Armstrong in 2005
Alexander Henry Fenwick Armstrong|
2 March 1970
Rothbury, Northumberland, England
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Occupation||Television presenter, comedian, actor, singer|
|Spouse(s)||Hannah Bronwen Snow (m. 2003)|
Alexander Henry Fenwick Armstrong (born 2 March 1970) is an English comedian, actor, television presenter and bass baritone singer, best known as one half of the comedy duo Armstrong and Miller and as host of the BBC TV game show Pointless.
Aside from his Armstrong and Miller sketch show characters, Armstrong's television credits include a leading role in the TV series Life Begins, whilst he also voiced Professor M in Tooned, alien supercomputer Mr Smith in the Doctor Who spin-off The Sarah Jane Adventures as well as the main show's two part story "The Stolen Earth" / "Journey's End", and the title character in the revived series of Danger Mouse.
Armstrong was born in Rothbury, Northumberland, the youngest of three children, to physician Henry Angus Armstrong and his wife, Emma Virginia Peronnet Thompson-McCausland. His maternal grandparents were economist Lucius Thompson-McCausland and Helen Laura McCausland (6 April 1903 – February 2000), granddaughter of Captain Conolly Thomas McCausland (13 May 1828 – 25 June 1902) and Hon. Laura St. John (12 June 1842 – 21 October 1919), daughter of St Andrew St John, 15th Baron St John of Bletso.
Armstrong was educated at Mowden Hall School in Stocksfield, Northumberland and St Mary's Music School in Edinburgh (where he was a chorister at St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral from the ages of 11 to 13) and attended Durham School and Trinity College, Cambridge on music scholarships. He played the piano – which has been alluded to in several The Armstrong and Miller Show sketches – and the cello, the latter of which he dropped in favour of the "much more masculine" oboe.
At Cambridge, Armstrong read English and scored a third-class degree and sang bass baritone as a choral scholar with the college choir. Armstrong joined the Footlights in his final year as part of the writing team for the 1992 revue and was Spooks creator David Wolstencroft's comedy partner.
After graduating in 1992, Armstrong moved to London with some friends to pursue a career in acting and comedy. While waiting for acting roles, he worked in a string of North London bars and restaurants and was eventually introduced to Ben Miller, who had also moved to London, through Jez Butterworth. In 1996, Armstrong and Miller performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and were nominated for the Perrier Award.
Armstrong and Miller co-starred in four series of Armstrong and Miller from 1997 to 2001, while also performing sketches in The Sunday Format. The duo decided to take a break and split for several years to forge their own solo careers. Armstrong renewed his partnership with Miller for the award-winning The Armstrong and Miller Show in 2007.
Armstrong appeared on the BBC Radio 4's The Very World of Milton Jones, broadcast between 1998 and 2001, and between early 2000 and early 2001, starred as a misanthropic, animal-hating vet in the BBC One sitcom Beast and he has also been the star of a series of TV commercials for Pimm's. In 1999, Armstrong starred as Prince Charming in ITV's Christmas pantomime with Miller, Samantha Janus, Paul Merton, Harry Hill, Frank Skinner and Ronnie Corbett. Armstrong narrated the animated cartoon series The Big Knights, which first appeared on the BBC1 over the Christmas Season of 1999–2000.
On BBC Radio 4, Armstrong played John Weak in the office sitcom Weak at the Top. He also played Martin Baine-Jones for the Times Online's "Timeghost" podcast. Between September and November 2010, Armstrong took The Armstrong and Miller Show on tour in the UK, completing 62 dates. This was only the second time The Armstrong and Miller Show had gone out on the road, the first tour being in autumn 2001.
The Armstrong and Miller hardback book was released in October 2010.
On 1 September 2006, Armstrong was chairman of the short-lived Channel 4 panel show Best of the Worst which featured team captains David Mitchell and Johnny Vaughan. Armstrong presented the short-lived ITV1 quiz series Don't Call Me Stupid, in which mismatched celebrities taught each other a subject they are passionate about, before facing a studio quiz on their new topic. He has been a frequent guest host on the BBC's satirical panel game Have I Got News for You, having appeared 30 times with his most recent appearance as host being on 6 October 2017. Armstrong has, to date, made the most appearances of any guest, whether as host or panellist.
Armstrong says that in 2003 he was offered the job of replacing Angus Deayton as full-time host of Have I Got News for You but the BBC later changed their minds and withdrew the offer after deciding to continue with the guest presenter format instead. In 2008, he was the presenter and narrator for When Were We Funniest? and was the only person to feature in all twelve episodes.
