Alenia C-27J Spartan
|An Italian Air Force C-27J Spartan|
|Role||Military transport aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Alenia Aeronautica |
|First flight||24 September 1999|
|Introduction||October 2006 (Italy)|
|Primary users||Italian Air Force|
United States Coast Guard
Royal Australian Air Force
See Operators below for others
|Number built||87 ordered as of 2020|
|Developed from||Aeritalia G.222|
The Alenia C-27J Spartan is a military transport aircraft developed and manufactured by Leonardo's Aircraft Division (formerly Alenia Aermacchi until 2016). It is an advanced derivative of Alenia Aeronautica's earlier G.222 (C-27A Spartan in U.S. service), equipped with the engines and various other systems also used on the larger Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules. In addition to the standard transport configuration, specialized variants of the C-27J have been developed for maritime patrol, search and rescue, C3 ISR (command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance), fire support/ground-attack and electronic warfare missions.
In 2007, the C-27J was selected as the Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) for the United States military; these were produced in an international teaming arrangement under which L-3 Communications served as the prime contractor. In 2012, the United States Air Force (USAF) elected to retire the C-27J after only a short service life due to budget cuts; they were later reassigned to the U.S. Coast Guard and United States Special Operations Command. The C-27J has also been ordered by the military air units of Australia, Bulgaria, Chad, Italy, Greece, Kenya, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, United States, Romania, Slovakia, Zambia and an undisclosed country.
In November 2020 Leonardo launched the C-27J Next Generation, introducing new equipment, systems and aerodynamic solutions to improve operating efficiency and enhance performance. The New Generation features comprehensive new avionics to comply with the Performance Based Navigation international standard to operate in civil air space without limitations, and to enhance interoperability in tactical scenarios. While the new winglets contribute to improve climb performance and increase the MTOW up to 1,000 kg.
Design and development
In 1995, Alenia and Lockheed Martin began discussions to improve Alenia's G.222 using C-130J's glass cockpit and a more powerful version of the G.222's T64G engine and three-blade propellers. In 1996, a program began on an improved G.222, named C-27J; it used a U.S. military type designation based on the G.222's C-27A designation. In 1997, Alenia and Lockheed Martin formed Lockheed Martin Alenia Tactical Transport Systems (LMATTS) to develop the C-27J. The design changed to use the C-130J Super Hercules's Rolls-Royce AE 2100 engine and six-blade propeller. Other changes include a fully digital MIL-STD-1553 systems and avionics architecture, and an updated cargo compartment for increased commonality. The C-27J has a 35% increase in range and a 15% faster cruise speed than the G.222.
By 2005, the U.S. Army had identified the need to replace its aging Short C-23 Sherpa lifter. In lieu of adequate fixed-wing airlift availability, the CH-47 helicopter fleet was being worked hard on the "last tactical mile" to supply forward-placed troops; thus the U.S. Army sought the C-27J for its direct support capabilities, and to reduce demands on the CH-47 fleet. In 2006, LMATTS was dissolved when Lockheed Martin offered the C-130J in 2006 as a contender in the same U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) competition in which the C-27J was competing. Alenia Aeronautica then paired with L-3 Communications, forming the Global Military Aircraft Systems (GMAS) joint venture to market the C-27J; Boeing also joined GMAS.
GMAS bid the C-27J in the JCA competition against Raytheon and EADS North America's C-295 to replace existing Short C-23 Sherpa, Beechcraft C-12 Huron and Fairchild C-26 Metroliners in the Army National Guard, and as a substitute tactical airlifter for Air National Guard groups or wings losing C-130s to retirement or Base Realignment and Closures. By November 2006, the C-27J completed the U.S. Department of Defense's Early User Survey evaluations, having flown a total of 26 hours and surpassed all requirements. GMAS also announced that the C-27J will be assembled at a facility at Cecil Field, Duval County, Florida. The JCA's final selection was expected in March 2007, however it was postponed until 13 June 2007, when the Pentagon announced the award of a US$2.04 billion contract for 78 C-27Js, including training and support, to GMAS.
On 22 June 2007, Raytheon formally protested the JCA contract award for the C-27J. On 27 September 2007, the GAO announced that it had denied Raytheon's protest, thereby allowing the Pentagon to proceed with procurement; at this time, the U.S. Army had requirement for up to 75 aircraft in the Army National Guard; the Air Force had a requirement for up to 70 aircraft in the Air Force Special Operations Command and the Air National Guard. The first C-27J was to be scheduled to be delivered to the joint U.S. Army–Air Force test and training program in June 2008; the first flight of a U.S. C-27J occurred on 17 June 2008.
