|Born||Aldo Da Re
September 25, 1926
Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||March 27, 1991
Martinez, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Throat cancer, pneumonia|
Aldo Ray (born Aldo Da Re; September 25, 1926 – March 27, 1991) was an American actor.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Final years and death
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Selected filmography
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Ray was born Aldo Da Re in Pen Argyl in Northampton County in eastern Pennsylvania, to an Italian family with five brothers (Mario, Guido, Dante, Dino and Louis) and one sister (Regina). (His brother, Mario Da Re (1933–2010), lettered in football at USC in the years 1952 to 1954, and on May 12, 1955 appeared as a contestant on the NBC quiz show You Bet Your Life hosted by Groucho Marx.) His family moved to the small town of Crockett in northern California when Aldo was four years old; his father worked as a laborer at the C & H Sugar Refinery, the largest employer in the town. He attended John Swett High School, where he made the football team; he also coached swimming.
In 1944, at age 18, during World War II, Aldo entered the United States Navy, serving as a frogman until 1946; he saw action at Okinawa with UDT-17. Upon leaving the Navy in May 1946 he returned to Crockett. He studied and played football at Vallejo Junior College, then entered the University of California at Berkeley to study political science. (Ray later described himself as an "arch conservative" and a "right winger".) He left college in order to run for the office of Constable of the Crockett Judicial District in Contra Costa County California. "I always knew I was going to be a big man but I thought it was going to be in politics", he said.
Acting career: Saturday's Hero
In April 1950 Columbia Studios sent a unit to San Francisco to look for some athletes to appear in a film they were making called Saturday's Hero (1951). Aldo's brother Guido saw an item on the San Francisco Chronicle about the auditions and asked his brother to drive him there. Director David Miller was more interested in Ray than his brother because of his voice; also, Ray was comfortable talking to the camera due to his political experience. He later recalled, "They...said 'What's wrong with your voice kid? Are you sick? If you're sick you don't belong here.' I said, 'No, no, no, this is the way I've always spoken.' And they loved it." Ray would later retell this story in the trailer for Pat and Mike.
Ray worked on the film between the primary and general elections. He was elected constable on 6 June. "I was 23 and a sort of child bride to the voters", he later said. "The guy I ran against was a 16-year incumbent, and I destroyed him with 80 percent of the vote! I was going to work my way up to the U.S. Senate, see, and I would've, too."
Columbia picked up their option on Ray's services, and signed him to a seven-year contract. "Of all the people in the picture they took up only one option – mine", he said. "And I said, 'thank you, good bye. I'm going home where I can be a big fish in my small pond. You can take this town (Hollywood) and shove it."
Columbia refused to release him from his contract and put him under suspension, giving him a leave of absence to work as constable. "I told them I couldn't care less, they could give me whatever they wanted", he said. Ray started his new job in November 1950.
Hollywood stardom: The Marrying Kind
After several months Ray found "the quiet life... monotonous", so he contacted Max Arnow, talent director at Columbia, and expressed interest in appearing in more movies. Four weeks later Arnow called back, saying Columbia wanted to audition Ray for a small part in Judy Holliday's new movie, The Marrying Kind.
Ray went to Hollywood and did a screen test with the director, George Cukor. The first test went badly but head of Columbia Harry Cohn liked Ray and asked for another test. The second one was done opposite Jeff Donnell, who Ray later married; it was more successful and Ray ended up being cast in the lead.
Harry Cohn felt the name "Aldo Da Re" was too close to "Dare" and wanted to change it to "John Harrison"; the actor refused and "Aldo Ray" was the compromise. He divorced his wife and resigned as constable in September 1951. His wage was $200 a week.
Cukor famously suggested that Ray go to ballet school because he walked too much like a football player. The director later talked about the actor:
He has a great advantage: the way his eyes are made. The light comes into them. There are certain people who have opaque eyes which refuse to catch the light. But his eyes had a certain glow and gave quite well in the photographed result. He did this silent scene very well lying there on the bed in the same room with Judy (Holliday). Then later he did comedy scenes with her–very difficult ones–and there were also emotional sequences where he broke down and cried. They were brilliant.
