|Alexander Ilyich Ginzburg|
|Native name||Александр Ильич Гинзбург|
November 21, 1936|
|Died||July 19, 2002
|Citizenship||Soviet Union (1936–1991) → Russian Federation (1991–2002)|
|Alma mater||Moscow State Historico-Archival Institute|
|Occupation||human right activist, journalist|
|Known for||human rights activism with participation in the Moscow Helsinki Group, cofounding Sintaksis and Phoenix|
|Notable work||The White Book, The Trial of the Four|
|Movement||dissident movement in the Soviet Union|
|Spouse(s)||Arina Sergeevna Zholkovskaya-Ginzburg|
|Children||two sons: Alexander and Alexey|
Alexander (Alik) Ilyich Ginzburg (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Ги́нзбург; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɪlʲˈjitɕ ˈɡʲinzbʊrk] ( listen); 21 November 1936, Moscow – 19 July 2002, Paris), was a Russian journalist, poet, human rights activist and dissident.
Between 1961 and 1969 he was sentenced three times to labor camps. In 1979, Ginzburg was released and expelled to the United States, along with four other political prisoners (Eduard Kuznetsov, Mark Dymshits, Valentin Moroz, and Georgy Vins) and their families, as part of a prisoner exchange.
In 1965, Alexander Ginzburg documented the trial of writers Yuli Daniel and Andrei Sinyavsky (Sinyavsky–Daniel trial). Having obtained a copy of closed-door court proceedings from the court stenographer, he compiled a White Book documenting the trial. He then sent copies of the book with his address to the KGB and the Chief Prosecutor's Office.:8 The book also circulated in samizdat and was smuggled to the West. Along with Yuri Galanskov, Ginzburg was arrested in 1967, charged with anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda, and sentenced to five years of forced labor (Galanskov-Ginzburg trial).
After his release in 1972, Ginzburg along with Alexander Solzhenitsyn initiated the Fund for the Aid of Political Prisoners. Based on the royalties derived from Solzhenitsyn's book The Gulag Archipelago, it distributed funds and material support to political and religious prisoners across the Soviet Union throughout the 1970-s and 1980-s.
In 1976, Ginzburg became a founding member of the Moscow Helsinki Group, which monitored breaches of the human rights guarantees the Soviet government signed up to in the 1975 Helsinki accords. Ginzburg was given the task of monitoring the State's persecution of the smaller Christian denominations, for which he was, again, arrested in 1978 and sentenced to an eight-year prison term. In April 1979, he was with four other dissidents deprived of his citizenship and exchanged for two Soviets who had been jailed for espionage.
Throughout his career, Ginzburg advocated nonviolent resistance. He believed in exposing human rights abuses by the Soviet Union and pressuring the government to follow its own laws. He made an effort to smuggle his writings abroad in order to increase external pressure on the Soviets.
- "The Scene" (PDF). Digital Collections. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- Litvinov, Pavel Mikhaĭlovich; Reddaway, Peter (1972). The Trial of the Four. A Collection of Materials on the Case of Galanskov, Ginzburg, Dobrovolsky and Lashkova 1967–78. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-12605-3.
- "Alexander Ginsburg". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "Remembering Alexander Ginzburg". Frontpage Mag. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "Alexander Ginsburg: obituary". The Telegraph. 22 July 2002.
- Glazov, Jamie (6 August 2002). "Alexander Ginzburg and the resistance to totalitarian evil, then and now". FrontPage Magazine., a 2002 interview with Eduard Kuznetsov, Vladimir Bukovsky and Yuri Yarim-Agaev
- Gerich, George (17 May 2012). "Remembering Alexander Ginzburg: ten years since his passing, a heroic Soviet dissident reminds us what a single individual can do to alter human events". FrontPage Magazine.
- Nivat, Georges; Kravetz, Marc (1977). URSS: gli scrittori del dissenso: Bukowsky, Calamov, Daniel, Guinzburg, Pliusc, Solgeniztin [USSR: writers of dissent: Bukovsky, Shalamov, Daniel, Ginzburg, Plyushch, Solzhenitsyn] (in Italian). Venezia: La Biennale di Venezia. OCLC 797904993.
- The White Book
- The Trial of the Four
- Guinzbourg, Alexandre (1982). "Témoignage" [Testimony]. In Galanskov, Youri. Le manifeste humain précédé par les témoignages de V. Boukovsky, N. Gorbanevskaïa, A. Guinzbourg, E. Kouznetsov [Human manifesto preceded by testimonies of V. Bukovsky, N. Gorbanevskaya, A. Ginzburg, E. Kuznetsov] (in French). Lausanne: Editions L'Age d'Homme. pp. 40–46. ISBN 2825109207.
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