located in New York City, the company's operational headquarters are still located at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh. Alcoa employs approximately 2,000 people at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh and 60 at its principal office in New York.
Alcoa was named one of the top three most sustainable corporations in the world at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. June 2007 saw the opening of the Alco Fjardaál greenfield smelter in Reydarfjordur, Iceland. In late 2007, Alcoa sold its automotive castings business to Compass Automotive Group.
In February 2007, it was reported BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto planned to make separate bids for Alcoa. In May, Alcoa announced a $27 billion hostile takeover bid for Alcan, in an attempt to form the world's largest aluminum producer. Alcan tried to take over Alcoa instead. BHP Billiton subsequently announced its bid to acquire Rio Tinto, after which Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) did as well. Rio Tinto reacted by bidding for Alcan, after which BHP and CVRD considered taking over Rio Tinto. In October, however, Rio Tinto's Alcan friendly takeover deal closed, wherein its $38.1 billion bid turned out to be 40% higher than Alcoa's original offer, the biggest in Canadian history. Alcoa thus withdrew its bid. In 2008, Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and Alcoa invested $1.2 billion to acquire 12% of Rio Tinto.
On January 9, 2014, Alcoa reached a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice over charges of bribing Bahraini officials. Under the terms of the settlement they will pay the SEC $175 million to settle the charges. To settle the criminal claims with the DOJ, Alcoa World Alumina (AWA, a company within Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals) is pleading guilty to one count of violating the anti-bribery provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). AWA will pay the DOJ $223 million in five equal installments over the next four years, bringing the company’s total bill for the scandal to $384 million. In February 2014, Bud Light introduced their new Alcoa aluminum reclosable 16-ounce bottles.
Appointment of Klaus Kleinfeld
On May 8, 2008, Klaus Kleinfeld was appointed CEO of Alcoa, succeeding Alain Belda, having sat on the board since 2003. He previously held the post of Siemens CEO, being credited with turning it to a "proper company". On April 23, 2010, Alcoa’s Board of Directors elected Kleinfeld to the office of Chairman, following Belda’s planned retirement. He has been credited with Alcoa's change in strategy since 2007, wherein the company is set to transition "toward higher value products". As part of this strategy, Alcoa is set to curtail its mining and smelting capacity, and instead focus on manufacturing high-end products for several markets. When Kleinfeld took over as CEO, aluminum sold for $3400 a ton; six months later it had dropped to $1100. In order to maintain profits, he prioritised developing products such as aluminum-lithium alloys, aluminum bottles, and high-tech fasteners, instead of maintaining the commodity aluminum business as it was.
Change in Strategy
In June 2010, Alcoa launched construction of its newest aluminum production facility as a joint venture with the Saudi Arabian Mining Company. The project includes a bauxite mine, a refinery, a smelter and a rolling mill. The new operations in Saudi Arabia have considerably lower costs (particularly energy, which is required in large amounts for the Héroult process) than those in Tennessee, Australia and Spain. On July 16, 2012, Alcoa announced that it would take over full ownership and operation of Evermore Recycling and make it part of Alcoa's Global Packaging group. Evermore Recycling is a leader in used beverage can recycling, purchasing more recycled cans than any other group worldwide. In June 2013, Alcoa announced it would permanently close its Fusina primary aluminium smelter in Venice, where production had been curtailed since June 2010.
Alcoa has been shifting from mining, smelting and refining to value added businesses such as the automotive and aerospace manufacturing industries. In June 2014, Alcoa purchased Firth Rixson, a UK-based jet engine component maker for $3 billion. Firth is the world's largest supplier of seamless rings for aero-engines. As part of this move, Boeing and Ford are said to have increased their utilisation of Alcoa's products in their manufacturing processes. The deal would enable Alcoa to make about 90% of the required mechanical parts of a jet engine. In July that same year, Alcoa announced a $1.1 billion 10-year supply deal, to supply jet engine parts to Pratt & Whitney. This will include the first lightweight aluminum alloy fan blade, developed by Alcoa for Pratt & Whitney's PurePower engines. They will also provide other engine products, such as vanes and castings. In March 2015, Alcoa acquired TITAL GmbH, a Bestwig-based German titanium and aluminum structural castings company employing 650 workers, with looks to tap onto the demand for advanced jet engine components. TITAL counts with clients such as Airbus and Rolls-Royce. Alcoa is also spending $60 million on a specialised 3D printing manufacturing center in its Pittsburgh facility, which will be used to research advanced techniques for large-scale 3D manufacturing. Alcoa is combining this technology with traditional processed such as forging, in order to build tools and prototypes.
In 2015, the company introduced its Micromill process, developed by researchers at Alcoa's New Kensington Technical Center and its flat-rolled products business. The aluminum alloy is made by "changing the microstructure of aluminum via a proprietary process"; consequently, automotive parts produced via this process are twice as malleable and 30% lighter compared to high-strength steel, as well as requiring just 20 minutes, half the energy, and a considerably smaller rolling mill to manufacture. The company will use this technology across its segments, such as automotive and aerospace. Another proprietary process designed by Alcoa is the Ampliforge process, combining additive manufacturing with subtractive manufacturing. For example, a metal part is designed and made by 3D printing, then treated by traditional methods such as forging, intended to increase the part's strength.
In March 2015, Alcoa announced a review of 14% of its global smelting capacity and 16% of its global refining capacity (about 500 thousand and 2.8 million tons respectively), cutting back its substantial global smelting operations, particularly in Brazil and Australia as part of that process. The company made acquisitions increasing its focus on aerospace products. For instance, in March 2015, Alcoa announced its purchase of RTI International Metals, which supplies titanium and whose customers include Boeing, for a total of $1.3 billion. RTI possesses production facilities in Niles and Canton, Ohio, and employs about 2600 people. In view of the projected increase in aerospace sales and automotive production worldwide, Alcoa sees its divestment from the commodity market per se as a reflective measure of the economy. The company posted a first-quarter net income in 2015 of $195 million, in great part impulsed by its new businesses, in contrast to its traditional aluminum smelting and refining segments. The price of titanium is expected to increase about 5% annually over the following 5 years, while the price of aluminum has decreased 30% since 2011.
