|1st United States Secretary of the Treasury|
September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Oliver Wolcott Jr.|
|Senior Officer of the United States Army|
December 14, 1799 – June 15, 1800
|Preceded by||George Washington|
|Succeeded by||James Wilkinson|
|Delegate to the|
Congress of the Confederation
from New York
November 3, 1788 – March 2, 1789
|Preceded by||Egbert Benson|
|Succeeded by||Seat abolished|
November 4, 1782 – June 21, 1783
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||Seat abolished|
|Born||January 11, 1755 or 1757|
Charlestown, Nevis, British Leeward Islands
(now St. Kitts and Nevis)
|Died||July 12, 1804 (aged 47 or 49)|
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Cause of death||Gunshot wound|
|Resting place||Trinity Church Cemetery|
|Parent(s)||James A. Hamilton|
|Education||King's College (now Columbia University)|
|Allegiance|| New York (1775-1777)|
United States (1777–1800)
|Branch/service|| New York Provincial Company of Artillery|
United States Army
|Years of service||1775–1776 (Militia)|
|Commands||U.S. Army Senior Officer|
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was an American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States. Hamilton was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the Federalist Party, as well as a founder of the nation's financial system, the United States Coast Guard, and the New York Post newspaper. As the first secretary of the treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of the administration of President George Washington. He took the lead in the federal government's funding of the states' American Revolutionary War debts, as well as establishing the nation's first two de facto central banks (i.e. the Bank of North America and the First Bank of the United States), a system of tariffs, and the resumption of friendly trade relations with Britain. His vision included a strong central government led by a vigorous executive branch, a strong commercial economy, support for manufacturing, and a strong national defense.
Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Charlestown, Nevis. He was orphaned as a child and taken in by a prosperous merchant. When he reached his teens, local patrons sent him to New York to pursue his education. While a student, his opinion pieces supporting the Continental Congress were published under a nom de plume, and he also addressed crowds on the subject. He took an early role in the militia as the American Revolutionary War began. As an artillery officer in the new Continental Army he saw action in the New York and New Jersey campaign. In 1777, he became a senior aide to Commander in Chief General George Washington, but returned to field command in time for a pivotal action securing victory at the Siege of Yorktown, effectively ending hostilities.
After the war, he was elected as a representative from New York to the Congress of the Confederation. He resigned to practice law and founded the Bank of New York before returning to politics. Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak confederal government under the Articles of Confederation; he led the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which spurred Congress to call a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where he then served as a delegate from New York. He helped ratify the Constitution by writing 51 of the 85 installments of The Federalist Papers, which are still used as one of the most important references for Constitutional interpretation.
Hamilton led the Treasury Department as a trusted member of President Washington's first cabinet. To this day he remains the youngest U.S. cabinet member to take office since the beginning of the Republic. Hamilton successfully argued that the implied powers of the Constitution provided the legal authority to fund the national debt, to assume states' debts, and to create the government-backed Bank of the United States (i.e. the First Bank of the United States). These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports, and later by a controversial whiskey tax. He opposed administration entanglement with the series of unstable French revolutionary governments. Hamilton's views became the basis for the Federalist Party, which was opposed by the Democratic-Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
In 1795, he returned to the practice of law in New York. He called for mobilization under President John Adams in 1798–99 against French First Republic military aggression, and was commissioned Commanding General of the U.S. Army, which he reconstituted, modernized, and readied for war. The army did not see combat in the Quasi-War fought entirely at sea, and Hamilton was outraged by Adams' diplomatic approach to the crisis with France. His opposition to Adams' re-election helped cause the Federalist Party defeat in 1800. Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency in the electoral college, and Hamilton helped to defeat Burr, whom he found unprincipled, and to elect Jefferson despite philosophical differences.
Hamilton continued his legal and business activities in New York City, and was active in ending the legality of the international slave trade. Vice President Burr ran for governor of New York State in 1804, and Hamilton campaigned against him as unworthy. Taking offense, Burr challenged him to a duel on July 11, 1804, in which Burr shot and mortally wounded Hamilton, who died the following day.
Hamilton is generally regarded as an astute and intellectually brilliant administrator, politician and financier, if often impetuous. His ideas are credited with laying the foundation for American government and finance.
Alexander Hamilton was born and spent part of his childhood in Charlestown, the capital of the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands (then part of the British West Indies). Hamilton and his older brother James Jr. (1753–1786) were born out of wedlock to Rachel Faucette,[note 1] a married woman of half-British and half-French Huguenot descent, and James A. Hamilton, a Scotsman who was the fourth son of Alexander Hamilton, the laird of Grange in Ayrshire. Though there is persistant speculation that Hamilton's mother was of mixed race, it is not substantiated by verifiable evidence. Rachel Faucette was listed as white on tax rolls.
