Aldolase C

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ALDOC
Protein ALDOC PDB 1xfb.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases ALDOC, ALDC, Aldolase C, aldolase, fructose-bisphosphate C
External IDs MGI: 101863 HomoloGene: 21073 GeneCards: 230
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ALDOC 202022 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_005165

NM_009657
NM_001303423

RefSeq (protein)

NP_005156.1

NP_001290352.1
NP_033787.2

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 28.57 – 28.58 Mb Chr 11: 78.32 – 78.33 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate (ALDOC, or ALDC), is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the ALDOC gene on chromosome 17. This gene encodes a member of the class I fructose-bisphosphate aldolase gene family. Expressed specifically in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the brain, the encoded protein is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008][3][4]

Structure[edit]

ALDOC is one of the three aldolase isozymes (A, B, and C), encoded by three different genes.[5][6] The amino acid sequence of ALDOC is highly similar to those of the other isozymes, sharing a 68% identity with ALDOB and 78% identity with ALDOA. In particular, the residues Asp33, Arg42, Lys107, Lys146, Glu187, Ser271, Arg303, and Lys229 are all conserved in the active sites of the three isozymes. This active site is located in the center of the homotetrameric αβ-barrel structure of these aldolases. However, several structural details set ALDOC apart. For instance, the Arg303 residue in ALDOC adopts an intermediate conformation between the liganded and unliganded structures observed in the other isozymes. Also, the C-terminal region between Glu332 and Lys71 forms a salt bridge with the barrel region that is absent in the A and B isoforms. Moreover, the electrostatic surface of ALDOC is more negatively charged, which may serve as an acidic binding site or as a docking site to accommodate the C-terminal conformations.[6] Four ALDOC-specific residues (N90, V92, R96 and D100) may be key for ALDOC-specific functions.[7]

Function[edit]

ALDOC is a key enzyme in the fourth step of glycolysis, as well as in the reverse pathway gluconeogenesis. It catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate (G3P), or glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) by aldol cleavage. As a result, it is a crucial player in ATP biosynthesis.[6][7] As an aldolase, ALDOC putatively also contributes to other "moonlighting" functions, though its exact involvements remain unclear.[6][7] For instance, it binds less tightly to the cytoskeleton than the other isozymes do, likely due to its more acidic pI.[6] In addition, ALDOC participates in the stress-response pathway for lung epithelial cell function during hypoxia and in the resistance of cerebellar Purkinje cells against excitotoxic insult.[8]

ALDOC is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, though it is predominantly expressed in brain, smooth muscle, and neuronal tissue.[6][7][8][9] However, since the ALDOA isoform is co-expressed with ALDOC in the central nervous system (CS), it is suggested that ALDOC contributes to CNS function outside of glycolysis.[7] Moreover, its presence within other cell types, such as platelets and mast cells (MCs), may serve as a failsafe in the case that the other predominant aldolase isozymes become inactivated.[8] Within cells, it localizes to the cytoplasm.[9]

Clinical significance[edit]

This aldolase has been associated with cancer.[6]

ALDOC is found to be upregulated in the brains of schizophrenia (SCZ) patients.[10] Notably, while ALDOC is differentially expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of male SCZ patients, it displays no significant changes in female SCZ patients, indicating that different regulatory mechanisms may be involved in male versus female SCZ patients. It is likely that ALDOC is involved in SCZ through its role in glycolysis, which is a central biochemical pathway in SCZ.[11]

Furthermore, ALDOC is reported to undergo oxidation in brains affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This oxidative modification inhibits ALDOC activity, causing the accumulation of fructose 1,6- bisphosphate and driving the reverse reaction, in the direction of gluconeogenesis rather than glycolysis, thus halting ATP production.[12]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit]]
Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: ALDOC aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate". 
  4. ^ Rocchi M, Vitale E, Covone A, Romeo G, Santamaria R, Buono P, Paolella G, Salvatore F (Jun 1989). "Assignment of human aldolase C gene to chromosome 17, region cen----q21.1". Human Genetics. 82 (3): 279–82. doi:10.1007/BF00291170. PMID 2731939. 
  5. ^ Du S, Guan Z, Hao L, Song Y, Wang L, Gong L, Liu L, Qi X, Hou Z, Shao S (2014). "Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase a is a potential metastasis-associated marker of lung squamous cell carcinoma and promotes lung cell tumorigenesis and migration". PLOS ONE. 9 (1): e85804. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085804. PMC 3900443free to read. PMID 24465716. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Arakaki TL, Pezza JA, Cronin MA, Hopkins CE, Zimmer DB, Tolan DR, Allen KN (Dec 2004). "Structure of human brain fructose 1,6-(bis)phosphate aldolase: linking isozyme structure with function". Protein Science. 13 (12): 3077–84. doi:10.1110/ps.04915904. PMC 2287316free to read. PMID 15537755. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Langellotti S, Romano M, Guarnaccia C, Granata V, Orrù S, Zagari A, Baralle FE, Salvatore F (2014). "A novel anti-aldolase C antibody specifically interacts with residues 85-102 of the protein". mAbs. 6 (3): 708–17. doi:10.4161/mabs.28191. PMC 4011915free to read. PMID 24525694. 
  8. ^ a b c Sekar Y, Moon TC, Slupsky CM, Befus AD (Jul 2010). "Protein tyrosine nitration of aldolase in mast cells: a plausible pathway in nitric oxide-mediated regulation of mast cell function". Journal of Immunology. 185 (1): 578–87. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902720. PMID 20511553. 
  9. ^ a b Mamczur P, Gamian A, Kolodziej J, Dziegiel P, Rakus D (Dec 2013). "Nuclear localization of aldolase A correlates with cell proliferation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1833 (12): 2812–22. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.07.013. PMID 23886627. 
  10. ^ Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW, Dias-Neto E (Jul 2009). "Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 43 (11): 978–86. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.11.006. PMID 19110265. 
  11. ^ Martins-de-Souza D, Schmitt A, Röder R, Lebar M, Schneider-Axmann T, Falkai P, Turck CW (Oct 2010). "Sex-specific proteome differences in the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 44 (14): 989–91. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.03.003. PMID 20381070. 
  12. ^ Sultana R, Perluigi M, Newman SF, Pierce WM, Cini C, Coccia R, Butterfield DA (Mar 2010). "Redox proteomic analysis of carbonylated brain proteins in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 12 (3): 327–36. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2810. PMC 2821142free to read. PMID 19686046. 

Further reading[edit]