Alcoa announced in September 2015 that it would split its operations into two different business entities. The split is projected to occur in the first half of 2016, wherein the legacy aluminum firm will retain the Alcoa name. Klaus Kleinfeld will become the unnamed entity's CEO while retaining his position as Alcoa's chairman throughout the transition. The legacy company's EBITDA for 2014 was $2.8 billion, while the new firm's amounted to $2.2 billion. Alcoa shareholders will possess stock in both companies. This move was part of a "long-predicted plan", according to the Financial Times, as only about a third of Alcoa's produced aluminium is used by its specialised manufacturing operations. Alcoa's board unanimously backed the split, which is in line with its recent acquisitions and divestments. Alcoa launched the new company in July 2016 under the name Arconic, with the tagline "Innovation. Engineered." It has a stand-alone website, www.arconic.com.
In February 1999, Alcoa cleaned soils and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and lead at the York Oil federal Superfund site in Moira, New York, in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency. The site, a former waste oil recycling storage facility, accepted waste oil from a number of companies, including Alcoa. The facility was improperly managed and operated and, as a result, soils on the York Oil Property and nearby wetlands sediments and groundwater were contaminated. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Superfund Unilateral Order on December 31, 1998, requiring Alcoa to excavate, treat and dispose of the contaminated wetland sediments.
In April 2003, Alcoa Inc. agreed to spend an estimated $330 million to install a new coal-fired power plant with state-of-the-art pollution controls to eliminate the vast majority of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from the power plant at Alcoa's aluminum production facility in Rockdale, Texas. The settlement was the ninth case the Bush administration pursued to bring the coal-fired power plant industry into full compliance with the Clean Air Act. Alcoa was unlawfully operating at the Rockdale facility since it overhauled the Rockdale power plant without installing necessary pollution controls and without first obtaining proper permits required by the "New Source Review" program of the Clean Air Act. The Political Economy Research Institute ranks Alcoa 15th among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States. The ranking is based on the quantity (13 million pounds in 2005) and toxicity of the emissions.
In 2005, Alcoa was named among the top 5 Green Companies in the world by Business Week Magazine. Alcoa reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 3.1 million metric tons in 2013. In July 2015, Alcoa became one of 13 U.S. companies that pledged "to stand with the American Business Act on Climate Pledge". As part of this pledge, Brian Deese stated in a press conference Alcoa would commit to reduce absolute emissions by 50% by 2020. Kevin McKnight, Alcoa’s chief sustainability officer and vice-president of environment, health and safety, said: "to de-carbonize the world is one of our objectives". Alcoa is aiming for a 100% reduction in landfilled waste by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. Since 2001, Alcoa has featured on the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices, part of the Dow Jones Global Indexes, for diminishing gas emissions, helping make engines more fuel efficient, its MicromillTM technology, and producing lighter wheels, among other actions.
Alcoa operates over 200 facilities in 30 countries, employing approximately 59000 workers worldwide. Its operations are made up of three business groups: Engineered Products and Solutions (EPS); Global Rolled Products (GRP); and Global Primary Products (GPP). Its EPS carries a portfolio of five businesses: aerospace, gas turbines, building and construction, and commercial transportation. EPS sees the production of airfoils for engines and turbines; fasteners for aerospace and the transportation industry; architectural systems such as walls and windows; forged aluminum vehicle wheels; and muli-material fabricated parts used in the automotive, aerospace, defense and oil industries. This segment, however, will be split into an aerospace segment and another centred on construction and commercial wheels. Aerospace market products will remain as part of EPS, while the new segment focused on building and transportation will be called TCS. The GRP segment possesses two units: Global Packaging, which produces beverage containers, industrial packing and foil in Brazil; and Aerospace, Transportation and Industrial, which mainly manufactures aluminum plates and sheets for these markets. Finally, the GPP manages the commodity segment, wherein the mining, refining, smelting and energy operations are run; the segment mines bauxite, then refined into alumina, and produces primary aluminum in turn used by the company's other segments or sold to customers or traders. This last segment also manages Alcoa's power facilities, generating about a fifth of its worldwide smelters' energy requirements.
Alcoa owns and operates the majority of its alumina refineries through its 60% share of Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals (AWAC). AWAC produces alumina from three refineries: Kwinana (Australia), Point Comfort (US) and San Ciprian (Spain). On January 3, 2003, Alcoa opened its new operations headquarters on the North Shore of Pittsburgh. This move came about after it donated its 50-year-old skyscraper headquarters in Downtown Pittsburgh to the Regional Development Authority, in what is now known as the Regional Enterprise Tower.
As of September 2015, Alcoa's legacy commodity business was split from its specialised manufacturing arm, creating a new corporate entity. When the break-up finalises, the aluminum company will possess five business units, including bauxite and aluminum; the second entity's portfolio consists of EPS, GRP and Transportation and Construction Solutions (TCS).
Americas and Caribbean
The majority of Alcoa's South American operations take place in Brazil, where there are both mining, smelting, refining and manufacturing facilities. Brazil sees the procurement of primary aluminum as well as the production of aerospace sheets and plates, tooling and accessories. Alcoa also managed extensive mining operations in Suriname, supported by its own hydroelectric plant there. As of November 2015, mining and refining operations would be idled. In 2015, Alcoa announced its closure of the Poços de Caldas primary aluminum smelter, as part of its product portfolio movement towards value-added products. This reduced its global smelting capacity to 3.4 million tons per year. In the first quarter of 2015, Alcoa's value-added light metal products, such as those for the automotive and aerospace markets accounted for 57.4% of its overall revenues.