"Cukor is hypersensitive to reality", recalled Ray. "He told me exactly what to do and why. He explains everything and he knows exactly what he wants." Ray's performance was much praised. Sight and Sound later wrote:
To give the performance he did in The Marrying Kind after so little previous experience was clear evidence that in Aldo Ray the screen had discovered one of its rare "naturals". This was no carefully edited, tricked out performance, but a strikingly sincere and imaginative interpretation: an exceptional talent responding to a finely intuitive director... There was about him none of the personality assurance that extracts a special consideration of the actor as distinct from his role.
Cukor then cast Ray in a support role in Pat and Mike, starring Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn. Ray's work in Pat and Mike led to his nomination, along with Richard Burton and Robert Wagner, for a Golden Globe as Best Newcomer. Burton won the award that year, but Ray's career was launched. He says after two films with Cukor "I never needed direction again."
Ray said Spencer Tracy told him, "'Kid, I don't know what it is that you got, and I got, and some of us have, but you can work in this business forever.' That made me feel good, you know, coming from a guy like him. I never bowed down to anybody at Columbia or anywhere else, but my overall idea was, I'll do whatever they tell me because it's their business, not mine, and I've got to learn it."
Columbia leading man
Columbia Pictures head Harry Cohn liked Ray and wanted him for the role of Private Robert Prewitt in From Here to Eternity (1953) but Fred Zinnemann insisted Montgomery Clift be cast. However other good roles followed instead. ""Because of Harry, all my first pictures were big hits, tremendously popular", Ray recalled.
In 1953, he starred opposite Jane Wyman in Let's Do It Again, then followed this acting opposite Rita Hayworth in Miss Sadie Thompson (1953), a remake of the W. Somerset Maugham story Rain. He also appeared in a production of Stalag 17 at La Jolla Playhouse.
Ray was loaned to Warner Bros to appear in Battle Cry (1955). This was directed by Raoul Walsh who would be one of Ray's favourite directors. The film was a big hit at the box office – probably the most popular movie Ray ever made – although it led to him being typecast.
"In some ways the tough soldier role locked me in", reflected Ray later. "There were no sophisticated roles for me. I never seemed to get past master sergeant, though I always thought of myself as upper echelon."
Clash with Columbia
Battle Cry was a big hit at the box office so Columbia gave Ray a lead role as a sergeant who marries a Japanese girl in Three Stripes in the Sun (originally The Gentle Wolfhound), then loaned him to Paramount for We're No Angels (1955), in which he starred with Humphrey Bogart, Peter Ustinov, Basil Rathbone, Leo G. Carroll, and Joan Bennett.
Ray was profiled in Sight and Sound which said:
Aldo Ray's technical advance in the four years since The Marrying Kind enables him now to work in subtler, more economical degree; there is an authoritative reserve- and, still remarkably intact, the original rare lack of ostentation. All the same, his career seems to have become a nomadic drifting round the studios looking for the right kind of film. The good humour, the lenitive smile, the frog in the throat voice betray nothing of the disappointment the actor must feel after such exciting beginnings under Cukor's guidance.
Ray was meant to appear in Jubal but refused, because Columbia had made a profit on his loan outs for Battle Cry and We're No Angels but not paid Ray a bonus; Rod Steiger took the role instead. Ray was put on suspension.
Ray then refused to appear in Beyond Mombassa because he did not want to go on location. This led to him being replaced by Cornel Wilde and put under suspension again. However the situation was resolved when he agreed to make Nightfall (1957), playing an artist who encounters a pair of ruthless bank robbers.
In 1956, in between appearances in Three Stripes In The Sun and Men in War, Ray tried his hand at radio, working as a personality and announcer at Syracuse, New York hit music station WNDR. A photo of Ray with a colleague in the WNDR studios, taken as part of a station promotional package, survives and can be found on a WNDR tribute website, although it's not known if any aircheck tapes of his radio shows still exist. By 1957, in any event, he had left WNDR and the radio business and returned to Hollywood.
Two with Anthony Mann
Columbia loaned out Ray to Security Pictures (who released through United Artists) to appear in Men in War (1957), opposite Robert Ryan; it was directed by Anthony Mann, who became Ray's favourite director. Ray was given 5% of the profits which he later estimated at having earned him $70,000.
