|Countess Alexandra Branicka|
|Born||unknown date in 1754|
|Died||15 September 1838|
|Noble family||von Engelhardt|
|Spouse(s)||Franciszek Ksawery Branicki|
|Father||Vasilt von Engelhardt|
|Mother||Yelena Marfa Potyomkin|
Countess Alexandra Branitskaya née von Engelhardt (Russian: Александра Васильевна Браницкая, 1754 – 15 September 1838), also known as Saneckka and Countess Branicka, was a Russian courtier. She was the niece, confidant and likely the lover of Grigory Potyomkin, and the favourite and lady-in-waiting of Catherine the Great.
She was one of the most notable socialites at the Russian Imperial court during the reign of Catherine, and given a position close to a member of the Imperial family.
She was the daughter of Vasily von Engelhardt and Yelena Marfa Potyomkin, and thus the niece of Grigory Potyomkin.
Alexandra was introduced to the Russian court with her five sisters (and her brother) in 1775. They were initially uneducated and ignorant, but was soon given a sophisticated polish and made to be the most favored woman at the Russian court. She and her sisters were treated almost as if they were a part of the Imperial family, and were to be known as "almost Grand Duchesses" and as the "jewels" and ornaments of the Russian court. Potemkin gave them large dowries and had Catherine appoint them ladies-in-waiting. They were alleged to be the lovers of their uncle, which was one of the most known gossip subjects and scandals of the age. His first mistress among them was Varvara: after her marriage in 1779, Aleksandra was pointed out as her successor.
Alexandra was the oldest of the sisters taken to court. She was described as ignorant and uneducated, but also as intelligent and willful, and with a magnificent and confident manner and a haughty personality which effectively hid her lack of education.
She was described by ambassador Harris as: "a young, very attractive and well-shaped lady, with a superior talent for creating plots", who spent a great deal of time with Catherine and Potemkin and that: "unless her uncle changed his attitude toward her, she is likely to become the next female confidante" of Catherine. She is described as an influential force at the Russian court. She is pointed out as the person who exposed the adultery between the favourite of Catherine, Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov, and Catherine's confidant and lady-in-waiting, Praskovja Bruce, thereby bringing about the fall of both Korsakov and Bruce (1779). She was treated as an "unofficial member of the Imperial family", a rank which was taken for granted until her death. British ambassador Harris reported that she received gifts and presents in exchange for information, and recommended her as an excellent informer, and she functioned as an agent for the British, from whom she received money.
She was rumored to be the daughter of Catherine. A legend claimed that she was born instead of the later Emperor Paul, but switched with the son of a Kalmyk woman because of her gender, since a male heir was wanted.
Marriage and business enterprice
In 1781, she married the Polish aristocrat Franciszek Ksawery Branicki. The marriage was arranged to create a Russian contact in Poland. Her marriage is described as a harmonious one. While her spouse lacked a sense of economy and frequently amounted huge and ruinous debts, this was never a problem, as Alexandra was in contrast a noted businessperson: she earned millions by selling wheat and timber from their estates, and could therefore always pay the constant debts of her spouse in time.
Relationship to Potemkin
She is mentioned as the most intimate confidant and friend of Potyomkin after Catherine, and his favorite among his nieces. Their alleged sexual relationship ended in 1779, and she was replaced by her sister Yekaterina, with whom he was to have had an on-and-off relationship the rest of his life, but the intimate friendship between Aleksandra and Potyomkin continued. She acted as the hostess of Potyomkin, and an invitation to her was a sign of favour from him. They also corresponded. She was present with him in Ukraine and on his household in the south in the 1780s. She often argued with him, which was suggested as a sign of their close friendship.
In 1791, she expressed a wish that Potyomkin should be the successor to the king of Poland, and for many years, there were rumours in Poland that Potyomkin had plans to make her children heirs to the Polish throne.
She nursed Potyomkin during his illness. She is said to have inherited the marriage certificate of Potyomkin and Catherine. Potyomkin died in her arms.
She created a sanctuary for Potyomkin's memory on his estate, and was visited by Alexander I, who appointed her Lady of the court. She was made Ober-Hofmeisterin in 1824. In 1816, Wiegel reported how she was kissed on the hand and treated with the same rank in etiquette as that of an Imperial Grand Duchess, and that she and others seemed to take this for granted.
- Sebag Montefiore, Simon, Potemkin och Katarina den stora: en kejserlig förbindelse, Prisma, Stockholm, 2005
- Marian Kukiel, Książę Adam, Warszawa 1993.
- Henryk Mościcki, Aleksandra Branicka, w: Polski Słownik Biograficzny, t. II, Kraków 1936