In North America, Alcoa manages facilities in Canada, Mexico and the U.S. Canadian operations include primary aluminum, aluminum, copper-based and titanium metal components for defense, aerospace and commercial industries, as well as building products. Mexico holds a few production plants, such as for forged wheels, fasteners and tools. In the U.S., the company has a presence in over 20 states across all business groups.
Alcoa created a plant just outside Maryville in Blount County, Tennessee, which was the biggest provider of aluminum in the South. The area needed housing for workers, so Alcoa built many houses, schools, and other facilities. The area eventually turned into a city and the wife of Alcoa hydro-engineer James Rickey came up with the name Alcoa as an acronym for Aluminum Company of America. The name Alcoa was, therefore, created specifically to name the town Alcoa, Tennessee, which was founded in 1919. Over time, the name Alcoa was unofficially used to reference the company as well, including its first employee-created credit union in the state. The Aluminum Company of America officially changed its name to Alcoa, Inc. in 1999.
Alcoa's Massena West plant is the longest operating aluminum plant in world, having been in continuous operation since 1902. In November 2015, Alcoa temporarily idled the smelter at the West plant, but continued to operate the Forgings and Extrusions facilities. The Reynolds Aluminum Plant became Massena East when the companies merged in 2000. The facility was shut down permanently in 2015 as part of the idling of the West Plant.
Alcoa had a smelting plant in Badin, North Carolina from 1917 to 2007 and continued a hydroelectric power operation there. Alcoa also operated an aluminum smelting plant in Warrick County, Indiana, just east of Newburgh. Vectren Energy operates a coal power plant on the site to provide electricity. In January 2016, Alcoa announced the permanent closure of its Warrick Operations smelter in Indiana by the end of the first quarter, as a consequence of the drop in the Midwest transaction aluminum price. The company also announced a reduction in alumina production by one million metric tons by the second quarter 2016, which also includes reducing its refining capacity at Point Comfort, Texas. A rolling mill and power plant at Warrick will remain operational. Since 2007, Alcoa reduced its smelting capacity by 48%, and this last move will reduce its workforce by 1270 jobs. The Texas and Indiana closures are estimated to result in charges of approximately $170 million.
Alcoa formed the Alcoa Minerals of Jamaica subsidiary on the island in 1959, shipping their first load of bauxite in 1963 from Rocky Point. Later in 1972, Alcoa established a 500,000 metric tonne per year refinery where they processed bauxite into alumina. They have continued to upgrade the plant through the years, reaching a capability of 1.425 metric tonnes per year. In 1988 the Jamaican government gained a 50% share in the subsidiary and renamed the operation to Jamalco, Alcoa being the managing partner. Expansion of the operation in 2007 resulted in Alcoa owning a total of 55% of the operation. In October 2014, the company announced the sale of its portion the operations with Noble Group in Jamaica, citing high energy costs as their main reason for doing so. Under a compensated service agreement, Alcoa (through AWAC) will continue to manage Jamalco for 3 years.
EPS and GRP
Alcoa has a plant in Riverdale, Iowa, which was founded in 1947 on the banks of the Mississippi River. It is the company's aerospace supply plant and hub. It has produced metal parts for space vehicles, including Apollo 11. Notably, some of its aluminum is still found on the moon's surface. Its facilities in Iowa and Tennessee have undergone $300 and $250 million expansions respectively, in order to increase production of aluminum sheets for the automotive industry, for clients such as Ford Motor Company, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and General Motors. Alcoa implements its technologies like the Micromill TM at these facilities, with the company estimating an increase of $1.3 billion in 2018 in its automotive sheet revenue. Both facilities can move between automotive and can sheet production, depending on changing market demands, while also featuring large recycling facilities for automotive scrap. Alcoa's Micromill technology (used in the 2016 Ford F-150) is notable for manufacturing a coil of aluminum alloy in 20 minutes, as opposed to 20 days by using conventional manufacturing processes, while reducing a plant's size by 75%. An experimental micromill was set up in San Antonio, Texas to test the technology with Ford. The latter has exclusive North American rights for an undisclosed number of years.
Alcoa invests significantly in innovation and maintains several Research and Development Centers in the United States. The largest one, Alcoa Technical Center, is located East of its Pittsburgh Headquarters at New Kensington, Pennsylvania. The "Tech Center" is as large as some college campuses and has its own zip code. Alcoa's extensive safety program continuously improves safety at the Tech Center. After Paul O'Neill became Alcoa CEO in 1987, Alcoa became one of the safest companies in the world, despite the aluminum industry's inherent risks. The Tech Center has developed technology for the Samsung Galaxy smartphone.
The company announced in 2015 a $60 million expansion of their Pennsylvania R&D center, intended to boost their 3D printing capabilities for the automotive and aerospace sectors. It will also explore new aluminum, titanium and nickel alloys. It also announced two expansions at its Whitehall, Michigan location, a first one worth $16.7 million, and a second one worth $22 million, intended to invest in Hot isostatic pressing technology for its aerospace parts.
Alcoa makes tire rims for cars, buses, and vehicles. The rims for cars, buses, and vehicles are machined in Barberton, Ohio, and forged at Alcoa's plant in Cleveland, near the massive Arcelor Mittal steel plant. It also has offices in nearby Independence, Ohio. Alcoa also has a subsidiary called Alcoa Fastening Systems, which manufactures aerospace fasteners. AFS Headquarters is located in Torrance, California, and in France, with half of the manufacturing locations located in southern California and others located in Arizona, New York, France, Germany, China, Hungary, Mexico, UK and Morocco. AFS also compromises Sales and Distribution/Logistics.