Ray was reunited with Security Pictures, Ryan and Mann to star in God's Little Acre (1958), an adaptation of Erskine Caldwell's controversial novel directed by Mann, starring Robert Ryan and Tina Louise.
By the seventh year of his contract with Columbia Ray was earning $750 a week. He later said for the first ten years of his career he made less than $100,000. He expressed interest in producing his own vehicle, The Magic Mesa from a script by Burt Kennedy, but it was not made.
Aldo Ray was drunk the entire time. He was a very sweet guy, but he was gone. He drank drank drank. Raoul Walsh would say, "Let's get him in the morning cause in the afternoon it's over."... I just could not get used to it, actors who got all this money and then didn't behave professionally. The English actors have classical training. They perform like professionals. You take someone like Aldo Ray who was just picked up and catapulted into stardom, and then he was just a sponge for booze. He killed himself drinking, not living up to his moral contract.
Ray later admitted producers were scared off casting him in projects due to his drinking.
Ray had been popular with Harry Cohn because, in the actor's words, "He took no shit from anybody and he saw that I was that kind of a guy, too." But when Cohn died in 1958, Columbia elected not to renew Ray's contract and he decided to leave Hollywood. He later said "I never was an expatriate. I spent some time in England and Spain and Italy but I was never out of this country [the US] longer than six months."
He starred in 1959 in Four Desperate Men (The Siege of Pinchgut), filmed in Australia; it was the last movie produced by Ealing Studios (releasing through MGM), and a box office disappointment. He then appeared opposite Lucille Ball in an episode of Desilu Playhouse. He said he made more money from these two projects "than I'd made the whole eight years before."
In 1959, Ray was cast as Hunk Farber in the episode, "Payment in Full" of the NBC western series, Riverboat. In the story line, Farber betrays his friend and employer to collect reward money, which he uses to court his girlfriend, Missy.
Ray made The Day They Robbed the Bank of England in England and Johnny Nobody in Ireland. He later described his British sojourn as a "big mistake" because none of his British films were widely seen in America.
"Everything went well until the end of '62 – then everything collapsed – including me", he later said. "I didn't take care of myself physically and mentally."
He hired a press agent, started taking better care of himself physically and changed agents.
Return to Hollywood
Ray returned to Hollywood in 1964. He had a small role in Sylvia (1965) and made a pilot for a TV series financed by Joe E. Levine, Steptoe and Son (an unsuccessful adaptation of the British TV series). "I feel I shall have a complete regeneration of my career", he said in 1965.
In 1966 Ray claimed that "I've been turning down a lot of TV and B movies. I won't consider anything but important roles in important pictures." He said he was "almost independently wealthy" having saved and invested wisely in real estate from the times when his fee was $100,000 a film. He was interested in returning to politics but not until he had made "at least" four more movies. "The ideal situation would be three films every two years."
He formed his own company, Crockett Productions, and bought two original scripts that were not made: Soldares, by Edwin Gottlieb, about the search for Pancho Villa; and Frogman, South Pacific, by William Zeck.
As the 1960s ended, Hollywood's appetite for Ray's machismo started to wane. Though he worked steadily in the 1970s, the quality of his roles diminished, and he was typically cast as gruff and gravelly rednecks.
In 1976 he said he was broke. He blamed this on his ex-wives and red tape that meant he could not develop his real estate properties. "I lost it all", he said. "And I am very very bitter about it.... The biggest mistake I ever made was discovering women. I only wish society had been as free and easy when I was coming along as it is today because if that had been the case I wouldn't have been married. Three women in my life utterly destroyed me."
In 1979, Ray appeared in a pornographic movie, Sweet Savage, in a non-sexual role. Ray said later:
I wanted, I guess, to see what it was all about--a kind of half-assed adventure, you know? It was also a kind of vacation for me in a bad time--a nice location in Arizona--and I picked up a few thousand bucks. After it came out, a few people wagged their fingers at me--'Oh-ho-ho, you dirty dog'--but I knew I hadn't done anything wrong. They shot all the sex stuff after I'd flown back to L.A. I won the adult film Oscar for that, by the way, but somebody copped it.
