Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel

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Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel
Combination of
EthinylestradiolEstrogen
LevonorgestrelProgestogen
Clinical data
Trade namesAltavera, Alysena, Amethyst, Aviane, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa601050
Pregnancy
category
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status

Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (also ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel) is a combined birth control pill made up of ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and levonorgestrel a progestin.[2] It is used for birth control, symptoms of menstruation, endometriosis, and as emergency contraception.[1][2] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Side effects can include nausea, headache, blood clots, breast pain, depression, and liver problems.[2] Use is not recommended during pregnancy, the initial three weeks after childbirth, and in those at high risk of blood clots.[2] However, it may be started immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.[3] Smoking while using combined birth control pills is not recommended.[1] It works by stopping ovulation, making the mucus at the opening to the cervix thick, and making the uterus not suitable for implantation.[1]

Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel has been approved for medical use in the United States at least since 1982.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[5] In the United Kingdom three months of medication costs the NHS about 1.80 pounds.[6] In the United States it costs about 25 to 50 USD per month.[5] It is marketed under a large number of brand names.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel medical facts from Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 363–365. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. ^ "Erlibelle 30micrograms/150micrograms film-coated tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  4. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 349. ISBN 9781284057560.
  6. ^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 552. ISBN 9780857111562.