It is not certain whether Hamilton's birth was in 1755 or 1757. Most historical evidence, after Hamilton's arrival in North America, supports the idea that he was born in 1757, including Hamilton's own writings. Hamilton listed his birth year as 1757 when he first arrived in the Thirteen Colonies, and celebrated his birthday on January 11. In later life, he tended to give his age only in round figures. Historians accepted 1757 as his birth year until about 1930, when additional documentation of his early life in the Caribbean was published, initially in Danish. A probate paper from St. Croix in 1768, drafted after the death of Hamilton's mother, listed him as 13 years old, which has caused some historians since the 1930s to favor a birth year of 1755.
Historians have speculated on possible reasons for two different years of birth to have appeared in historical documents. If 1755 is correct, Hamilton might have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates, or perhaps wished to avoid standing out as older. If 1757 is correct, the single probate document indicating a birth year of 1755 may have simply included an error, or Hamilton might once have given his age as 13 after his mother's death in an attempt to appear older and more employable. Historians have pointed out that the probate document contained other proven inaccuracies, demonstrating it was not entirely reliable. Richard Brookhiser noted that "a man is more likely to know his own birthday than a probate court."
Hamilton's mother had been married previously on St. Croix in the Virgin Islands, then ruled by Denmark, to a Danish or German merchant, Johann Michael Lavien. They had one son, Peter Lavien. In 1750, Faucette left her husband and first son; then traveled to Saint Kitts where she met James Hamilton. Hamilton and Faucette moved together to Nevis, her birthplace, where she had inherited a seaside lot in town from her father.
James Hamilton later abandoned Rachel Faucette and their two sons, James Jr. and Alexander, allegedly to "spar[e] [her] a charge of bigamy... after finding out that her first husband intend[ed] to divorce her under Danish law on grounds of adultery and desertion." Thereafter, Rachel moved with her two children to St. Croix, where she supported them by keeping a small store in Christiansted. She contracted yellow fever and died on February 19, 1768, leaving Hamilton orphaned. This may have had severe emotional consequences for him, even by the standards of an 18th-century childhood. In probate court, Faucette's "first husband seized her estate" and obtained the few valuables that she had owned, including some household silver. Many items were auctioned off, but a friend purchased the family's books and returned them to Hamilton.
Hamilton became a clerk at Beekman and Cruger, a local import-export firm that traded with New York and New England. He and James Jr. were briefly taken in by their cousin Peter Lytton; however, Lytton took his own life in July 1769, leaving his property to his mistress and their son, and the Hamilton brothers were subsequently separated. James apprenticed with a local carpenter, while Alexander was given a home by Nevis merchant Thomas Stevens. Some clues have led to speculation that Stevens was Alexander Hamilton's biological father: his son Edward Stevens became a close friend of Hamilton, the two boys were described as looking much alike, both were fluent in French and shared similar interests. However, this allegation, mostly based on the comments of Timothy Pickering on the resemblance between the two men, has always been vague and unsupported. Rachel Faucette had been living on St. Kitts and Nevis for years at the time when Alexander was conceived, while Thomas Stevens lived on Antigua and St. Croix; also, James Hamilton never disclaimed paternity, and even in later years, signed his letters to Hamilton with "Your very Affectionate Father."
Hamilton, despite being only in his teenage years, proved capable enough as a trader to be left in charge of the firm for five months in 1771 while the owner was at sea. He remained an avid reader and later developed an interest in writing. He began to desire a life outside the island where he lived. He wrote a letter to his father that was a detailed account of a hurricane that had devastated Christiansted on August 30, 1772. The Presbyterian Reverend Hugh Knox, a tutor and mentor to Hamilton, submitted the letter for publication in the Royal Danish-American Gazette. The biographer Ron Chernow found the letter astounding for two reasons; first, that "for all its bombastic excesses, it does seem wondrous [that a] self-educated clerk could write with such verve and gusto," and second, that a teenage boy produced an apocalyptic "fire-and-brimstone sermon" viewing the hurricane as a "divine rebuke to human vanity and pomposity." The essay impressed community leaders, who collected a fund to send Hamilton to the North American colonies for his education.
The Church of England denied membership to Alexander and James Hamilton Jr.—and education in the church school—because their parents were not legally married. While their mother lived they received "individual tutoring" and classes in a private school led by a Jewish headmistress. Alexander supplemented his education with the family library of 34 books.