In 1981 Ray told a newspaper that his drinking was "under control" and "I think things are going to shoot straight up. I'm working on a deal now and if the picture is made my worries... are over... If things go the way I anticipate and I stay healthy I think I've got better years ahead of me than behind me." He said he was open to a return to politics "if my movie career doesn't take off like I think it will." He admitted being unhappy with his career saying "I think I should have gotten more good stuff."
His career decline accelerated in the 1980s, and after being diagnosed with throat cancer, he accepted virtually any role that came his way to maintain his costly health insurance. He returned to Crockett in 1983.
He made a number of films for Fred Olen Ray. "He'd give me $1000 in cash, pay my expenses, and I'd do a day's work", said Ray. "Somebody showed me one of his cassettes--'starring Aldo Ray'--but it was just a one-day job.... I needed money at the time, and Fred knew I needed a buck, so I did it. He exploited me, yeah, but I was ripe for it."
Final years and death
In 1986 Ray's SAG membership was revoked when it was discovered he was acting in a non-union production, Lethal Injection. However Ray still got his union pension and benefits. His fee at this stage was $5,000 a week.
In 1989 he was diagnosed with a malignant tumor.
I regret that I don't have more control of my tongue and thoughts--because I speak too frankly and too honestly, and this world is not meant for frank and honest people. They don't mix. Reality is pretty phony... I'm in great shape--got all my energy and strength back. I had surgery on my neck last March, and after one more session of the chemo--that's 50 more hours--the doctors say I'll have it all beat. . .I'm not scared of dying--it's how I die that matters. I'd rather live one good year than ten crappy years. And I think I've got some good pictures ahead of me if I can find the right roles. There's plenty of good stuff left in me, you know?
Ray remained in Crockett, with his mother and family and friends. On 19 February 1991 he was admitted to the Veterans Administration Hospital in Martinez, 40 miles east of San Francisco. He died of complications from throat cancer and pneumonia on 27 March. He was cremated and buried in Crockett, with a majority of the residents coming out to pay their respects.
Ray was married several times:
- Shirley Green. They had one child, a daughter named Claire.
- Jeff (real name, Jean) Donnell (married 30 September 1954, divorced 1956)
- British actress Johanna Bennet (married 1960, divorced 1967), who continues to work today under the name Johanna Ray, as a respected casting director. They had two sons and a daughter. Johanna Ray, a longtime collaborator with David Lynch, cast her son Eric Da Re with Aldo in Lynch's Twin Peaks series, as well as the movie Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me.
Author Richard Matheson said that his best-known work, The Incredible Shrinking Man, was inspired by a scene in Aldo Ray's Let's Do It Again in which a character puts on someone else's hat and it sinks down past his ears; "I thought, what if a man put on his own hat and that happened?" he recounted in an interview for Stephen King's non fiction work Danse Macabre.
The Crockett Museum has a display depicting his life.
A profile in Movie Morlocks analysed Ray's appeal from the film Nightfall:
Nobody smokes a cigarette like Aldo Ray. There's no forethought involved. No effort to seduce or impress audiences with an exaggerated pose or gesture. Ray doesn’t have to pretend to be cool, threatening, bruised, battered or tough. He just is. And I find every unassuming gesture he makes utterly captivating. Aldo Ray has never been considered a great Hollywood actor in the traditional sense but his natural, unaffected performances often seemed to emerge from some unsettled place. You could frequently hear a genuine urgency in way he delivered his lines and his casual swagger told you he’d been around the block more than once. Whenever Ray erupted on screen it felt like you were watching a volcano explode and if you didn’t get out of the way it could easily swallow you up in a heavy flow of golden molten lava. Film historians often like to talk about the sea change that occurred in the 1950s, when actor's like Montgomery Clift and Marlon Brando brought a new kind of sincerity to Hollywood. These highly trained method actors changed the way we appreciate and understand acting today and they’ve rightfully been recognized for their accomplishments. But there were other performers that unconsciously championed a new kind of natural approach to acting. And one of them was Aldo Ray.