As of 2020[update], orders stand at Australia (10), Bulgaria (3), Chad (2), Greece (8), Italy (12), Kenya (3), Lithuania (3), Mexico (4), Morocco (4), Peru (4), Romania (7), Slovakia (2), Zambia (2), United States (21), and an undisclosed country (2).
The United States received its first C-27J on 25 September 2008. In September 2008, L-3 Link's C-27J schoolhouse officially began classes at the Georgia Army National Guard Flight Facility, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. By April 2009, the U.S. Army had accepted deliveries of two aircraft and had 11 more on order. In May 2009, the U.S. Army/Army National Guard relinquished all aircraft to the U.S. Air Force, primarily the Air National Guard; this led to the purchase being reduced to 38 C-27Js and the USAF receiving total control of all US C-27Js. Initially, the C-27J was to be operated by the Air National Guard for direct support of the United States Army; later both Army National Guard and Air National Guard flight crews support the aircraft's fielding. By July 2010, the U.S. Air National Guard had received four C-27Js for testing and training, with initial operational capability expected in October 2010.
The U.S. Air Force performed the C-27J's first combat deployment in Summer 2011. In August 2011, two C-27Js flown by Air National Guard aircrews, augmented with Army National Guard personnel, began operations at Kandahar Air Field, Afghanistan. Between August 2011 and June 2012, the C-27Js of the 179th Airlift Wing, followed by the 175th Wing executed more than 3200 missions transporting over 25,000 passengers, and 1400 tons of cargo. Via tactical control of the C-27Js, the U.S. Army was able to employ helicopters more efficiently, splitting missions between the two platforms based on their relative strengths.
On 26 January 2012, the Department of Defense announced plans to retire all 38 USAF C-27Js on order due to excess intra-theater airlift capacity and budgetary pressures; its duties are to be met by the C-130. In February 2012, Alenia warned that it would not provide support for C-27Js resold by the US to international customers in competition with future orders. On 23 March 2012, the USAF announced the C-27J's retirement in fiscal year 2013 after determining other program's budgetary needs and requirement changes for a new Pacific strategy. The cut was opposed by the Air National Guard and by various legislators.
In July 2012, the USAF briefly suspended flight operations following a flight control system failure. By 2013, newly built C-27Js were being sent directly to the Davis–Monthan Air Force Base boneyard. The USAF spent $567 million on 21 C-27Js since 2007, with 16 delivered by the end of September 2013; 12 had been taken out of service while a further five were to be built by April 2014 as they were too near completion to be worth cancelling. Budget cuts motivated the divesture; a C-27J allegedly costs $308 million over its lifespan in comparison with a C-130's $213 million 25-year lifespan cost.
In July 2013, the U.S. Coast Guard considered acquiring up to 14 of the 21 retired C-27Js and converting them for search-and-rescue missions, while cancelling undelivered orders for the HC-144 Ocean Sentry to save $500–$800 million. EADS claimed that the HC-144 costs half as much as the C-27J to maintain and operate. The U.S. Forest Service also wanted 7 C-27Js for aerial firefighting. The U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) were interested in acquiring ex-USAF C-27Js. If the DoD determined it could not afford the aircraft, they would go to the Forest Service. In late 2013, SOCOM was allocated 7 C-27Js to replace its CASA 212 training aircraft. In December 2013, the 14 remaining C-27Js were transferred to the Coast Guard, with the first HC-27J delivered in Coast Guard colors in April 2016.
In October 2006, Italy accepted delivery of the first C-27J of an initial batch of 12 aircraft and in January 2007, the first aircraft was delivered to the 46a Brigata Aerea, in Pisa. From 12 September 2008 to 27 January 2009, a pair of Italian Air Force C-27Js were deployed to Afghanistan to contribute to NATO in-theatre airlift operations. In December 2013, an Italian C-27J was deployed to the Philippines to participate in international humanitarian relief operations in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan. The Italian Air Force is also the launch customer for a special mission variant of the C-27J, named Praetorian in the configuration tailored for ItAF and equipped with ISR equipment and roll-on, roll-off mission system's consolles; Italy is the first European nation to operate such an aircraft.
In 2006, Bulgaria had initially ordered five C-27J to replace its aging fleet of Antonov An-26 aircraft, but reduced its order to three aircraft in 2010 due to funding shortages. In March 2011, the Bulgarian Air Force received the third and final of the C-27Js ordered; the fleet is employed for military transport missions as well as medical evacuations, special tasks of the Interior Ministry, and participating in international operations such as the rotation of Bulgarian troops in Afghanistan.