Armstrong was a leading contender to take over as host of Countdown when Des O'Connor left in 2008, although when he hosted Have I Got News for You on 24 October 2008, he said that he hadn't yet accepted the job, despite team captains Ian Hislop and Paul Merton making jokes about his "new role". Armstrong declined the job, telling The Independent that he didn't want to be "pigeonholed" as a presenter, preferring to focus on acting and comedy.
Armstrong has been the presenter of the BBC One game show Pointless with former university friend Richard Osman since it began in 2009. He also presented a documentary, Alexander Armstrong's Very British Holiday, for the BBC on 8 November 2009 about the history of the "great British summer holiday" and his attempts to explore its modern version. On 30 May 2011, Armstrong hosted the pilot for a new panel show, Alexander Armstrong's Big Ask for Dave with Dave Lamb, Katy Brand, Griff Rhys Jones and Robert Webb. After a positive response to the pilot, Dave commissioned the first series which first aired on 6 February 2012. In July 2011, Armstrong became a co-presenter on BBC One's The Great British Weather. In August 2011, he began presenting a game show on BBC One called Epic Win.
On 1 June 2015, Armstrong presented a documentary, Rome's Invisible City, which used 3D scanning technology to discover the underground spaces below the city. Subsequently, it was announced that Armstrong would be making a three-part series exploring the lost and hidden sites of Florence, Naples, and Venice.
In 2015, Armstrong presented a three-part factual series for ITV, called Land of the Midnight Sun, in which he travelled half-way round the Arctic Circle meeting its inhabitants and exploring their ways of life. In January 2016, he guest presented Bruce's Hall of Fame on BBC One.
Singing and music
After over a decade in television and comedy, Armstrong returned to his musical roots and put together his own cover band, which plays a wide range of music from jazz to rock to pop classics. A classically trained bass baritone, he is the vocalist and is backed up by Harry the Piano on keyboards, Simon Bates on woodwind, Jeff Lardner on drums and Dave Swift on bass. The band's first tour ran from 19 September to 6 November 2013.
Until he started his band, Armstrong mainly sang at his local parish church services or at weddings, away from the public eye. Armstrong impersonated Susan Boyle's Britain's Got Talent rendition of "I Dreamed a Dream" in the show Your Face Sounds Familiar and surprised the judges by singing in falsetto. He sang "Winter Wonderland" during the celebrities Christmas special of Pointless and "No Rhyme for Richard" from Blondel in BBC Two's Tim Rice: A Life in Song and collaborated with The Sixteen to record the single "Good King Wenceslas" to raise funds for the charity Crisis.
On 9 May 2015 Armstrong participated in VE Day 70: A Party to Remember, a televised commemorative concert from Horse Guards Parade in London, where he sang "We Must All Stick Together" by Ralph Butler and Raymond Wallace, and "London Pride". He sang in Songs of Praise: The Big Sing, broadcast on 20 September 2015, a special programme from the Royal Albert Hall to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II becoming the world's longest-serving monarch. Armstrong sang I Would Be True.
On 6 November 2015, Armstrong brought out his debut solo vocal album, A Year of Songs, on Warner Music Group's East West Records label. It reached number 6 on the UK Albums Chart in its first week and topped the UK Classical Charts, the first time a comedian/actor has reached number 1 in that chart. In January and February 2016 he carried out a 9-date UK tour with his band.
In December 2017 he joined the long list of celebrities who have narrated Prokofiev's Peter and The Wolf for children. Armstrong's version was recorded under the Warner Classics label with the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra.