In October 1772 Hamilton arrived by ship in Boston and proceeded from there to New York City. He took lodgings with the Irish-born Hercules Mulligan who, as the brother of a trader known to Hamilton's benefactors, assisted Hamilton in selling cargo that was to pay for his education and support. Later in 1772, in preparation for college work, Hamilton began to fill gaps in his education at the Elizabethtown Academy, a preparatory school run by Francis Barber in Elizabethtown, New Jersey. He there came under the influence of William Livingston, a local leading intellectual and revolutionary, with whom he lived for a time.
Hamilton entered Mulligan's alma mater King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City in the autumn of 1773 "as a private student", again boarding with Mulligan until officially matriculating in May 1774. His college roommate and lifelong friend Robert Troup spoke glowingly of Hamilton's clarity in concisely explaining the patriots' case against the British in what is credited as Hamilton's first public appearance, on July 6, 1774, at the Liberty Pole at King's College. Hamilton, Troup, and four other undergraduates formed an unnamed literary society that is regarded as a precursor of the Philolexian Society.
Church of England clergyman Samuel Seabury published a series of pamphlets promoting the Loyalist cause in 1774, to which Hamilton responded anonymously with his first political writings, A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress and The Farmer Refuted. Seabury essentially tried to provoke fear in the colonies, and his main objective was to stop the potential union among the colonies. Hamilton published two additional pieces attacking the Quebec Act, and may have also authored the fifteen anonymous installments of "The Monitor" for Holt's New York Journal. Hamilton was a supporter of the Revolutionary cause at this pre-war stage, although he did not approve of mob reprisals against Loyalists. On May 10, 1775, Hamilton won credit for saving his college president Myles Cooper, a Loyalist, from an angry mob by speaking to the crowd long enough for Cooper to escape.
Hamilton was forced to discontinue his studies before graduating when the college closed its doors during the British occupation of the city. When the war ended, after some months of self-study, by July 1782 Hamilton passed the bar exam and in October 1782 was licensed to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the State of New York. Hamilton was awarded a Master of Arts degree from the reconstituted Columbia College in 1788 for his work in reopening the college and placing it on firm financial footing. Hamilton was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1791.
Early military career
In 1775, after the first engagement of American troops with the British at Lexington and Concord, Hamilton and other King's College students joined a New York volunteer militia company called the Corsicans, later renamed or reformed as the Hearts of Oak.
He drilled with the company, before classes, in the graveyard of nearby St. Paul's Chapel. Hamilton studied military history and tactics on his own and was soon recommended for promotion. Under fire from HMS Asia, he led the Hearts of Oak with support from Hercules Mulligan and the Sons of Liberty on a successful raid for British cannons in the Battery, the capture of which resulted in the unit becoming an artillery company thereafter.: 13
Through his connections with influential New York patriots such as Alexander McDougall and John Jay, Hamilton raised the New York Provincial Company of Artillery of 60 men in 1776, and was elected captain. The company took part in the campaign of 1776 in and around New York City; as rearguard of the Continental Army's retreat up Manhattan, serving at the Battle of Harlem Heights shortly after, as well as at the Battle of White Plains a month later. At the Battle of Trenton, it was stationed at the high point of town, the meeting of the present Warren and Broad streets, to keep the Hessians pinned in the Trenton Barracks.
Hamilton participated in the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777. After an initial setback, Washington rallied the American troops and led them in a successful charge against the British forces. After making a brief stand, the British fell back, some leaving Princeton, and others taking up refuge in Nassau Hall. Hamilton brought three cannons up and had them fire upon the building. Then some Americans rushed the front door, and broke it down. The British subsequently put a white flag outside one of the windows; 194 British soldiers walked out of the building and laid down their arms, thus ending the battle in an American victory.
George Washington's staff
Hamilton was invited to become an aide to William Alexander, Lord Stirling, and another general, perhaps Nathanael Greene or Alexander McDougall. He declined these invitations, believing his best chance for improving his station in life was glory on the battlefield. Hamilton eventually received an invitation he felt he could not refuse: to serve as Washington's aide, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. Washington believed that "Aides de camp are persons in whom entire confidence must be placed and it requires men of abilities to execute the duties with propriety and dispatch."
Hamilton served four years as Washington's chief staff aide. He handled letters to Congress, state governors, and the most powerful generals of the Continental Army; he drafted many of Washington's orders and letters at the latter's direction; he eventually issued orders from Washington over Hamilton's own signature. Hamilton was involved in a wide variety of high-level duties, including intelligence, diplomacy, and negotiation with senior army officers as Washington's emissary.