In 2006, the Romanian government announced the selection of the C-27J, seeking 7 aircraft to be delivered from 2008 to replace Antonov An-24 and Antonov An-26 aircraft, beating the EADS CASA C-295. In February 2007, a legal challenge filed by EADS blocked the Romanian order; the order was allowed to proceed when the Romanian court rejected EADS' complaint in June 2007. On 7 December 2007, a contract for the seven C-27Js was officially signed. On 12 April 2010, the first two C-27s were delivered to the Romanian Air Force.
In December 2011, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) issued a Foreign Military Sales request for 10 C-27Js valued at US$950m to replace its retired DHC-4 Caribou fleet. Australia had opted for the C-27J over the rival EADS CASA C-295 following a RAAF evaluation, which had noted the C-27J's wider and taller cabin being compatible with the Australian Army's general purpose G-Wagon vehicle, and palletized goods. In December 2013, the first Australian C-27J performed its maiden flight. In December 2014, the RAAF began maintenance training on the type; delivery of the first two of the ten C-27Js on order was also formally accepted that month. The last aircraft for RAAF was delivered in April 2018.
On 6 July 2011, the Mexican Air Force signed a $200 million contract for four C-27Js and a multiyear support agreement for the fleet. The first aircraft was received two months later, all four were delivered by the end of 2012. Mexico's C-27Js are based at Santa Lucía Air Force Base Num 1 and operated by 302 Air Squadron alongside a number of C-130 Hercules.
In June 2013, the Peruvian Air Force was negotiating to acquire four C-27Js for $200 million; future purchases by Peru may increase the total to 12 Spartans. The C-27J competed against the EADS CASA C-295, Antonov An-70, Antonov An-32, and C-130J. On 25 November 2013, Peru selected the C-27J; two aircraft and associated support was purchased in a 100 million-euro deal. On 27 March 2015, the first C-27J was formally accepted by the Peruvian Air Force; by this point a total of four C-27Js were on order for the service. The fourth aircraft was delivered on 5 December 2017 at Grupo Aéreo N°8.
In June 2018, Kenya received an international loan for military aircraft and expansion including 3 C-27J.
In 2011, Indonesia was considering purchasing a number of C-27Js.
In 2012, the C-27J was shortlisted as a candidate for the Philippine Air Force (PAF) medium lift aircraft program. A joint team from the Philippines' Department of National Defense (DND) and PAF inspected the C-27J in January 2012. The DND already received approval from the Philippine president to purchase 3 units, and is awaiting congressional approval as of November 2012. However, the PAF announced EADS-CASA's (now Airbus) C-295M as declared winner for the medium lift aircraft acquisition project.
In 2015, Alenia Aermacchi were studying the development of a maritime patrol variant of the C-27J. Other proposed variants of the platform include a multi-mission C-27J that could be armed with various air-launched weapons and equipped with a maritime surveillance radar; Alenia Aermacchi have promoted this model to the Royal Air Force.
In 2016, Leonardo conducted demonstration flights around La Paz at the request of the Bolivian government. That might result in the Bolivian government purchasing one or more C-27J systems.
In January 2021, the Slovenian government announced that talks on the purchase of one C-27J for the Slovenian Army were in the final phase.
In 2007, the C-27J was being considered as a sole-source C$3 billion contract by Canada as a future replacement for its current search and rescue air fleet. Alenia Aermacchi submitted its final bid a few weeks before the 11 January 2016 deadline. Alenia Aermacchi bid their C-27J FWSAR/MPA aircraft, a heavily modified C-27J for its role as a Search and rescue/Maritime Patrol Aircraft. Exclusive modifications and upgrades included a mission systems pallet from General Dynamics Mission Systems Canada, additional observation windows, an AESA search radar, satellite and ATC radios, flare/markers launchers, and an electro-optical/infrared turret. Other enhancements included upgrades to avionics and performance such as a new flight management system. Alenia Aermacchi bid up to 32 aircraft with lifetime maintenance from KF Aerospace and in-service support from General Dynamics Canada. The C-27J FWSAR/MPA bid competed against the Airbus C-295 FWSAR and the Embraer KC-390. In December 2016, the Canadian government selected the C-295.
AC-27J Stinger II
The AC-27J was a proposed gunship for the U.S. Air Force. In 2008, US$32 million was reallocated to purchase a C-27J for the U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command, to fulfill requirements defined by AFSOC for the AC-XX concept, a replacement for the aging and heavily used Lockheed AC-130s. The AC-27J was to be equipped using proven hardware and systems to reduce risk. AFSOC planned to acquire 16 aircraft, the first gunship in 2011 and two more per year from 2012 to 2015.
