Alexander Balus

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Alexander Balus (HWV 65) is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel, named after its title character, the Seleucid king Alexander Balas. The work has three acts and was written in English. The period of the story is from 150 B.C to 145 B.C. The libretto is by Thomas Morell after the biblical book of 1 Maccabees.

Fourth in a series of English military oratorios, following Joshua and the success of Judas Maccabaeus, celebrating the victories of the Royal family over the Jacobite uprisings, Alexander Balus was composed in the summer of 1747 and premiered on 23 March 1748 with Caterina Galli singing the title role, Thomas Lowe as Jonathan, and Thomas Reinhold as Ptolemee. In 1754 Handel made a revision to his work and changed the leading role, the king Alexander, to a soprano instead of an alto.

Dramatis personae[edit]

  • Alexander Balus, King of Syria (alto)
  • Ptolemee, King of Egypt (bass)
  • Jonathan, Chief of the Jews (tenor)
  • Cleopatra, Daughter to Ptolemee (soprano)
  • Aspasia, her Confident (soprano)
  • A Sycophant Courtier (tenor)
  • Messenger (tenor)
  • Another Messenger (bass)
  • Chorus of Israelites
  • Chorus of Asiates
  • Chorus of Ruffians



Act 1

Alexander claimed the throne of Syria by killing Demetrius the king. Alexander then befriends the Jews and their leader Jonathan Maccabaeus. The king of Egypt, Ptolemee, congratulates Alexander and celebrates his successes by awarding him his daughter, Cleopatra. The two fall in love.

Act 2

Alexander and Cleopatra are married. Alexander is led to believe by a messenger that Jonathan plans to betray him after winning his friendship. It is then revealed that Ptolemee only arranged Alexander and Cleopatra's marriage to take Alexander's land and power. He plans to move his troops into Syria under the cover of nightfall to kidnap and kill the young leader.

Act 3

Cleopatra is kidnapped by Ptolemee’s ruffians and he intends force her to marry to another man. During Cleopatra's captivity, Ptolemee tries to break her allegiance to Alexander, but is unsuccessful. Alexander rushes off to war, while Jonathan stays behind, fearing the worst and doubting the power of Alexander's Syrian gods. Jonathan's intuition is confirmed when a messenger delivers the news that although they won three battles, Alexander and Ptolemy have been killed. Cleopatra commends herself to the goddess, Isis, and retires to ‘some peaceful shore’. Jonathan reflects on the tragedy, believing that if everyone would have acknowledged the true God, none of this would have happen.[2]


Act 1[edit]


  • Overture

Chorus of Asiates-

  • Flushed with conquest, fir’d by Mithra

Alexander- Recit.*Thus far ye glorious partners of the war


  • Air. Great Author of this harmony
  • Recit. And thus let happy Egypt’s king
  • Air. Thrice happy the Monarch, whom nations contend


  • Recit. Congratulations to our father’s friend
  • Air. Hark he strikes the golden lyre


  • Recit. Be it my chief ambition there to rise
  • Air. Fair virtue shall charm me

Chorus of Asiates-

  • Ye happy nations round


  • Recit. My Jonathan, didst thou mark
  • Air. Oh what restless charms


  • Air. Subtle Love, with fancy viewing Aspasia, I know not what to call
  • Air. How happy should we mortals prove?


  • Recit. Check not the pleasing accent of thy tongue
  • Air. So shall the sweet attractive smile


  • Recit. How blissful state


  • Duet. O, what pleasures, past expressing


  • Recit. Why hangs heavy gloom upon the brow


  • Air. Heroes may boast their mighty deeds
  • Air. Mighty Love now calls to arm


  • Recit. Ye sons of Judah, with high festivals proclaim
  • Air. Great god, from whom all blessings spring

Chorus of Israelites-

  • These are thy gifts, almighty king
  • To thee let grateful Judah sing

Act 2[edit]


  • Air. Kind Hope, thou universal friend


  • Recit. Long, long and happy live the king


  • Air. O Mithra, with thy brightest beams

Sycophant Courtier-

  • Stay my dread sovereign


  • Air. Hateful man!


  • O calumny, on virtue waiting


  • Recit. Ah! Whence these dire forebodings of the mind?
  • Air. Tost from the thought to thought I rove


  • Recit. Give to the winds, fair princess, these vain doubts
  • Air. Love, glory, ambition


  • Recit. Thus far my wishes thrive
  • Air. Virtue, thou ideal name


  • Recit. Ye happy people

Jonathan and Chorus-

  • Triumph, Hymen, in the pair


  • Recit. Glad time, at length, has reach’d the happy point


  • Duet. Hail, wedded love, mysterious law

Chorus of Asiates-

  • Hymen, fair Urania’s son

Act 3[edit]


  • Sinfonia


  • Recit. Tis true, instructive nature seldom points
  • Air. Here amid the shady woods


  • Recit. Mistaken queen! The Gods and Ptolemee


  • Recit. Ah! Was it not my Cleopatra’s voice?
  • Air. Pow’rful guardians of al nature


  • Recit. Treach’ry, o king


  • Air. Fury, with red sparkling eyes


  • Recit. Gods! Can there be a more afflicting sight
  • Air. Strange reverse of human fate


  • Air. The God, who made the radiant sun

Chorus of Issaelites-

  • Sun, moon, and stars


  • Recit. Yes he was false, my daughter
  • Air. O sword, and thou all-daring hand


  • Recit. Shall Cleopatra ever smile again?


  • Ungrateful tidings to the royal ear


  • Air. O take me from this hateful light

Another Messenger-

  • Forgive, o queen, the messenger of ill


  • Recit. Calm thy soul, kind Isis
  • Air. Convey me to some peaceful shore


  • Recit. Mysterious are thy ways, o providence

Jonathan and Chorus-

  • Ye servants of th’ eternal King



  • Violino I, II, and III
  • Oboe I and II
  • Viola
  • Bass
  • Continuo
  • Timpani
  • Tromba I and II
  • Corno I and II
  • Fagotto
  • Traversa I and II
  • Harp
  • Mandolino


This Baroque era Oratorio originally featured all Baroque instruments. in its later performances the Continuo has been switch from a harpsichord to a pianoforte. Handel uses some of his ornate composing styles like a trumba call in "And Thus let happy Egypt's king" and strong use of chorus to convey messages and further the plot. Some of the orchestration for each song changes depending on the singer but mostly Continuo is used when performing a recitative. Arias are accompanied by varying instruments in this work. there are two orchestra pieces the Overture and a Sinfonia before Act III.


Covent Garden 23 March 1748[edit]

  • Caterina Galli as Alexander
  • Casarini as Cleopatra
  • Sibilla as Aspasia
  • Thomas Lowe as Jonathan
  • Thomas Reinhold as Ptolemy

1754 Revival[edit]

  • Passerini as Alexander
  • Frasi as Cleopatra
  • Caterina Galli as Aspasia
  • Beard as Jonothan
  • Wass as Ptolemee



  • Alexander Balus, The King's Consort, The Choir of New College, Oxford, Conducted by Robert King, Produced by Hyperion UK, October 14, 1997[6]
  • Alexander Balus, Brewer Chamber Orchestra, Conducted by Rudolph Palmer, Produced by Newport Classics, January 27, 1998[7]
  • "Convey me to that peaceful shore" sung by Bernadetta Greevy[8]
  • "Fury with red sparkling eyes" sung by Lemieux Marie Nicole[9]


External links[edit]