During the war, Hamilton became the close friend of several fellow officers. His letters to the Marquis de Lafayette and to John Laurens, employing the sentimental literary conventions of the late eighteenth century and alluding to Greek history and mythology, have been read by Jonathan Ned Katz as revelatory of a homosocial or even homosexual relationship. Biographer Gregory D. Massey amongst others, by contrast, dismisses all such speculation as unsubstantiated, describing their friendship as purely platonic camaraderie instead and placing their correspondence in the context of the flowery diction of the time.
While on Washington's staff, Hamilton long sought command and a return to active combat. As the war drew nearer to an end, he knew that opportunities for military glory were diminishing. On February 15, 1781, Hamilton was reprimanded by Washington after a minor misunderstanding. Although Washington quickly tried to mend their relationship, Hamilton insisted on leaving his staff. He officially left in March, and settled with his new wife Elizabeth Schuyler close to Washington's headquarters. He continued to repeatedly ask Washington and others for a field command. Washington continued to demur, citing the need to appoint men of higher rank. This continued until early July 1781, when Hamilton submitted a letter to Washington with his commission enclosed, "thus tacitly threatening to resign if he didn't get his desired command."
On July 31, Washington relented and assigned Hamilton as commander of a battalion of light infantry companies of the 1st and 2nd New York Regiments and two provisional companies from Connecticut. In the planning for the assault on Yorktown, Hamilton was given command of three battalions, which were to fight in conjunction with the allied French troops in taking Redoubts No. 9 and No. 10 of the British fortifications at Yorktown. Hamilton and his battalions took Redoubt No. 10 with bayonets in a nighttime action, as planned. The French also suffered heavy casualties and took Redoubt No. 9. These actions forced the British surrender of an entire army at Yorktown, marking the de facto end of the war, although small battles continued for two more years until the signing of the Treaty of Paris and the departure of the last British troops.
Return to civilian life
Congress of the Confederation
After Yorktown, Hamilton returned to New York and resigned his commission in March 1782. He passed the bar in July after six months of self-directed education. He also accepted an offer from Robert Morris to become receiver of continental taxes for the State of New York. Hamilton was appointed in July 1782 to the Congress of the Confederation as a New York representative for the term beginning in November 1782. Before his appointment to Congress in 1782, Hamilton was already sharing his criticisms of Congress. He expressed these criticisms in his letter to James Duane dated September 3, 1780. In this letter he wrote,
"The fundamental defect is a want of power in Congress...the confederation itself is defective and requires to be altered; it is neither fit for war, nor peace."
While on Washington's staff, Hamilton had become frustrated with the decentralized nature of the wartime Continental Congress, particularly its dependence upon the states for voluntary financial support that was not often forthcoming. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had no power to collect taxes or to demand money from the states. This lack of a stable source of funding had made it difficult for the Continental Army both to obtain its necessary provisions and to pay its soldiers. During the war, and for some time after, Congress obtained what funds it could from subsidies from the King of France, from aid requested from the several states (which were often unable or unwilling to contribute), and from European loans.
An amendment to the Articles had been proposed by Thomas Burke, in February 1781, to give Congress the power to collect a 5% impost, or duty on all imports, but this required ratification by all states; securing its passage as law proved impossible after it was rejected by Rhode Island in November 1782. James Madison joined Hamilton in influencing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind. Their report recommending the delegation argued the national government needed not just some level of financial autonomy, but also the ability to make laws that superseded those of the individual states. Hamilton transmitted a letter arguing that Congress already had the power to tax, since it had the power to fix the sums due from the several states; but Virginia's rescission of its own ratification of this amendment ended the Rhode Island negotiations.
Congress and the army
While Hamilton was in Congress, discontented soldiers began to pose a danger to the young United States. Most of the army was then posted at Newburgh, New York. Those in the army were funding much of their own supplies, and they had not been paid in eight months. Furthermore, after Valley Forge, the Continental officers had been promised in May 1778 a pension of half their pay when they were discharged. By the early 1780s, due to the structure of the government under the Articles of Confederation, it had no power to tax to either raise revenue or pay its soldiers. In 1782, after several months without pay, a group of officers organized to send a delegation to lobby Congress, led by Capt. Alexander McDougall. The officers had three demands: the Army's pay, their own pensions, and commutation of those pensions into a lump-sum payment if Congress were unable to afford the half-salary pensions for life. Congress rejected the proposal.