The AC-27J was to serve as a multi-mission platform, equipped with full-motion cameras and outfitted to support covert infiltration and other missions by ground forces, armed with either a 30-millimeter or 40-millimeter gun or precision-guided munitions such as the Viper Strike bomb. At the Air Force Association's 2008 conference, it was reported that the AC-27J would be named "Stinger II" after the AC-119K Stinger.
C-27A 90-0170 was removed from storage at AMARC in October 2008 and delivered to Eglin AFB, Florida, for use by the Air Force Research Laboratory to test the feasibility of mounting of 30 mm and 40 mm guns. In May 2009, the program was put on hold because U.S. Army funding for 40 C-27s in an Army–Air Force cooperative purchase was removed from the fiscal 2010 budget. U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command elected to standardize their fleet with the C-130 to meet its gunship needs.
The HC-27J is the modified surveillance variant for the US Coast Guard. 14 retired C-27Js were rebuilt as HC-27J aircraft for USCG missions such as maritime patrol, surveillance, medium-range search and rescue, drug and migrant interdiction, and disaster response. Deliveries began in November 2014.
The MC-27J is a development of the C-27J for multi-mission purposes, including Command and Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (C3-ISR), Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) and Combat Support operations, thanks to roll-off/roll-on systems and different sensors and equipment: AESA Search Radar; Elettro-Optical/Infra-Red (EO/IR) system; Electronic Support Measures (ESM); palletized Mission System; enhanced Communications System including datalink and SATCOM capabilities; Store Management System to employ Precision Guided Munitions (PGM – one hard point under each wing); palletized fire support system with a high accurate gun able to fire through the LH rear door, that can be installed and rapidly uninstalled when not required. The MC-27J can support Special Operations Forces and ground troops with direct fire also performing armed ISR, Close Air Support (CAS) and Combat Search And Rescue (CSAR). It features systems to carry out intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) missions, as well as a defensive aids suite. In July 2012, Alenia Aermacchi announced its intention to offer an upgrade program for existing C-27Js to the MC-27J configuration in the future. The MC-27J is being developed as an Alenia Aermacchi-Orbital private venture.
The Italian Air Force will convert three C-27Js into MC-27Js in 2016. On 25 March 2014, the first MC-27J, named Praetorian in the configuration tailored for Italian Air Force, performed its maiden flight. In July 2014, the MC-27J had reportedly successfully completed the first phase of ground and flight testing with the Italian Air Force. In October 2020, the annual Documento Programmatico Pluriennale (DPP) 2020-2022 of Italian Minister of Defence indicates realization of MC-27J Praetorian aircraft to support special operations.
In 2010, the Italian Air Force announced the development of an electronic warfare package for its C-27 fleet under the jamming and electronic defence instrumentation (Jedi) program. One publicised ability of the aircraft is the disruption of radio communications and, in particular, remote detonators commonly used on improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The EC-27 has been compared to the capabilities of the USAF's Lockheed EC-130H Compass Call. In 2015, it was revealed that an improved Jedi 2 payload was under development to provide increased electronic warfare capabilities.
- Royal Australian Air Force has ordered ten C-27J aircraft with deliveries beginning in late 2014. These aircraft are operated by No. 35 Squadron. First 4 reached initial operating capability on 16 December 2016. The last aircraft was delivered in April 2018.
- Bulgarian Air Force has three C-27J aircraft in service as of January 2012 with the 1/16 Transport Squadron Vrazhdebna Air Base.
- Chadian Air Force ordered two C-27J aircraft; these aircraft were received in 2013 and 2014.
- Hellenic Air Force has eight C-27J aircraft in use as of January 2012 with the 354th TTS "Pegasus" (112th Combat Wing – Air Force Support Command).
- Italian Air Force has 12 aircraft in operation as of January 2012 with 98th Gruppo/46th Air Brigade.
- Kenya Air Force ordered three between November 2017 and March 2018. Two were delivered on 30 January 2019. and last one on 1 October 2020.
- Royal Moroccan Air Force has four aircraft in use as of January 2012 with 3rd Air Force Base (3rd BAFRA).
- Romanian Air Force has seven C-27Js in service as of January 2015, operated by 902nd Transport and Reconnaissance Squadron of the 90th Airlift Flotilla.
- Slovak Air Force has two C-27J aircraft. Aircraft deliveries to the Slovak Air Force began on 31 October 2017 with the first aircraft, and the second and final aircraft on 9 April 2018.
- United States Air Force (former operator) taken out of service due to budget cuts and passed on to the Coast Guard and SOCOM.
- United States Army Special Operations Aviation Command: seven C-27Js being transferred from USAF.