- Saturday's Hero (1951) – as "Aldo DaRe"
- My True Story (1951) – as "Aldo DaRe"
- Never Trust a Gambler (1951) – as "Aldo DaRe"
- The Barefoot Mailman (1951)
- The Marrying Kind (1952)
- Pat and Mike (1952)
- Miss Sadie Thompson (1953)
- Let's Do It Again (1953)
- Battle Cry (1955)
- Lux Video Theatre (1955) (TV series) – episode "Intermission Guest"
- We're No Angels (1955)
- Three Stripes in the Sun (1955)
- Nightfall (1957)
- Men in War (1957)
- God's Little Acre (1958)
- The Naked and the Dead (1958)
- Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse (1958) (TV series) – episode "KO Kitty"
- Four Desperate Men (1959) (aka Siege of Pinchgut)
- Riverboat (1959) – TV series – episode "Payment in Full"
- The Day They Robbed the Bank of England (1960)
- Johnny Nobody (1961)
- Frontier Circus (1961) (TV series) – episode "Depths of Fear"
- Naked City (1962) - episode "Idylls of a Running Back"
- Musketeers of the Sea (1962)
- Alcoa Premiere (1963) (TV series) – episode "Lollipop Louie"
- Ben Casey (1963) (TV series) – episode "Little Drops of Water, Little Grains of Sand"
- Kraft Suspense Theatre (1964) (TV series) – episode "The Deep End"
- Burke's Law (1964) (TV series) – episode "Who Killed Andy Zygmut?"
- Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre (1964) (TV series) – episode "Have Girls, Will Travel"
- Sylvia (1965)
- Nightmare in the Sun (1965)
- Daniel Boone (1965) (TV series) – episode "The Trek"
- What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? (1966)
- The Virginian (1966) (TV series) – episode "Jacob was a Plain Man"
- Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (1966)
- Riot on Sunset Strip (1967)
- Run for Your Life (1967) (TV series) – episode "The Face of the Antagonist"
- Welcome to Hard Times (1967)
- The Violent Ones (1967)
- The Danny Thomas Hour (1967) (TV series) – episode "Fame is a Four Letter Word"
- Kill a Dragon (1967)
- Suicide Commandos (1968)
- A Torn Page of Glory (1968)
- The Green Berets (1968)
- The Power (1968)
- Love, American Style (1969) (TV series) – episode "Love and the Advice-Givers"
- The Bold Ones: The Protectors (1969) (TV series) – episode "Deadlock"
- The Outsider (1969) (TV series) – episode "The Old School Tie"
- Angel Unchained (1970)
- The Houndcats (1972) (TV series) – voice
- And Hope to Die (1972)
- Bonanza (1972) (TV series) – episode "Riot"
- Tom (1973)
- Dynamite Brothers (East Meets Watts) (1974)
- The Centerfold Girls (1974)
- Seven Alone (1974)
- Police Story (1974) – episode "Love, Mabel"
- Movin' On (1974) (TV series) – episode "The Trick is to Stay Alive:
- Inside Out (1975)
- Marcus Welby MD (1975) (TV series) – episode "The Tidal Wave"
- SWAT (1975) (TV series) – episode "The Vendetta"
- Psychic Killer (1975)
- Gone with the West (1975)
- The Man Who Would Not Die (1975)
- Promise Him Anything (1975)
- Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood (1976)
- The Quest (1976) (TV series) – episode "Seventy Two Hours"
- Haunted (1976)
- Paesano: A Voice in the Night (1977)
- Mission to Glory: A True Story (1977)
- Haunts (1977)
- Death Dimension (1978)
- The Lucifer Complex (1978)
- Sweet Savage (1979)
- Women in White (1979) (TV movie)
- The Glove (1979)
- Human Experiments (1979)
- CHiPs (1979) (TV series) – episode
- The Great Skycopter Rescue (1980)
- Don't Go Near the Park (1981)
- When I Am King (1981)
- The Secret of NIMH (1982) – voice
- Boxoffice (1982)
- Mongrel (1982)
- Dark Sanity (1982)
- Bog (1983)
- To Kill a Stranger (1983)
- Frankenstein's Great Aunt Tillie (1984)
- The Executioner, Part II (1984)
- Biohazard (1985)
- Falcon Crest (1985) – TV series
- Frankenstein's Brain (1985) (short)
- Evils of the Night (1985)
- Flesh and Bullets (1985)
- Prison Ship (1986)
- Hollywood Cop (1987)
- Hateman (1987)
- Vultures (1987)
- The Sicilian (1987)
- Terror Night (1987)
- Terror on Alcatraz (1987)
- Drug Runners (1988)
- Shooters (1989)
- Blood Red (1989)
- Young Rebels (1989)
- Night Shadow (1989)
- Crime of Crimes (1989)
- Shock 'Em Dead (1991)
- Wolf, Scott (April 21, 2010). "DaRe Dies". Inside USC.