Several congressmen, including Hamilton, Robert Morris and Gouverneur Morris (no relation), attempted to use this so-called Newburgh Conspiracy as leverage to secure support from the states and in Congress for funding of the national government. They encouraged MacDougall to continue his aggressive approach, implying unknown consequences if their demands were not met, and defeated proposals designed to end the crisis without establishing general taxation: that the states assume the debt to the army, or that an impost be established dedicated to the sole purpose of paying that debt.
Hamilton suggested using the Army's claims to prevail upon the states for the proposed national funding system. The Morrises and Hamilton contacted General Henry Knox to suggest he and the officers defy civil authority, at least by not disbanding if the army were not satisfied. Hamilton wrote Washington to suggest that Hamilton covertly "take direction" of the officers' efforts to secure redress, to secure continental funding but keep the army within the limits of moderation. Washington wrote Hamilton back, declining to introduce the army. After the crisis had ended, Washington warned of the dangers of using the army as leverage to gain support for the national funding plan.
On March 15, Washington defused the Newburgh situation by addressing the officers personally. Congress ordered the Army officially disbanded in April 1783. In the same month, Congress passed a new measure for a 25-year impost—which Hamilton voted against—that again required the consent of all the states; it also approved a commutation of the officers' pensions to five years of full pay. Rhode Island again opposed these provisions, and Hamilton's robust assertions of national prerogatives in his previous letter were widely held to be excessive.
In June 1783, a different group of disgruntled soldiers from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, sent Congress a petition demanding their back pay. When they began to march toward Philadelphia, Congress charged Hamilton and two others with intercepting the mob. Hamilton requested militia from Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, but was turned down. Hamilton instructed Assistant Secretary of War William Jackson to intercept the men. Jackson was unsuccessful. The mob arrived in Philadelphia, and the soldiers proceeded to harangue Congress for their pay. Hamilton argued that Congress ought to adjourn to Princeton, New Jersey. Congress agreed, and relocated there. Frustrated with the weakness of the central government, Hamilton while in Princeton drafted a call to revise the Articles of Confederation. This resolution contained many features of the future U.S. Constitution, including a strong federal government with the ability to collect taxes and raise an army. It also included the separation of powers into the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
Return to New York
Hamilton resigned from Congress in 1783. When the British left New York in 1783, he practiced there in partnership with Richard Harison. He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v. Waddington, in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York. He pleaded for the Mayor's Court to interpret state law consistent with the 1783 Treaty of Paris which had ended the Revolutionary War.: 64–69
In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, one of the oldest still-existing[update] banks in America. Hamilton was one of the men who restored King's College as Columbia College, which had been suspended since 1776 and severely damaged during the war. Long dissatisfied with the Articles of Confederation as too weak to be effective, he played a major leadership role at the Annapolis Convention in 1786. He drafted its resolution for a constitutional convention, and in doing so brought one step closer to reality his longtime desire to have a more effectual, more financially self-sufficient federal government.
Constitution and the Federalist Papers
Constitutional Convention and ratification of the Constitution
In 1787, Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was chosen as a delegate for the Constitutional Convention by his father-in-law Philip Schuyler.: 191  Even though Hamilton had been a leader in calling for a new Constitutional Convention, his direct influence at the Convention itself was quite limited. Governor George Clinton's faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York's other two delegates, John Lansing Jr. and Robert Yates, and both of them opposed Hamilton's goal of a strong national government. Thus, whenever the other two members of the New York delegation were present, they decided New York's vote, to ensure that there were no major alterations to the Articles of Confederation.: 195
Early in the Convention Hamilton made a speech proposing a President-for-Life; it had no effect upon the deliberations of the convention. He proposed to have an elected president and elected senators who would serve for life, contingent upon "good behavior" and subject to removal for corruption or abuse; this idea contributed later to the hostile view of Hamilton as a monarchist sympathizer, held by James Madison. According to Madison's notes, Hamilton said in regards to the executive, "The English model was the only good one on this subject. The hereditary interest of the king was so interwoven with that of the nation, and his personal emoluments so great, that he was placed above the danger of being corrupted from abroad... Let one executive be appointed for life who dares execute his powers."
Hamilton argued, "And let me observe that an executive is less dangerous to the liberties of the people when in office during life than for seven years. It may be said this constitutes as an elective monarchy... But by making the executive subject to impeachment, the term 'monarchy' cannot apply..." In his notes of the convention, Madison interpreted Hamilton's proposal as claiming power for the "rich and well born". Madison's perspective all but isolated Hamilton from his fellow delegates and others who felt they did not reflect the ideas of revolution and liberty.