- United States Coast Guard received 14 former USAF C-27Js, to convert to HC-27J configuration. The Coast Guard will transfer seven C-130s to the United States Forest Service.
- Zambia Air Force has ordered two C-27J aircraft. Both aircraft delivered during summer 2019.
- Crew: Minimum two: pilot, co-pilot (plus loadmaster when needed)
- Capacity: 60 troops or 46 paratroops or 36 litters with 6 medical personnel(11,600 kg Max payload) 6 VIP plus 18 escort passengers plus a service module.;Cargo Transport (Bulk loads, wheeled and tracked vehicles, aircraft engines, light helicopters, 463L standard pallets – 3 HCU-6E+ 1 HCU-12E or 6 HCU-12E); Airdrop (up to 9,000 kg with two platforms; up to 6 A22 CDS bundles; up to 5,000 kg with 1 or 2 platforms by LAPES; up to 6,000 kg by combat off-load – 3 HCU-6E pallets); Firefighting (up to 6 "Guardian" system containers – 6,000 l of water/fire retardant; roll-off/roll-on Fire Attack System with 9,850 l capacity)
- Cargo compartment: width 3.33 m X height 2.25 m
- Length: 22.7 m (74 ft 6 in)
- Wingspan: 28.7 m (94 ft 2 in)
- Height: 9.64 m (31 ft 8 in)
- Wing area: 82 m2 (880 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 17,500 kg (38,581 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 31,800 kg (70,107 lb)
- Max payload: 11,600 kilograms (25,600 lb) at MTOW
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce AE2100-D2A turboprop, 3,458 kW (4,637 hp) each
- Propellers: 6-bladed Dowty Propeller 391/6-132-F/10, 4.15 m (13 ft 7 in) diameter
- Maximum speed: 602 km/h (374 mph, 325 kn)
- Cruise speed: 583 km/h (362 mph, 315 kn)
- Minimum control speed: 194 km/h (121 mph, 105 kn)
- Range: 1,759 km (1,093 mi, 950 nmi) with MTOW of 31,800 kg (70,100 lb)
- Range at 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) payload: 5,112 km (2,760 nmi)
- Ferry range: 5,852 km (3,636 mi, 3,160 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 9,144 m (30,000 ft)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- "Alenia C-27 Spartan production list". rzjets.net. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "C-27J Spartan Next Generation list". www.leonardocompany.com. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- "Finmeccanica approves merger and spin-off operations for the implementation of the divisionalisation process". Leonanardocompany.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "C-27J Spartan Next Generation". www.leonardocompany.com. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- Frawley, Gerald. "LMATTS C-27J Spartan". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fishwyck, ACT: Aerospace Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- "Enhancing Tactical Transport Capabilities" (PDF). Paper presented at the RTO SCI Symposium. Alenia Aerospazia and Lockheed Martin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- Weisgerber, Marcus. "C-27J battle splits Air Force, Guard." Air Force Times, 5 December 2011.
- Fulghum, David and Andy Nativi. "LM To Join JCA Competition With Four-Engine Offering." Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 1 May 2006.
- "C-27J Team." Archived 2 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine "C-27J Spartan." Retrieved: 11 June 2011.
- "Boeing Jumps on JCA Competition." Archived 30 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Air Force magazine, 2 May 2006.
- "C-27J successfully completes Army, Air Force early user survey", Aerotech News and Review, 1 December 2006.
- Putrich, Gayle S. "C-27J tapped for Joint Cargo Aircraft." Archived 14 August 2007 at the Library of Congress Web Archives Air Force Times, 13 June 2007.
- "New Cargo Planes To Be Built in Cecil Field." firstcoastnews.com, 14 June 2007.
- Gettle, Master Sgt. Mitch. "C-27J Spartan named as Joint Cargo Aircraft." Archived 26 May 2012 at Archive.today Air Force Public Affairs, 14 June 2007.
- "Raytheon details dispute over $2B deal." Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press, 27 June 2007.
- Tiron, Roxanna. "GAO denies protest over Joint Cargo Aircraft contract", TheHill.com, 27 September 2007.
- Bryant, Jordan and Tom Kington. "Joint Cargo Aircraft delivery starts in a year". Army Times, 21 June 2007.
- Trimble, Stephen. "First C-27J for JCA contract makes first flight" Archived 22 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Flightglobal.com, 17 June 2008.
- "Romania Signs Deal for 7 C-27Js". Retrieved: 31 December 2011.
- December 2010 "Bulgaria Changes Its Order for up to 8 C-27J 'Baby Hercs'." defenseindustrydaily, 18 December 2010.
- "Alenia Aeronautica Signs Contract Worth 130 Million Euro to Supply Four C-27Js to Morocco." Archived 19 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine defenseworld.net. Retrieved: 8 April 2012.