In October 2014, Alcoa opened the world's largest aluminum-lithium plant in Lafayette, Indiana, which creates alloys for the aerospace industry. If forms part of Alcoa's three aluminum-lithium expansions (the others being the Alcoa Technical Center in Pittsburgh and the Kitts Green facility in the UK), at a cost of $90 million. Alcoa is currently the premier supplier of said alloy, and makes components for the Airbus A380, A350, Boeing 787 and Gulfstream G650.
Alcoa's operates in Africa mainly through Guinea and Morocco, through a bauxite mine in the former and aerospace manufacturing in the latter. In Morocco specifically, Alcoa manufactures fastening systems for the aerospace industry at its new Alcoa Fastening Systems department's Casablanca industrial park. Alcoa's affiliate in Ghana, the Volta Aluminum Company, was completely closed between May 2003 and early 2006, due to problems with its electricity supply.
In Guinea, Alcoa operates through Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinée (CBG), a consortium of aluminum companies including Alcan and Dadco, the other half of which is owned by the Guinean government. This consortium is known as Halco Mining. In 2006, Alcoa extracted 86300 tons of bauxite daily, used for consumer brands production, such as Reynolds wrap. Guinea has the largest bauxite deposits in the planet. CBG announced in May 2015 its plan to expand its production capacity to 23.5 million tons per day by 2018, at a cost of $1 billion.
Apart from its European headquarters in Switzerland, Alcoa operates in 13 countries, with significant mining and industrial holdings in Russia, Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, the UK, Spain, and France. These last four countries signify the bulk of the company's European operations. France counts with significant aerospace and building products manufacturing, as well as specialty products; similarly, Germany produces high value aerospace components, as well as more traditional automotive and industrial products, including rods, bars, tubes, bolts, pins and fasteners; Spain focuses on two operating segments, mainly construction via architectural aluminum systems, and primary aluminum productions; across the UK, Alcoa manufactures aerospace components, forgings, fasteners and bolts, castings, and notably armour and tooling.
In 2006, Alcoa and the government of Iceland signed an agreement on instigating a thorough feasibility study for a new 250,000 tpy (Tons Per Year) smelter in Bakki by Húsavík in Northern Iceland. In October 2011, the proposed project was dropped because "the power availability and proposed pricing would not support an aluminum smelter".
The Fjardaál smelter in eastern Iceland was completed in June 2007, and brought into full operation the following April. The plant processes 940 tons of aluminum a day, with a capacity of 346,000 metric tons a year, making it Alcoa's second largest capacity smelter. For power, the plant relies on the Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant, constructed and operated by the state owned Landsvirkjun specifically for the smelting operation. That project was subject to controversy due to its impact on the environment. Notably, Iceland's substantial energy surplus is used by its 3 aluminum smelters, owned by Rio Tinto and Alcoa, together producing up to 820 million tons a year.
On November 21, 2006, Alcoa announced that it planned to close the Waunarlwydd works in Swansea, with the loss of 298 jobs. Production ceased at the Swansea plant on January 27, 2007. A small site closure team worked at the site until the 31st December 2008. The site is still owned by Alcoa, but is now managed locally and renamed Westfield Industrial Park. Several of the large buildings are leased out to local businesses. Since 2013, Alcoa has been looking to sell three of its Spanish and French plants, in Amorebieta, Alicante and Castelsarrasin. As of January 2015, Alcoa is said to have found a buyer in Atlas Holdings.
EPS and GRP
Established shortly before World War II, the facility at Kitts Green, Birmingham, has produced many aluminium products. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the plant focused on flat-rolled products for the aerospace industry. As of 2007 the plant had 530 employees. Alcoa also owns a division in Exeter, known as Howmet Castings. The division here is home to a both an Alloy and Casting facility. As of 2015 the plant employed around 550 employees.
Alcoa first began commercial operations in Russia and opened an office in Moscow in 1993. Initially having tried, under Paul O'Neill, to purchase a Siberian smelter, the company refrained from doing so. It returned in 2005, under Alain Belda, to acquire two of the largest fabricating plants, both about 500 miles (800 km) from the capital. As of 2008, the Company employs approximately 7880 people at its manufacturing operations in Samara and Belaya Kalitva. Since 2005, the company's reported investments reached over $787 million in its Russian operations, including a complete modernization of production equipment and processes at its two plants. The plants produce a wide range of aluminum semi-fabricated products, including flat-rolled products, hard alloy extrusions and forgings for the packaging, aerospace, automotive, building and construction, commercial transportation, oil and gas and industrial markets. Both plants hace obtained the ISO 14001 standard. The Samara plant contains the world's largest forging and extrusion presses.
Throughout the rest of Asia, Alcoa counts with several mining and production facilities, primarily in China, India and Japan, albeit maintaining some activities in South Korea, Singapore, the UAE and other countries. Chinese operations are extensive, encompassing practically all of Alcoa's operating segments, including aerospace manufacturing, wheels and other engineered items production, logistics and trading. Prominently, Alcoa operates a fastening-systems facility in Suzhou (opened in 2006), and is an important supplier of aluminum products to Chinese aircraft manufacturers for their Boeing subcontracts, such as the Xian Aircraft Corporation Boeing 737 vertical-tail assemblies. India's participation mainly has to do with industrial production of items such as fasteners, thermal coatings and wires. Similarly, Japan produces elaborate aerospace components, castings and forgings, and holds a major sales hub.