- Non presenting roles
|1995||You Bet!||Doctor Watson||ITV||Series 8, show 6 |
|The Thin Blue Line||Unnamed Gentleman||BBC One||S1E6 "Kids Today" |
Guest appearance (credited as "Alex Armstrong")
|1996||Sharpe||Lord John Rossendale||ITV|
|1998||Is It Legal?||Nick||Channel 4||S3E5|
|1999||The Big Knights||Narrator||BBC One||Voice only|
|2001||Dr. Terrible's House of Horrible||Michael Masters||BBC Two||Episode 1|
|2002||TLC||Dr Stephen Noble|
|2004–2006||Life Begins||Phil Mee||ITV|
|2005||Marple||DI Craddock||"A Murder Is Announced"|
|2006||Saxondale||TV presenter||BBC Two||S1E2|
|2007–2011||The Sarah Jane Adventures||Mr Smith||CBBC||Voice only|
|2007||After You've Gone||Dr Howard Banks||BBC One||S1E7|
|Hotel Babylon||Aiden Spencer||S2E6 |
|Christmas at the Riviera||Reverend Miles Roger||ITV||TV Movie|
|2007||To the Manor Born||Adam fforbes-Hamilton||BBC One||Christmas special |
|2008||Doctor Who||Mr Smith||S4E12 "The Stolen Earth" (voice only)|
S4E13 "Journey's End" (voice only)
|Mutual Friends||Patrick Turner|
|2009||Micro Men||Clive Sinclair||BBC Four|
|2010||The Trial of Tony Blair||David Cameron||More4|
|Reggie Perrin||David||BBC One||Series 2, 5 episodes|
|2011||Doctor Who||Reg Arwell||S7EX "The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe"|
|2012||Hacks||David Bullingdon MP||Channel 4|||
|2012-2013||Tooned||Professor M||Sky Sports F1||Voice only|
|2012||Hunderby||Brother Joseph||Sky Atlantic|
|2014||Not Going Out||Himself||BBC One|
|2014–present||Hey Duggee||Narrator||CBeebies|| Voice only|
|2015–present||Danger Mouse||Danger Mouse||CBBC||Voice only (also voices Danger mouse in live stage show at Butlins in 2017)|
|The Sound of Music Live||Max Detweiler||ITV||UK adaptation of The Sound of Music Live!|
|2017||Lip Sync Battle UK||Himself||Channel 5|
|1999||Plunkett & Macleane||Winterburn|
|2001||Birthday Girl||Robert Moseley|
|2005||Match Point||Mr Townsend|
|2006||Scoop||Unnamed policeman||Guest appearance|
|2010||Jackboots on Whitehall||Red Leader|
- Television presenting
|2003–||Have I Got News for You||Guest presenter||BBC One||Most frequent guest presenter to have appeared on the show|
|2006||Best of the Worst||Presenter||Channel 4|
|2009–||Pointless||Co-presenter||BBC Two/BBC One||With Richard Osman|
|2011||The Great British Weather||Co-presenter||BBC One|
|2011–2013||Alexander Armstrong's Big Ask||Presenter||Dave|
|2013||Your Face Sounds Familiar||Contestant||ITV|
|Prize Island||Co-presenter||With Emma Willis|
|The 12 Drinks of Christmas||Co-presenter||BBC Two||With Giles Coren|
|2014||Alexander Armstrong's Real Ripping Yarns||Presenter||BBC Four|||
|2015||Frank Sinatra: Our Way||Co-presenter||BBC One||One-off special; with Rochelle Humes|
|Sunday Night at the Palladium||Presenter||ITV||Guest presenter; 1 episode|
|Alexander Armstrong in the Land of the Midnight Sun||Presenter|||
|Rome's Invisible City||Presenter||BBC One||One-off special|
|2016||Bruce's Hall of Fame||Presenter||Stand-in presenter for Bruce Forsyth|
|2017||Italy's Invisible Cities||Co-presenter||With Dr. Michael Scott|
|Don't Ask Me Ask Britain||Presenter||ITV|
|Teach My Pet To Do That||Presenter|
|A Very Royal Wedding||Presenter||One-off documentary|
|2018–||The Imitation Game||Presenter||Upcoming series|
- Video Games
- 2003 – Hidden & Dangerous 2
|title||Details||Peak chart positions||Certifications|
|A Year of Songs||
|Upon a Different Shore||
|In a Winter Light||
In 1997, Armstrong and Miller provided the voices for lead characters for the PC game 'Wings of Destiny', published by Psygnosis in 2000, as British airmen and Nazi officers covering the two comic-book plots in the game. From 2002–09, Armstrong appeared in a series of successful British television adverts for the drink Pimms. With Miller, he has formed a production company called Toff Media.
In 2002, Armstrong provided the voice for the character Horse in the English dub of the series A Town Called Panic.
Also in 2012, Armstrong is the voice of Professor M for the animation breaks for the McLaren F1 team with the animations called Tooned also featuring the voices of Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button broadcast on Sky Sports F1.
In 2013, Armstrong and Miller appeared in the television advertising campaign for Spitfire Ale.
