From the beginning of the 1900s, senior hockey was immensely popular across Canada. Some players participated in amateur senior leagues, eligible to compete for the Allan Cup, representative of the top amateur senior team in Canada. Other players participated in professional senior leagues, not eligible for the Allan Cup competition.
The Alexander Cup competition was introduced in 1950, as a bridge between the numerous senior ice hockey leagues. The concept was to create a new "open" level of mixed competition – for both pros and amateurs – that would be known as "Major Senior". The trophy was presented by Viscount Alexander, the then Governor-General of Canada.
In the first 1950-51 season, senior teams aligned themselves in five super-leagues to compete for the Alexander Cup. By the fourth season, the field of competition had dwindled to only one league, the semi-professional Maritime Major Hockey League (MMHL). The MMHL folded after the 1953-54 season.
With a diminishing number of senior hockey teams in operation, both amateur and professional, the concept of a "Major Senior" competition was no longer necessary, and the Alexander Cup was retired after being awarded only four times.
- 1951 Alexander Cup: Valleyfield Braves – amateur Quebec Senior Hockey League (QSHL)
- 1952 Alexander Cup: Quebec Aces – amateur QSHL
- 1953 Alexander Cup: Halifax Atlantics – semi-professional Maritime Major Hockey League (MMHL)
- 1954 Alexander Cup: Halifax Atlantics – semi-professional MMHL
- 2006 Alexander Cup: Saint John Scorpions – semi-professional Canadian Elite Hockey League (CEHL)