Australia has some of the largest bauxite deposits in the planet, and as such is one of its largest miners, having produced 70 million tons of bauxite in 2010. Alcoa operates bauxite mines, alumina refineries and aluminum smelters through Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals, a joint venture between Alumina Limited and Alcoa. Alcoa operates two bauxite mines in Western Australia—the Huntly and Willowdale mines. Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals owns and operates three alumina refineries in Western Australia: Kwinana, Pinjarra, and Wagerup. The Wagerup expansion plans (increasing its refining capacity to 4.7 million tonnes a year) have been put on hold due to the Global Financial Crisis, and as of September 2015 these plans are still on hold. In 2015, Alcoa sent shipments of unprocessed Darling Range bauxite to overseas refineries for the first time, to assess its economic viability. This bauxite contains under 30% aluminum oxide.
GRP and EPS
Two aluminum smelters were also operated in the state of Victoria at Portland and Point Henry; the Point Henry smelter was closed in August 2014, together with its associated coal power station and two rolling mills; Alcoa subsequently contributed $5 million into the Geelong Region Innovation and Investment Fund. Alcoa Australia Rolled Products, a 100% Alcoa Inc. venture, operated two rolling mills. The Point Henry Rolling mill in Victoria and the Yennora rolling mill in N.S.W. had a combined rolling capacity of approx. 200,000 tonnes. Alcoa used 12,600 GWh or 15% of Victoria's electricity annually. The company's Portland aluminium smelter in Victoria and bauxite mining and refining operations in Western Australia are still operating.
Alcoa's Western Australian Wagerup plant has a troubled history in the context of claims that pollution from the plant has had an adverse impact on the health of members of the adjacent local community. Besides Australia's heavy aluminum mining, Alcoa operates several refineries and production plants, as well as a can reclamation facility and power plants.
In popular culture
Alcoa sponsored Edward R. Murrow's CBS program See It Now since 1951, at a weekly cost of about $50 thousand. This weekday night-time spot lasted until 1955, when Alcoa withdrew its support because of a controversial episode, although some argue it might have been for marketing reasons. This sponsorship was later portrayed in George Clooney's Academy Award–nominated film Good Night, and Good Luck.
During 1955-1957, NBC aired the anthology series titled The Alcoa Hour, for a total of 52 episodes. The show was sponsored by Alcoa and featured notable actors such as Ann Bancroft, Shelley Winters, Christopher Plummer and Lloyd Bridges.
In 1976, the Alcoa Can't Wait ad campaign began airing across TV and radio, with what was termed a "very catchy jingle". During 1981-1983 Alcoa sponsored the Fantastic Finishes, 30 second clips of game finishes during the final 2 minutes of NFL games on CBS and NBC.
Alcoa alloy wheel for Buses and Trucks.
Alcoa smelter in Mosjøen.
Bulkhead after pressing - Alcoa Forging Division, Cleveland.
- Orbe, Monica. "Alcoa Reports Fourth Quarter 2015 and Full-Year Results" (PDF). Alcoa. Alcoa. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- "FORM 10-K". UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549. SEC. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- "Gimme Smelter". The Economist. 2007-07-19. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
- Burns, Stuart. "Chinalco Knocks Off Rusal and Alcoa, Now King of the Aluminum Hill". MetalMiner. MetalMiner. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- GOLDWYN BLUMENTHAL, ROBIN. "Alcoa's CEO Is Remaking the Industrial Giant". Barron's. Barron's. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Carey, Nick. "Alcoa supplying aerospace aluminum for Samsung Galaxy 6 phones". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Almy mom coa Inc 2011 Annual Report, Form 10-K, Filing Date Feb 16, 2012" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Jones, Charisse. "Alcoa to split into 2 separate public companies". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Dulaney, Chelsey. "Alcoa to Split as Aluminum Glut Pressures Prices". WSJ. WSJ. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- MILLER, JOHN W. "Alcoa Considers Cutting More Smelting, Refining Capacity". Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- MILLER, JOHN W.; STYNES, TESS. "Alcoa Earnings Get Boost From Smelting Division Turnaround". Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Alcoa, Inc. "Form 8-K". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Mar 3, 2008" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Mark E. Schlesinger (1 November 2006). Aluminum Recycling. CRC Press. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-1-4200-0624-7.
- Ian McNeil (1 June 2002). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. Routledge. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-1-134-98165-6.
- Robin S. Gendron; Mats Ingulstad; Espen Storli (28 September 2013). Aluminum Ore: The Political Economy of the Global Bauxite Industry. UBC Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-7748-2534-4.
- Hachez-Leroy, Florence (2006). "Aluminum industry: a Heritage for Europe" (PDF). Proceedings, TICCIH Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
- Rosenbaum, David Ira (1998). Market Dominance: How Firms Gain, Hold, or Lose It and the Impact on Economic Performance. Praeger Publishers via Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 56. ISBN 0-275-95604-0. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
- "NPS Form - Historic Aluminum Resources of Southwestern PA" (PDF). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Matthew Evenden (25 June 2015). Allied Power: Mobilizing Hydro-electricity during Canada’s Second World War. University of Toronto Press. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-1-4426-1712-4.
- George David Smith (18 December 2003). From Monopoly to Competition: The Transformations of Alcoa, 1888-1986. Cambridge University Press. pp. 554–. ISBN 978-0-521-52709-5.
- Don Donaldson; Benny Raahauge (5 April 2013). Essential Readings in Light Metals, Alumina and Bauxite. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-1-118-64787-5.
- David Massell (27 January 2011). Quebec Hydropolitics: The Peribonka Concessions of the Second World War. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-7735-3781-1.
- Bret Wallach (1 May 2015). A World Made for Money: Economy, Geography, and the Way We Live Today. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-8032-9894-1.
- Alfred Dupont CHANDLER; Takashi Hikino; Alfred D Chandler (30 June 2009). Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Harvard University Press. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-674-02938-5.
- ZOLFAGHARIFARD, ELLIE. "Mystery of Amelia Earhart's disappearance may soon be solved: Metal analysis could prove she landed on Marshall Islands". Daily Mail. Daily Mail. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Gary Born (7 May 1996). International Civil Litigation in Us Courts:Commentary and Materials. Kluwer Law International. pp. 578–. ISBN 978-90-411-0972-9.