During the convention, Hamilton constructed a draft for the Constitution based on the convention debates, but he never presented it. This draft had most of the features of the actual Constitution. In this draft, the Senate was to be elected in proportion to the population, being two-fifths the size of the House, and the President and Senators were to be elected through complex multistage elections, in which chosen electors would elect smaller bodies of electors; they would hold office for life, but were removable for misconduct. The President would have an absolute veto. The Supreme Court was to have immediate jurisdiction over all lawsuits involving the United States, and state governors were to be appointed by the federal government.
At the end of the convention, Hamilton was still not content with the final Constitution, but signed it anyway as a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation, and urged his fellow delegates to do so also. Since the other two members of the New York delegation, Lansing and Yates, had already withdrawn, Hamilton was the only New York signer to the United States Constitution.: 206 He then took a highly active part in the successful campaign for the document's ratification in New York in 1788, which was a crucial step in its national ratification. He first used the popularity of the Constitution by the masses to compel George Clinton to sign, but was unsuccessful. The state convention in Poughkeepsie in June 1788 pitted Hamilton, Jay, James Duane, Robert Livingston, and Richard Morris against the Clintonian faction led by Melancton Smith, Lansing, Yates, and Gilbert Livingston.
Members of Hamilton's faction were against any conditional ratification, under the impression that New York would not be accepted into the Union, while Clinton's faction wanted to amend the Constitution, while maintaining the state's right to secede if their attempts failed. During the state convention, New Hampshire and Virginia becoming the ninth and tenth states to ratify the Constitution, respectively, had ensured any adjournment would not happen and a compromise would have to be reached. Hamilton's arguments used for the ratifications were largely iterations of work from The Federalist Papers, and Smith eventually went for ratification, though it was more out of necessity than Hamilton's rhetoric. The vote in the state convention was ratified 30 to 27, on July 26, 1788.
In 1788, Hamilton served a second term in what proved to be the last session of the Congress of the Confederation.
The Federalist Papers
Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a series of essays, now known as The Federalist Papers, to defend the proposed Constitution. He made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of the 85 essays published (Madison wrote 29, and Jay wrote the other five). Hamilton supervised the entire project, enlisted the participants, wrote the majority of the essays, and oversaw the publication. During the project, each person was responsible for their areas of expertise. Jay covered foreign relations. Madison covered the history of republics and confederacies, along with the anatomy of the new government. Hamilton covered the branches of government most pertinent to him: the executive and judicial branches, with some aspects of the Senate, as well as covering military matters and taxation. The papers first appeared in The Independent Journal on October 27, 1787.
Hamilton wrote the first paper signed as Publius, and all of the subsequent papers were signed under the name.: 210 Jay wrote the next four papers to elaborate on the confederation's weakness and the need for unity against foreign aggression and against splitting into rival confederacies, and, except for Federalist No. 64, was not further involved.: 211 Hamilton's highlights included discussion that although republics have been culpable for disorders in the past, advances in the "science of politics" had fostered principles that ensured that those abuses could be prevented (such as the division of powers, legislative checks and balances, an independent judiciary, and legislators that were represented by electors [Numbers 7–9]). Hamilton also wrote an extensive defense of the constitution (No. 23–36), and discussed the Senate and executive and judicial branches in Numbers 65–85. Hamilton and Madison worked to describe the anarchic state of the confederation in numbers 15–22, and have been described as not being significantly different in thought during this time period—in contrast to their stark opposition later in life. Subtle differences appeared with the two when discussing the necessity of standing armies.
Reconciliation between New York and Vermont
In 1764, King George III had ruled in favor of New York in a dispute between New York and New Hampshire over the region that later became the state of Vermont. New York then refused to recognize claims to property derived from grants by New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth during the preceding 15 years when the territory had been governed as a de facto part of New Hampshire. Consequently, the people of the disputed territory, called the New Hampshire Grants, resisted the enforcement of New York's laws within the grants. Ethan Allen's militia called the Green Mountain Boys, noted for successes in the war against the British in 1775, was originally formed for the purpose of resisting the colonial government of New York. In 1777, the statesmen of the grants declared it a separate state to be called Vermont, and by early 1778, had erected a state government.
During 1777–1785, Vermont was repeatedly denied representation in the Continental Congress, largely because New York insisted that Vermont was legally a part of New York. Vermont took the position that because its petitions for admission to the Union were denied, it was not a part of the United States, not subject to Congress, and at liberty to negotiate separately with the British. The latter Haldimand negotiations led to some exchanges of prisoners of war. The peace treaty of 1783 that ended the war included Vermont within the boundaries of the United States. On March 2, 1784, Governor George Clinton of New York asked Congress to declare war for the purpose of overthrowing the government of Vermont, but Congress made no decision.
