Alene Lee

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Alene Lee (1931–1991) was an African-American member of the Beat generation in New York City whose romantic relationship with Jack Kerouac was the central theme in his novel The Subterraneans. Kerouac used the pseudonym Mardou Fox for Lee.[1] Lee was also the model for the character of Irene May in Book of Dreams and Big Sur.[2]


  1. ^ Campbell, James (November 2001). This is the Beat Generation: New York, San Francisco, Paris. University of California Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-520-23033-7. 
  2. ^ O'Sullivan, Steven. "Alene Lee, AKA Mardou Fox: Subterranean Muse". Beatdom (4): 60–62.