- Brannen, Kate. "U.S. Senators Back Purchase Of More C-27s." Defense News, 8 July 2010.
- "U.S. Air Force shelving brand new C-27J Spartan aircraft after spending millions". Daily News. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "Leonardo (Alenia) C-27 Spartan Medium-Lift Tactical Transport Aircraft (1997)". Military Factory. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "Alenia sells C-27J to undisclosed African country". Janes. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "C-27J for Zambia". Archived from the original on 7 July 2019.
- "L-3 Presents First Joint Cargo Aircraft to U.S. Army and Air Force." Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine L-3 Communications, 25 September 2008.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Army orders for the C27J." Archived 25 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine flightglobal.com, 22 March 2009.
- Tiron, Roxana. "Lawmakers press Gates to keep program." The Hill.com.
- Scully, Megan. "The Little Airlifter That Could." Archived 30 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine Air Force magazine, Volume 93, July 2010. Retrieved: 29 July 2018.
- McCullough, Amy. "Spartan Deployment Delayed." Archived 23 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Air Force magazine, 31 March 2011.
- Wise, 1st Lt. Abigail. "A C-27 sits at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan." Archived 5 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Air Force, 8 August 2011. Retrieved: 13 March 2012.
- Peruzzi, Luca. "C-27J Spartan makes combat debut in Afghanistan." Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 4 August 2011. Retrieved: 13 March 2012.
- Ewing, Philip. "Far from DC battles, C-27 gets glowing reviews." Archived 27 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine DoD Buzz, 24 April 2012.
- "Defense Budget Priorities and Choices, p. 8" Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine US Department of Defense, January 2012. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
- Majumdar, Dave. "SecAF: Service now favors multirole aircraft." AirForce Times, 2 February 2012.
- Muradian, Vago. "Alenia Warns U.S. Over C-27J Sales." Defense News, 27 February 2012.
- "C-27 program cut explained, budget aligned with strategy" Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Air Force, 30 March 2012.
- "Senators to Air Force: Prove C-27J cost claims." AirForce Times, 20 March 2012.
- Dudley, Richard. "US Air Force Grounds C-27J Fleet Due to Flight Control Failure." Archived 17 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Defense Update, 15 July 2012.
- Sweigart, Josh (6 October 2013). "New Air Force planes parked in Arizona 'boneyard'". stripes.com. Dayton Daily News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- New Air Force Planes Go Directly to 'Boneyard' Archived 11 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine – Military.com, 7 October 2013.
- "USAF C-27J makes domestic debut in disaster relief operations". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Surplus C-27J Spartans Could Mean Big Windfall for Coast Guard" Archived 4 August 2013 at Archive.today. Nationaldefensemagazine.org, August 2013.
- "Agencies Await Decision on C-27J's Fate" Archived 15 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. DoDBuzz.com, 14 October 2013.
- MEHTA, AARON (1 November 2013). "US SOCOM To Get 7 C-27Js From USAF". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- US Coast Guard to acquire USAF's remaining C-27J Spartans Archived 19 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine – Flightglobal.com, 6 January 2014
- First C-27J Spartan Delivered in Coast Guard Colors Archived 3 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine – Defensemedianetwork.com, 5 April 2016
- Wastnage, Justin. "Italy takes delivery of first of 12 C-27J Spartans developed by Alenia with Lockheed Martin." Archived 2 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flightglobal.com, 26 October 2006.
- "Cerimonia di consegna del primo C-27J dell". www.difesa.it (in Italian). Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- Peruzzi, Luca. "Italian Air Force deploys C-27J Spartans to Afghanistan." Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 19 September 2008.
- Nativi, Andy. "Italian C-27Js Complete Afghanistan Ops." Archived 22 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 30 January 2009.
- "Italian Air Force's C-27J Spartan deployed to the Philippines for humanitarian assistance." Archived 12 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Alenia Aermacchi, 20 December 2013.
- Obborne, Tony. "Italian Air Force To Launch Gunship C-27J." Archived 10 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 17 November 2013.
- "Alenia Aeronautica delivers the first C-27J to the Bulgarian Air Force." Alenia Aeronautica, 13 November 2007.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Bulgaria receives its last C-27J transport." Archived 7 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine FlightGlobal.com, 31 March 2011.
- Lief, Nick. "Bulgarian Air Force receives its third Spartan C-27J." Archived 20 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Sofia Echo, 31 March 2011.
- "Bulgarian Air Force Gets Last Spartan Plane in Troubled Arms Deal." Archived 10 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine novinite.com, 31 March 2011.