- Colin Gordon (29 July 1994). New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics in America, 1920-1935. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-521-45755-2.
- Metalcraft. Furniture Publishing Corporation. 1930.
- William Thomas Hogan (1971). Economic history of the iron and steel industry in the United States. Heath.
- Modern Metals. Modern Metals Publishing Company. 1955.
- Auto Driver. Counterpoint. 1956.
- Diane Langmore (2007). Australian Dictionary of Biography, 1981-1990. The Miegunyah Press. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-0-522-85382-7.
- M H Wong (21 April 1999). Remediation and Management of Degraded Lands. CRC Press. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-8493-4118-2.
- Aluminium. Aluminium-Verlag. 2004.
- Graham G. Stewart; Inge Russell; Fergus G. Priest (22 February 2006). Handbook of Brewing, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 560–. ISBN 978-1-4200-1517-1.
- Jay P. Pederson (8 December 1997). International Directory of Company Histories. Gale.
- "Alcoa to Combine UBC, Scrap Purchasing Operations". Recycling today. Recycling today. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Mar 5, 2002". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- "News: News Releases: Alcoa Sells Its Stake in Chalco; Will Continue Its Commitment to Chinese Aluminum Industry". Alcoa. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Sep 12, 2007" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Kai Lucks (27 June 2007). Transatlantic Mergers and Acquisitions: Opportunities and Pitfalls in German-American Partnerships. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-3-89578-612-9.
- "Alcoa, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Apr 23, 2004" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- "Oyak acquires Dutch Almatis". Daily Sabah. Daily Sabah. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 18, 2005" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 8, 2004". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher G. Morris (15 November 2013). Handbook of Energy: Chronologies, Top Ten Lists, and Word Clouds. Elsevier Science. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-12-417019-3.
- Boselovic, Len (2006-02-27). "Alcoa's HQ relocation to NYC no big surprise". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Mar 22, 2005" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 11, 2005" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Helga Kristjánsdóttir (3 December 2014). Economics and Power-intensive Industries. Springer. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-3-319-12940-2.
- Jack W. Plunkett (July 2008). Plunkett's Chemicals, Coatings & Plastics Industry Almanac 2009. Plunkett Research, Ltd. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-1-59392-125-5.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 7, 2007" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- "Alcoa, Form SC TO-T/A, Filing Date Jul 12, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Roger Cliff; Chad J. R. Ohlandt; David Yang (2011). Ready for Takeoff: China's Advancing Aerospace Industry. Rand Corporation. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-8330-5208-7.
- Ellis, Grant. "Alcan jumps on Rio Tinto's US$38B offer". Financial Post. Financial Post. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Bream, Rebecca; Simon, Bernard. "Rio Tinto in $44bn takeover of Alcan". Financial Times. Financial Times. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Rio Tinto Rejects BHP Billiton's All-Stock Offer". CNBC. Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Ian Jeffries (23 July 2010). Economic Developments in Contemporary China: A Guide. Routledge. pp. 517–. ISBN 978-1-136-96513-5.
- MARTELL, ALLISON. "Alcoa to pay $384 million to settle Bahrain bribery charges". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa Reaches Settlement With SEC And DOJ Over Bahraini Bribery Scandal". Forbes. January 9, 2014.
- Coyne, Justine. "Alcoa partners with Bud Light for new reclosable bottle". Pittsburgh Business Times. Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 13, 2008" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- DK Publishing (17 August 2009). 1000 CEOs. DK Publishing. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-0-7566-7057-3.
- "Alcoa, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Apr 27, 2010". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 3, 2013.
- Boselovic, Len. "Acquisition makes Alcoa a bigger player in aerospace industry". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Colvin, Geoff. "Alcoa: Giving new lives to an old product". Fortune. Fortune. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Whitworth, Joe. "'We can achieve our goals better alone without Alcoa restrictions' - Novelis". FoodProduction daily. FoodProduction daily. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Alcoa permanently closes Italian aluminium smelter, South Africa: Mining Weekly, 2013
- Thryft, Ann R. "Alcoa's Micromill Process, Alloy Could Change Car Manufacturing". DesignNews. DesignNews. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Saintvilus, Ruchard. "How Alcoa's Titanium-Coated Acquisition Can Boost Its Aerospace Strategy". TheStreet. TheStreet. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa in $1.1 Billion Jet Engine Deal with Pratt & Whitney". IndustryWeek. AFP. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa (AA) to Acquire Germany-Based TITAL". Street Insider. Street Insider. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Vanian, Jonathan. "Alcoa makes a big bet on 3D printing". Fotune. Fotune. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Coyne, Justine. "Why Alcoa says aluminum demand has never been stronger". Pittsburgh Business Times. Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Carey, Nick. "Ford F-150 to get Alcoa's Micromill aluminum parts starting Q4". Yahoo Finance. Yahoo Finance. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Thryft, Ann R. "Alcoa Invents 3DP Materials & Processes for Aerospace End-Products". Design News. Design News. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Alcoa Mulls More Capacity Cuts". Industry Week. AP. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa Posts Profit on Shift in Operations". New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- LaFrentz, Rob. "Alcoa Buys Specialty Metals Company RTI International". Industry Week. Industry Week. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Nasr, Reem. "Alcoa to split into two separate publicly traded companies". CNBC. CNBC. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Picker, Leslie. "Alcoa to Split Into 2 Companies". NYT. NYT. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Crooks, Ed. "Alcoa splits into mining and metal groups". Financial Times. Financial Times. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Alcoa wins $1.1 billion contract for Lockheed's F-35 fighter jets". Reuters. 7 October 2015.