By 1787, the government of New York had almost entirely given up plans to subjugate Vermont, but still claimed jurisdiction. As a member of the legislature of New York, Hamilton argued forcefully and at length in favor of a bill to recognize the sovereignty of the State of Vermont, against numerous objections to its constitutionality and policy. Consideration of the bill was deferred to a later date. In 1787 through 1789, Hamilton exchanged letters with Nathaniel Chipman, a lawyer representing Vermont. In 1788, the new Constitution of the United States went into effect, with its plan to replace the unicameral Continental Congress with a new Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Hamilton wrote:
One of the first subjects of deliberation with the new Congress will be the independence of Kentucky [at that time still a part of Virginia], for which the southern states will be anxious. The northern will be glad to find a counterpoise in Vermont.
In 1790, the New York legislature decided to give up New York's claim to Vermont if Congress decided to admit Vermont to the Union and if negotiations between New York and Vermont on the boundary between the two states were successfully concluded. In 1790, negotiators discussed not only the boundary, but also financial compensation of New York land-grantees whose grants Vermont refused to recognize because they conflicted with earlier grants from New Hampshire. Compensation in the amount of 30,000 Spanish dollars was agreed to, and Vermont was admitted to the Union in 1791.
Secretary of the Treasury
President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first United States secretary of the treasury on September 11, 1789. He left office on the last day of January 1795. Much of the structure of the government of the United States was worked out in those five years, beginning with the structure and function of the cabinet itself. Biographer Forrest McDonald argues that Hamilton saw his office, like that of the British first lord of the treasury, as the equivalent of a prime minister. Hamilton oversaw his colleagues under the elective reign of George Washington. Washington requested Hamilton's advice and assistance on matters outside the purview of the Treasury Department. In 1791, while secretary, Hamilton was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Hamilton submitted various financial reports to Congress. Among these are the First Report on the Public Credit, Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports, Report on a National Bank, On the Establishment of a Mint, Report on Manufactures, and the Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit. So, the great enterprise in Hamilton's project of an administrative republic is the establishment of stability.
Report on Public Credit
Before the adjournment of the House in September 1789, they requested Hamilton to make a report on suggestions to improve the public credit by January 1790. Hamilton had written to Robert Morris as early as 1781, that fixing the public credit will win their objective of independence. The sources that Hamilton used ranged from Frenchmen such as Jacques Necker and Montesquieu to British writers such as Hume, Hobbes, and Malachy Postlethwayt. While writing the report he also sought out suggestions from contemporaries such as John Witherspoon and Madison. Although they agreed on additional taxes such as distilleries and duties on imported liquors and land taxes, Madison feared that the securities from the government debt would fall into foreign hands.: 244–45
In the report, Hamilton felt that the securities should be paid at full value to their legitimate owners, including those who took the financial risk of buying government bonds that most experts thought would never be redeemed. He argued that liberty and property security were inseparable and that the government should honor the contracts, as they formed the basis of public and private morality. To Hamilton, the proper handling of the government debt would also allow America to borrow at affordable interest rates and would also be a stimulant to the economy.
Hamilton divided the debt into national and state, and further divided the national debt into foreign and domestic debt. While there was agreement on how to handle the foreign debt (especially with France), there was not with regards to the national debt held by domestic creditors. During the Revolutionary War, affluent citizens had invested in bonds, and war veterans had been paid with promissory notes and IOUs that plummeted in price during the Confederation. In response, the war veterans sold the securities to speculators for as little as fifteen to twenty cents on the dollar.
Hamilton felt the money from the bonds should not go to the soldiers who had shown little faith in the country's future, but the speculators that had bought the bonds from the soldiers. The process of attempting to track down the original bondholders along with the government showing discrimination among the classes of holders if the war veterans were to be compensated also weighed in as factors for Hamilton. As for the state debts, Hamilton suggested consolidating them with the national debt and label it as federal debt, for the sake of efficiency on a national scale.