- "Spartan Order". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 December 2006.
- "EADS appeal suspends Romanian C-27J order" Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, 13 February 2007.
- Kington, Tom. "Romania Unblocks C-27J Selection" Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. romanianewswatch.com. Retrieved: 8 April 2012.
- "Romania accepts first C-27J Spartans" Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Flightglobal.com, 12 April 2010.
- "Australia – C-27J Aircraft and Related Support (News release)." Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 19 December 2011. Retrieved: 20 December 2011.
- Jones, Brent. "U.S. approves military plane sales to Australia." Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine USA Today, 21 December 2011. Retrieved: 23 December 2011.
- Francis, Leithen. "RAAF Wants C-27J Rather Than C295."Aviation Week, 9 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Savage and Davies, Tom and Andrew (22 March 2012). "Delivering the goods: the ADF's future battlefield airlifter" (PDF). avia-it.com. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "Alenia Aermacchi completes final assembly of C-27J Spartan for Royal Australian Air Force". 23 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Hoyle Craig. "PICTURES: Australia's first C-27J gets airborne." Archived 10 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 19 December 2013.
- McLaughlin, Andrew. "RAAF starts C-27J training." Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Australian Aviation, 22 December 2014.
- "Royal Australian Air Force commissions 10th C-27J Spartan aircraft". www.airforce-technology.com. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Mexican air force to get four C-27J transports." Archived 8 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 6 July 2011.
- Hoyle, Craig. "PICTURE: Mexico receives first C-27J transport." Archived 12 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 20 September 2011.
- Guevara, Inigo. "Mexico begins to receive upgraded Hercules." Archived 1 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 26 April 2015.
- Peru; AF negotiating buy of four C-27J Spartan Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine – Dmilt.com, 8 June 2013.
- Peru; Four contenders in the next generation transport aircraft tender Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Dmilt.com, 30 July 2013.
- KINGTON, TOM (25 November 2013). "Peru Orders 2 Alenia Aermacchi C-27Js". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Peruvian air force receives first C-27J Spartan" Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 30 March 2015.
- Defensa.com (12 December 2017). "Arribó el cuarto C-27J Spartan de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú-noticia defensa.com - Noticias Defensa defensa.com Perú". Defensa.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- "Treasury borrows Sh32bn for arms". Business Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- Govindasamy, Siva. "Taiwan moves on purchase of C-27J Spartans." Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Flightglobal.com, 21 August 2009.
- "IAF issues RFI for C 27J Spartan." Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine indiastrategic.in, 2010.
- Firdaus, Hashim. "Indonesia eyes C-27J Spartans." Archived 27 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine FlightGlobal, 22 March 2011.
- "DND signs 5-year agreement with Italy". Philippine Star. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 September 2012.
- "Philippines Protecting South China Sea Interests". Aviation Week. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
- Hoyle, Craig. "DSEI: Alenia Aermacchi touts C-27J for UK." Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 18 September 2015.
- Olguin, Jonathan R (24 November 2016). "Bolivia evaluates C-27J tactical airlifter". IHS Jane's 360. Guadalajara, Mexico. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Light Air Transports for Ghana". Defense Industry Daily. 13 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "DND to look at single bid for search planes: report." Archived 19 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine CBC News, 3 January 2007.
- "C-27J FWSAR/MPA". Alenia Aermacchi North America. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016.
- "Avionics, performance upgrades enhance Alenia's C-27J Spartan's FWSAR capabilities". vanguardcanada.com. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Rescue Required: Canadas Search-And-Rescue Aircraft Program". defenseindustrydaily.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Schanz, Marc V. "Filling the Gunship Gap" Archived 22 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Air Force magazine, 18 August 2008.
- Butler, Amy. "DOD eyes one C-27J for conversion to SOF Gunship Lite" Archived 7 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Aviation Week, 25 July 2008.
- "AC-XX Gunship Lite Prototype: A C-27J "Baby Spooky" Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Defenseindustrydaily.com. Retrieved: 8 April 2012.
- Weisgerber, Marcus. "AFSOC gets ok to buy 16 AC-27 gunships". InsideDefense, 17 October 2008.
- Trimble, Stephen. "AFA-08: AC-27J Stinger II name revealed" Archived 25 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Flight Global blog. September 2008.
- LaGrone, Sam. "AFSOC plan for C-27s takes nosedive". Air Force Times, 4 May 2009.
- LaGrone, Sam. "AFSOC fills gunship gap with C-130s". Air Force Times, 14 May 2009.
- Kreisher, Otto. "Gunship Worries" Archived 19 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Air Force magazine, July 2009.
- "Leonardo. "Brochure C27J Spartan"" (PDF).