- "Alcoa To Carry Out EPA's Order and Expand Cleanup at Superfund Site in Moira, New York To Contaminated Wetlands Sediments | Newsroom | US EPA". Yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- Arnold W. Reitze (2005). Stationary Source Air Pollution Law. Environmental Law Institute. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-1-58576-091-6.
- "U. S. Announces Clean Air Act Coal-fired Power Plant Settlement with Alcoa - Settlement Will Reduce Nitrogen Oxide and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Facility by More than 90 P". Yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- "Political Economy Research Institute - Toxic 100". Peri.umass.edu. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- Andrew J. Hoffman (2007). Carbon Strategies: How Leading Companies are Reducing Their Climate Change Footprint. University of Michigan Press. pp. 19–. ISBN 0-472-03265-8.
- Cable, Josh. "Alcoa Reports 'Safest, Most Environmentally Efficient Year on Record'". EHDToday. EHDToday. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Kasperkevic, Jana; Thielman, Sam. "Thirteen US companies sign on to White House climate change pledge". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Jones, Tanya. "Active Stocks In The Spotlight: General Mills, Inc.(NYSE:GIS), Alcoa Inc (NYSE:AA)". JBH News. JBH News. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Chang, Lyv. "Alcoa charts growth plan in line with China". China Daily. China Daily. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Jeana Wirtenberg Ph.D. (27 January 2014). Building a Culture for Sustainability: People, Planet, and Profits in a New Green Economy. ABC-CLIO. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-4408-0377-2.
- O'Hara, Mark. "Key Takeaways from Alcoa's 1Q 2015 Earnings". Market Realist. Market Realist. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- LAZENBY, HENRY. "Alcoa to split downstream business segments as its value-add portfolio expands It is our preference that if you wish to share this article with others you should please use the following link: http://www.miningweekly.com/article/alcoa-to-split-downstream-business-segments-as-its-value-add-portfolio-expands-2015-07-24". Mining Weekly. Mining Weekly. Retrieved 25 September 2015. External link in
- Aluminium. Aluminium-Verlag. 2006.
- STEMconnector® (24 February 2015). Advancing a Jobs-Driven Economy: Higher Education and Business Partnerships Lead the Way. Morgan James Publishing. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-1-63047-543-7.
- Menton, Jessica. "Apple Inc, Alcoa Inc And Caterpillar Inc: 3 US Companies Hurt Most By China's Devalued Yuan". International Business Times. International Business Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- IBP, Inc. (6 May 2015). African Countries Mineral Industry Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Regulations. Lulu.com. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-1-329-09110-8.
- Kirkland, Zach. "Alumina Limited Rating Increased to Outperform at Macquarie (AWCMY)". WKRB. WKRB. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- ZHOROV, IRINA. "Pittsburgh's modernist past has lessons for today's urban renewal". Keystone Crossroads. Keystone Crossroads. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Nonferrous metals : industry structure. DIANE Publishing. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-4289-2198-6.
- "UPDATE 1-Alcoa to stop production at Suriname refinery". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- BEILFUSS, LISA. "Alcoa to Close Smelter in Brazil". Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Trefis, Team. "Alcoa Closes Brazilian Smelter As Part Of Ongoing Portfolio Transformation Process". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Mark Musielak; Patricia Starr; William A. Lewis (2010). The Blue Book of Canadian Business. Canadian Newspaper Services International.
- David R. Duggan; George Williams (2011). Alcoa. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-7385-8781-3.
- "Name Change". SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- "Alcoa to idle smelter at Massena's Alcoa West, will not modernize east plant in spite of deal with state". North Country Now. North Country Now. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "About Badin Works". Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
- Anton H. Maria; Ronald C. Counts (1 January 2008). From the Cincinnati Arch to the Illinois Basin: Geological Field Excursions Along the Ohio River Valley. Geological Society of America. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-8137-0012-0.
- "Alcoa to Close Warrick Smelter and Curtail Remaining Capacity at Pt. Comfort Refinery". Alcoa. Alcoa. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Miller, John W. "Alcoa to Close Indiana Plant, Idle Another in Texas". Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Mining World. Miller Freeman Publications. 1963.
- Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica. The Society. 1980.
- United Nations. Dept. of Technical Cooperation for Development; Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung (1992). Mining and the environment: the Berlin guidelines : a study based on an International Round Table in June 1991. Mining Journal Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-900117-56-5.
- Helps, Horace. "UPDATE 1-Alcoa to sell Jamaica mining interests to Noble". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- United States. Bureau of Mines (1979). Statistical Appendix to Minerals Yearbook. U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Mimi Sheller (2014). Aluminum Dreams: The Making of Light Modernity. MIT Press. pp. 365–. ISBN 978-0-262-02682-6.
- Aerospace Year Book. American Aviation Publications. 1967.
- Science Journal. IPC Business Press Limited. 1969.
- Flessner, Dave. "Alcoa completes $300 million expansion to boost aluminum output for auto industry". TimesFreePress. TimesFreePress. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Priddle, Alisa. "Ford-Alcoa partner on new aluminum for vehicles". Detroit Free Press. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Fortune Video. "Alcoa finds value in innovation". Fortune. Fortune. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- David A. Colling (1 February 1990). Industrial safety: management and technology. Prentice Hall.
- Nathan Crutchfield; James Roughton (7 August 2013). Safety Culture: An Innovative Leadership Approach. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-12-397217-0.