- Lindbergs, Kimberly (27 December 2012). "Reconsidering Aldo Ray: Chapter Two". Movie Morlocks. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Stein, Mark (8 Jan 1981). "Gravel-Voiced Actor: Aldo Ray Recalls Career Ups, Downs". Los Angeles Times. p. ws14.
- Brookner, Mary (9 Mar 1952). "A CLOSE-UP OF THE EX-CONSTABLE OF CROCKETT: Aldo Ray, Former Officer of the Law, Is Also at Home as Romantic Movie Hero". New York Times. p. X5.
- Hopper, Hedda (22 March 1953). "ALDO RAY'S CAREER IS WEIRD AS HIS 'FROGHORN' VOICE: Aldo Ray Career Weird as His Frog-like Voice". Los Angeles Times. p. D1.
- "The Battle Cry of Aldo Ray Part 1". Movieline. 1 January 1991. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Flint, Peter (28 March 1991). "Aldo Ray, Actor, Is Dead at 64; Portrayed Lovable Tough Guys". The New York Times.
- Lindbergs, Kimberley. "Reconsidering Aldo Ray Chapter One". Movie Morlocks. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Thomas, Kevin (10 Jan 1966). "Aldo Ray Takes Stock---Market Provides Cushion". Los Angeles Times. p. c15.
- "People of Talent (4): Ray, Aldo". Sight and Sound (25.3 Winter 1955 ed.). p. 141.
- Levy, Emanuel (16 December 2007). "Marrying Kind How Aldo Ray Became a Star". Emanual Levy. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- From Here to Eternity on IMDb
- "ALDO RAY IN VERBAL ROW". The Sun (2628). Sydney. 6 September 1953. p. 58. Retrieved 28 September 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Actor Aldo Ray; noted for combat film roles". Chicago Tribune. 28 Mar 1991. p. S8.
- Parsons, Louella (26 Oct 1954). "Aldo Ray Walks Out On 'My Sister Eileen'". The Washington Post and Times Herald. p. 23.
- "Miss Fleming, Corey Cast". New York Times. 20 July 1955. p. 19.
- Pryor, Thomas (25 July 1955). "KRAMER AND U. A. SIGN 2-FILM PACT: Producer-Director's Contract Goes Into Effect in Spring After 'Pride and Passion'". New York Times. p. 16.
- Parsons, Louella (20 Feb 1956). "Aldo Ray Gets Recall at Columbia". The Washington Post and Times Herald. p. 19.
- "The Ford Show". Tennessee Ernie Ford. Season 1. Episode 19. 31 January 1957.
- Schallert, Edwin (20 July 1956). "Drama: 'Long Live King' Stars, Release Set; Aldo Ray Fosters Own Feature". Los Angeles Times. p. 25.
- "Interview with Paul Gregory". American Legends. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Anderson, Nancy (13 January 1976). "Aldo Ray is bitter but glad to be back". Daily News. p. 15. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Payment in Full (Riverboat) on IMDb
- Alpert, Don (27 Dec 1964). "Aside, King's Men, Let Aldo Ray Put Humpty Together Again". Los Angeles Times. p. D4.
- Martin, Betty (12 July 1966). "Filmways Inks Jack Clayton". Los Angeles Times. p. c9.
- Martin, Betty (23 Nov 1966). "MOVIE CALL SHEET: Inger Joins Cast of 'Fury'". Los Angeles Times. p. C11.
- "The Battle Cry of Aldo Ray". Movieline. 1 January 1991. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Tarantino, Quentin; Peary, Gerald (2013). Quentin Tarantino: Interviews, Revised and Updated. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 50–51.
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