In 2004, Armstrong provided the voice of the narrator for CBeebies animation Hey Duggee
In August 2010, Armstrong was featured in an episode of BBC One's Who Do You Think You Are?, through which he discovered that he was a descendant of William the Conqueror. His father comes from a land-owning family with deep connections to the North East and is a great-grandnephew of Robert Spence Watson and distantly related to William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong. With Armstrong's father's family history already well-known to him, the series traced his mother's side of the family, who were descended from Irish landed gentry.
The McCauslands were originally seated in Drenagh, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland and trace their ancestry through the Rouse-Boughton family to Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester (1602/03–1667), a descendant of William the Conqueror via Edward III and the Beauforts, Dukes of Somerset.
Edward Somerset's first marriage was to Elizabeth Dormer (d. 1635). Elizabeth's grandfather, Robert Dormer, 1st Baron of Wing (1551–1616), was half-brother to Jane Dormer (1538–1612), later Countess of Feria, and lady-in-waiting to Mary I.
Tracing Edward Somerset's lineage further back reveals him to have been a great-great-grandson of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu - Pole himself being the eldest son of Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury. The Countess of Salisbury, beheaded by Henry VIII as the last of the Yorkist line, was daughter to George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville. Isabel was daughter to Warwick the Kingmaker. Margaret Salisbury's father Clarence and his brothers Richard III and Edward IV were sons of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cicely Neville, who pursued the Yorkist claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses.
His wife, Hannah Snow, is the sister of Esther Walker, a journalist and food blogger who is married to restaurant critic and TV presenter Giles Coren. The two brothers-in-law co-presented The Twelve Drinks of Christmas
Armstrong is an active supporter of the Countryside Alliance, appearing in their advertisements and magazine to promote countryside shooting. In an interview with The Independent in March 2012, he said that his family had traditionally voted for the Liberal Democrats. Armstrong describes himself as a "centrist" and a "floating voter" stating "I'm not greatly impressed by party politics but I am by individual people. I'm a centrist, and very suspicious of any tribalism."
In February 2011, Armstrong became President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne and launched their million pound appeal at a special gala event. He is a patron of several charities, including Family Links, the Charlie Waller Memorial Trust and Just A Drop.
In August 2014, Armstrong was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian expressing their hope that Scotland would vote to remain part of the United Kingdom in September's referendum on that issue.
- Johnston, Jenny (8 August 2014). "Pointless? It's turned our lives upside down! Alexander Armstrong and Richard Osman on what it's like being catapulted to stardom". Daily Mail. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Cooper, Glenda (2 January 2012). "Tough and tender side of the down-to-earth comedian Alexander Armstrong". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Alexander Henry Fenwick Armstrong". ThePeerage.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Interview: Alexander Armstrong on bringing variety back to Saturday night TV". The Scotsman. 26 July 2011.
- "A Personal Introduction from Xander & Ben..." The Armstrong and Miller Show. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
Alexander attended Mowden Hall Preparatory School in Northumberland where he picked up a lively interest in music and acting. So much so that he transferred at the age of 11 to St Mary's Music School in Edinburgh where he specialised in singing and playing the piano, the cello, and the giddy goat. He proceeded to Durham school on a music scholarship where he dropped the Cello in favour of the much more masculine Oboe but continued to hone his love of showing off.
- Farndale, Nigel (17 July 2011). "Alexander Armstrong: can't curb his enthusiasm". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Gilbert, Gerard (10 March 2012). "Pedigree Chum: Is Alexander Armstrong the poshest man in comedy?". The Independent. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Cooper, Charlie (8 February 2013). "My Secret Life: Alexander Armstrong, 42, comedian". The Independent. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Petty, Moira (13 August 2010). "Camilla's delightful so I have to stick up for her: Alexander Armstrong on why there's one public figure he won't ridicule". MailOnline. London. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
Even at public school, Alexander Armstrong found himself accused of being posh. 'I was unlike everyone else at Durham School. It was like a country club for the children of rich, Northern industrialists, so an awful lot of big hairstyles on high stiletto heels climbed out of sports cars.
- "Durham". Guide to Independent Schools. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Armstrong upset over TV quiz job". BBC News. 14 March 2005. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Irvine, Chris (17 October 2008). "Alexander Armstrong 'accepted job as new Countdown host'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Rajan, Amol (31 October 2008). "Armstrong turns down 'Countdown' job". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Epic Win at BBC Programmes
- "Alexander Armstrong wins Prize role". The Sun. 10 July 2012.