- Fast Company magazine Jul 1, 2009 - Note: Dubious Source
- Coyne, Justine. "Alcoa's Pittsburgh scientists help Samsung build a stronger phone". Pittsburgh Business Times. Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Trefis, Team. "Alcoa's Strategic Shift Towards Value-Added Products". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa plans new R&D center for advanced 3D printing processes". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Champion, Brandon. "Alcoa investing $22 million into aerospace technology at Whitehall facility". Michigan live. Michigan live. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Alcoa Fastening Systems: Manufacturer of Fasteners for the Aerospace and Commercial Transportation Industries". Alcoa.com. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- Kruczek, Alexandra. "Alcoa: New jobs with opening of world's largest aluminum-lithium plant". 18wlfi. 18wlfi. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Larmandieu, Violaine. "Morocco's fast-rising aviation industry spreads its wings". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Aluworks limited (ALW) – Half year best performing stock July, 2006
- "Alcoa in Ghana: News: News From Ghana: Alcoa, Government of the Republic of Ghana Agree to Re-Start Valco Smelter". Alcoa.com. 2005-08-04. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- Chernoh Alpha M. Bah (6 March 2014). Neocolonialism in West Africa. iUniverse. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-1-4917-2626-6.
- Prospects for peace in Guinea : hearing. DIANE Publishing. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-1-4223-2331-1.
- Felix, Bate. "Guinea bauxite miner CBG plans $1 bln expansion to meet demand". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Directory of Corporate Affiliations. National Register Publishing Company. 2007.
- Hubert Bonin; Ferry de Goey (2009). American Firms in Europe: Strategy, Identity, Perception and Performance (1880-1980). Librairie Droz. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-2-600-01259-1.
- "Alcoa drops Iceland smelter plan". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- EDMONDS, SARAH. "Aluminium smelters generate hot debate in Iceland". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Tange, Alexander. "Iceland's energy production and data capacities". The Fiscal Times. The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Youle, Richard. "'100 jobs' in line for ex-Alcoa plant in Waunarlwydd". South Wales Evening Post. South Wales Evening Post. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Takeover saves Swansea steel plant". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Eade, Christine (2008-04-18). "Alcoa sells vacant factory for £13m | Markets - print". Property Week. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- "Alcoa eyes sell-off of Spanish production sites". The Local. AFP. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "CC OO reclama a la dirección de Alcoa un plan de viabilidad para sus tres plantas españolas". La Voz de Avilés. La Voz de Avilés. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Angel, Marina. "Atlas holding reprend Alcoa France et deux sites de laminage en Espagne". L'Usine Nouvelle. L'Usine Nouvelle. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Case study – Alcoa University of Lancaster Business School
- "Dozens of jobs 'at risk' at Alcoa Howmet". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Aluminium. Aluminium-Verlag. 2005.
- Graham, Ann. "The Thought Leader Interview: William J. O'Rourke". strategy+business. strategy+business. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Alcoa в России - Алкоа Россия. Крупнейший производитель алюминиевых полуфбрикатов в России и странах СНГ". Alcoa.ru. 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- Geological Survey (U S ) (13 November 2012). Minerals Yearbook: Area Reports International Review 2010 Africa and the Middle East. Government Printing Office. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-4113-3174-7.
- Jimmy Hexter; Jonathan Woetzel (30 December 2013). Operation China: From Strategy to Execution. Harvard Business Press. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-1-4221-6341-2.
- Douglas M. Considine; Glenn D. Considine (11 December 2013). Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-4757-6918-0.
- Klinger, Peter. "Alcoa considers Wagerup option". The West Australian Regional. The West Australian Regional. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Treadgold, Tim. "Could Alcoa move refining offshore?". BN Western Australia. BN Western Australia. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Alcoa announces closure of Port Henry aluminium smelter". The Age. 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
- Validakis, Vicky. "85 jobs cut as Alcoa closes mine and power station". Australian Mining. Australian Mining. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Alcoa urged to access Geelong Region Innovation Investment Fund to help displaced Anglesea workers". ABC. ABC. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Smelter power deals". The Age. 2010-03-02. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- STRINGER, DAVID; ELMQUIST, SONJA. "Alcoa to shut aluminium smelter and rolling mills in Australia". Business Day live. Business Day live. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Something in the Air.". Australian Broadcasting Commission - ABC Four Corners. 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2009-12-24.[dead link]
- "Alcoa pleads not guilty over Wagerup dust.". Australian Broadcasting Commission - ABC News. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2009-12-24.[dead link]
- "Alcoa says health complaints 'unfounded'.". Australian Broadcasting Commission - ABC News. 2009-12-06. Retrieved 2009-12-24.
- Geological Survey (U S ) (October 2011). Minerals Yearbook: Area Reports: International 2009: Asia and the Pacific. Government Printing Office. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-1-4113-2974-4.
- Seeing it Now: A Reconsideration of Form in American Television Documentary. ProQuest. 2007. pp. 244–. ISBN 978-0-549-32177-4.
- George David Smith (18 December 2003). From Monopoly to Competition: The Transformations of Alcoa, 1888-1986. Cambridge University Press. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-0-521-52709-5.
- "Vintage Alcoa TV commercial --- "Aluminum for the farmer"". Alcoa. Alcoa. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Time Inc (3 April 1970). LIFE. Time Inc. pp. 62–. ISSN 0024-3019.
- Thomas P. Hustad (3 May 2012). Born to Play: The Ruby Braff Discography and Directory of Performances. Scarecrow Press. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-8108-8265-2.
- fueling the future: on the road to the hydrogen economy. DIANE Publishing. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-4223-3282-5.
- Official website
- Alcoa companies grouped at OpenCorporates
- Alcoa Video and Audio on MarketWatch
- Top Companies of the Decade From Business Week magazine
- The Bad Neighbor: Alcoa's Dirty Dealings in Texas From Dollars & Sense magazine.
- Russia dethrones U.S. metals king
- Something in the Air - The Clash Between a Giant Industry that makes an essential product and a small community dogged by illness and struggling for survival
- Protesters plan to lodge Supreme Court writ over Alcoa smelter
- Alcoa expands despite toxins
- Ford F-150 aluminum testing video
- Micromill explained