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In 2005, Triantafilou was appointed and subsequently won election to the Hamilton County Municipal Court. In 2006, he was appointed to the Hamilton County Court of Common Pleas. Beginning in 2008, he is the current chairman of the Hamilton County Republican Party. Triantafilou also serves as magistrate, hearing cases regularly before the mayors' courts of Newtown and Harrison, Ohio. Triantafilou is also a partner at the law firm of Dinsmore & Shohl.
Triantafilou was born and raised in Cincinnati to a family of Greek ancestry. He is a graduate of Oak Hills High School, the University of Cincinnati, and the Salmon P. Chase College of Law. He resides in Green Township, Ohio with his wife Jennifer and has a son, Michael. He is a parishioner of the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Finneytown, Ohio. Triantafilou has been involved in the Ohio Mock Trial program through his alma mater, Oak Hills High School.
On April 29, 2009, Triantafilou posted a picture of Senator Arlen Specter, who had recently switched from being a Republican to being a Democrat, on his blog; the picture showed Specter bald after his bout with cancer and compared him to Dr. Evil from the Austin Powers film series. After receiving criticisms from Democratic leaders, including Tim Burke, the Democratic Party Chairman in Hamilton County, Triantafilou removed the picture and post from his site.
- "Ohio GOP leader compares bald Specter to Dr. Evil". seattletimes.com. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.