- Paulo, Valpolini. "New Armed MC-27J Spartan Is Safe For Expanded Roles." Archived 14 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine AIN Online, 9 July 2012.
- Kington, Tom. "New Alenia Gunship Could Fire Hellfires, PGMs." Archived 21 January 2013 at Archive.today Defense News. 10 July 2012.
- "DUBAI: Alenia-ATK team gunning for first MC-27J exports". Flightglobal.com. 19 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Majumdar, Dave (20 November 2013). "Tiny Gunships to Guard Italian Commandos". medium.com. War is Boring. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Jennings, Gareth. "Maiden flight for MC-27J gunship." Archived 9 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 27 April 2014.
- "ATK and Alenia Aermacchi Successfully Complete Testing on Italian Air Force C-27J with Roll-On/Roll-Off Palletized Gun Systems." Archived 6 April 2015 at Archive.today Alliant Techsystems Inc, 16 July 2014.
- "I nuovi programmi di acquisizione della Difesa secondo il DPP 2020-2022". Coccarde Tricolori (in Italian). 28 October 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- Peruzzi, Luca "Italy to test C-27J for counter-IED mission." Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 6 May 2010.
- Wall, Robert. "Airborne Electronic Attack Efforts Gain Momentum." Archived 20 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 June 2012.
- "Royal Australian Air Force confirms purchase of ten C-27's" Archived 9 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Australian Air Force purchase. Sydney Morning Herald, May 2012.
- "Wallaby Airlines returns to Air Force". Media release. Department of Defence. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Waldron, Greg (16 December 2016). "RAAF C-27Js achieve IOC". Flight Global. Singapore. Archived from the original on 17 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2012 Aerospace. Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2012.
- "Chad to receive C-27J Spartan transport aircraft". IHS Jane's. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Mazzeo, Antonio. "Italia in Ciad per grande esercitazione militare US Africom". dazebaonews.it. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Kenya Orders Three C-27J Transports and AW139 Helicopters from Leonardo". www.defense-aerospace.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- Perry, Dominic (6 February 2020). "Kenya takes C-27J pair". Flight Global. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Thisdell, Dan. "Lithuania gets third Spartan ready for Afghan mission." Archived 26 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 19 October 2009.
- "Alenia Aermacchi signs contract with the Peruvian Air Force for two C-27J Spartan transport aircraft". airrecognition.com. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "Peru Orders Two More Alenia C-27Js" Archived 9 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. defense-aerospace.com
- "Romanian Air Force takes delivery of its 7th Alenia C27J Spartan military airlifter". airrecognition.com/. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Perry, Dominic (31 October 2017). "Slovakia receives first C-27J Spartan". Flight Global. London. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Jennings, Gareth (31 October 2017). "Slovakia receives first Spartan airlifter". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "Slovak Air Force has second Alenia C27J Spartan". pravda.sk/. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- Jennings, Gareth (10 April 2018). "Slovakia completes receipt of C-27J airlifters". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "Coast Guard to Take Control of Last USAF C-27Js". Defense News. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "New Air Force Planes Go Directly to 'Boneyard'". Military.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Dorr, Robert F. (8 November 2013). "Unwanted Air Force C-27J Spartans' Future Will Be Decided Soon". Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- "SOCOM to get 7 C-27Js from Air Force". airforcetimes.com. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- USASOC activates flight detachment, soc.mil, release number: 130605-01, dated 5 June 2013, last accessed 20 September 2020
- MEHTA, AARON (6 January 2014). "Coast Guard to Take Control of Last USAF C-27Js". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Coast Guard Air Station replaces Hercules aircraft during change of watch ceremony". United States Coast Guard Newsroom. 30 June 2016.[dead link]
- "Zambia To Boost AF Trainer, Lift Capabilities". Defense News. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Nuova commessa internazionale per il C-27J – DETTAGLIO – Finmeccanica Group". finmeccanica.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Binnie, Jeremy (20 December 2017). "Zambian C-27J Spartan buy confirmed". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Zambian C-27Js delivered". defenceWeb. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- "C-27J Fact Sheet". Alenia Aermacchi. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "C-27J essential facts." C-27j.com. Retrieved: 11 June 2011. Archive Drawing
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- C-27J on Leonardo web site
- GMAS C-27J site for JCA Program
- Alenia Canadian C-27J site
- C-27J Spartan: Pocket Technical Guide
- "Frontline warrior: The Alenia Aeronautica C-27 Spartan ", Flight International
- European Aviation Safety Agency – Type Certificate Data Sheet C-27J
- Flight Test: C-27J – No small measure. Flight International, 24 August 2004.