- "Alexander Armstrong and Rochelle Humes to host BBC One's Frank Sinatra: Our Way". BBC. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Rome's Invisible City". BBC One. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Alexander Armstrong to reveal Italy's Invisible Cities". Radio Times. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Alexander Armstrong In The Land Of The Midnight Sun". ITV Press Centre. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Alexander Armstrong". Archived from the original on 19 February 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Meet Harry the Piano". Classic FM. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Shilling, Jane (29 October 2013). "Alexander Armstrong and his Band Celebrate the Great British Songbook, St James's Theatre, review". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- MacAlister, Katherine (31 October 2013). "Comic Alexander Armstrong is in fine voice". The Oxford Times. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Your Face Sounds Familiar: Natalie wins but Alexander steals show as Subo". STV. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Tim Rice: A Life in Song". BBC. 25 December 2014.
- "Alexander Armstrong joins The Sixteen for Good King Wenceslas charity single". Classif FM. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Weinberg, Rob (22 September 2014). "Katherine Jenkins and Alexander Armstrong join Classic FM's weekend lineup". Classic FM. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "About Alexander Armstrong". Classic FM. 29 January 2016.
- "VE Day 70 – A Party to Remember". BBC. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Songs of Praise - Tribute to a Queen - The Big Sing". BBC. 20 September 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Saunder, Tristram Fane (13 November 2015). "Comedian Alexander Armstrong tops the classical charts". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- BWW News Desk (16 September 2015). "Alexander Armstrong Releases Album, Announces Tour". BroadwayWorld.com.
- Good Morning Britain (23 June 2016), Alexander Armstrong And Richard Osman On The Success Of Pointless | Good Morning Britain, retrieved 23 June 2016
- Frost, Vicky (21 September 2011). "Cast for Doctor Who Christmas special unwrapped". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Hacks". British Comedy Guide. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
Satire on the phone-hacking scandal set at a fictional newspaper where "any means necessary" doesn't begin to cover it.
- "Hey Duggee". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015.
- "Danger Mouse is Live at Butlin's in 2017". Butlins. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Alexander Armstrong's post-apocalyptic comedy". ITV. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "The Sound of Music Live! ITV to broadcast live version of the classic musical this Christmas". ITV News. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "The 12 Drinks of Christmas". BBC Two. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Alexander Armstrong's Real Ripping Yarns". BBC Four. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Italy's Invisible Cities". BBC. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "ITV picks up Plimsoll's "Teach My Pet To Do That"". realscreen.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Private Passions". BBC. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Alexander Armstrong". Official Charts. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- "Certified Awards" (enter "Alexander Armstrong" into the "Keywords" box, then select "Search"). British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Kemp, Ed (26 June 2009). "Pimm's drops comedian Alexander Armstrong after seven years". Marketing Magazine. Haymarket. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Paton, Maureen (19 July 2009). "In a Taxi with Ben Miller". The Mail on Sunday. p. 49.
- "Spitfire Announces Armstrong & Miller Partnership". Shepheard Neame. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Hill, Laura (7 December 2015). "North East TV stars join graduates at Northumbria University receiving honorary degrees". Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Kearney, Tony (8 December 2015). "University honours for Jeremy Paxman and Alexander Armstrong". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Life is sweet for Alex". Manchester Evening News. 14 February 2005. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Daly, Claire (4 September 2007). "The 5-minute Interview: Alexander Armstrong, Comedian and presenter". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Potter, Laura (1 February 2009). "My body & soul: Alexander Armstrong". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Taylor, Jeremy (1 November 2013). "A walk with the FT: The Bledington route". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- "Interview: Alexander Armstrong, president of the Lit & Phil". The Journal. 15 December 2011.
- "Alexander Armstrong". Who Do You Think You Are? Magazine. BBC. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- See Desmond Seward, The Last White Rose (London: Constable, 2011).
- Armstrong's grandfather was a brother of Stubbs' grandmother. Pointless Celebrities, 27 September 2014, BBC One
- "Giles Coren - Tatler". Tatler. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Ellie Austin. "Back in Time for Dinner: Food critic Giles Coren on his new BBC2 series, fad diets, and why the government should get involved in the obesity problem - Page 2". RadioTimes. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "The 12 Drinks of Christmas - BBC Two". BBC. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Lit & Phil Appeal". The Literary & Philosophical Society. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Patrons". Family Links. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Who's Who". Charlie Waller Memorial Trust. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "'Pointless' Host - Alexander Armstrong - is New Patron of Just a Drop". Just A Drop. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Celebrities' open letter to Scotland – full text and list of signatories". The Guardian. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
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