The last portion of the report dealt with eliminating the debt by utilizing a sinking fund that would retire five percent of the debt annually until it was paid off. Due to the bonds being traded well below their face value, the purchases would benefit the government as the securities rose in price.: 300 When the report was submitted to the House of Representatives, detractors soon began to speak against it. Some of the negative views expressed in the House were that the notion of programs that resembled British practice were wicked, and that the balance of power would be shifted away from the representatives to the executive branch. William Maclay suspected that several congressmen were involved in government securities, seeing Congress in an unholy league with New York speculators.: 302 Congressman James Jackson also spoke against New York, with allegations of speculators attempting to swindle those who had not yet heard about Hamilton's report.: 303
The involvement of those in Hamilton's circle such as Schuyler, William Duer, James Duane, Gouverneur Morris, and Rufus King as speculators was not favorable to those against the report, either, though Hamilton personally did not own or deal a share in the debt.: 304 : 250 Madison eventually spoke against it by February 1790. Although he was not against current holders of government debt to profit, he wanted the windfall to go to the original holders. Madison did not feel that the original holders had lost faith in the government, but sold their securities out of desperation.: 305 The compromise was seen as egregious to both Hamiltonians and their dissidents such as Maclay, and Madison's vote was defeated 36 votes to 13 on February 22.: 305 : 255
The fight for the national government to assume state debt was a longer issue, and lasted over four months. During the period, the resources that Hamilton was to apply to the payment of state debts was requested by Alexander White, and was rejected due to Hamilton's not being able to prepare information by March 3, and was even postponed by his own supporters in spite of configuring a report the next day (which consisted of a series of additional duties to meet the interest on the state debts).: 297–98 Duer resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and the vote of assumption was voted down 31 votes to 29 on April 12.: 258–59
Another issue in which Hamilton played a role was the temporary location of the capital from New York City. Tench Coxe was sent to speak to Maclay to bargain about the capital being temporarily located to Philadelphia, as a single vote in the Senate was needed and five in the House for the bill to pass.: 263 Thomas Jefferson wrote years afterward that Hamilton had a discussion with him, around this time period, about the capital of the United States being relocated to Virginia by means of a "pill" that "would be peculiarly bitter to the Southern States, and that some concomitant measure should be adopted to sweeten it a little to them".: 263 The bill passed in the Senate on July 21 and in the House 34 votes to 28 on July 26, 1790.: 263
Report on a National Bank
Hamilton's Report on a National Bank was a projection from the first Report on the Public Credit. Although Hamilton had been forming ideas of a national bank as early as 1779,: 268 he had gathered ideas in various ways over the past eleven years. These included theories from Adam Smith, extensive studies on the Bank of England, the blunders of the Bank of North America and his experience in establishing the Bank of New York. He also used American records from James Wilson, Pelatiah Webster, Gouverneur Morris, and from his assistant treasury secretary Tench Coxe. He thought that this plan for a National Bank could help in any sort of financial crisis.
Hamilton suggested that Congress should charter the National Bank with a capitalization of $10 million, one-fifth of which would be handled by the government. Since the government did not have the money, it would borrow the money from the bank itself, and repay the loan in ten even annual installments.: 194 The rest was to be available to individual investors. The bank was to be governed by a twenty-five-member board of directors that was to represent a large majority of the private shareholders, which Hamilton considered essential for his being under a private direction.: 268 Hamilton's bank model had many similarities to that of the Bank of England, except Hamilton wanted to exclude the government from being involved in public debt, but provide a large, firm, and elastic money supply for the functioning of normal businesses and usual economic development, among other differences.: 194–95 The tax revenue to initiate the bank was the same as he had previously proposed, increases on imported spirits: rum, liquor, and whiskey.: 195–96
The bill passed through the Senate practically without a problem, but objections to the proposal increased by the time it reached the House of Representatives. It was generally held by critics that Hamilton was serving the interests of the Northeast by means of the bank, and those of the agrarian lifestyle would not benefit from it.: 270 Among those critics was James Jackson of Georgia, who also attempted to refute the report by quoting from The Federalist Papers.: 270 Madison and Jefferson also opposed the bank bill. The potential of the capital not being moved to the Potomac if the bank was to have a firm establishment in Philadelphia was a more significant reason, and actions that Pennsylvania members of Congress took to keep the capital there made both men anxious.: 199–200 The Whiskey Rebellion also showed how in other financial plans, there was a distance between the classes as the wealthy profited from the taxes.
Madison warned the Pennsylvania congress members that he would attack the bill as unconstitutional in the House, and followed up on his threat.: 200 Madison argued his case of where the power of a bank could be established within the Constitution, but he failed to sway members of the House, and his authority on the constitution was questioned by a few members.: 200–01 The bill eventually passed in an overwhelming fashion 39 to 20, on February 8, 1791.: 271
Washington hesitated to sign the bill, as he received suggestions from Attorney General Edmund Randolph and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson dismissed the 'necessary and proper' clause as reasoning for the creation of a national bank, stating that the enumerated powers "can all be carried into execution without a bank.": 271–72 Along with Randolph and Jefferson's objections, Washington's involvement in the movement of the capital from Philadelphia is also thought to be a reason for his hesitation.: 202–03 In response to the objection of the 'necessary and proper' clause, Hamilton stated that "Necessary often means no more than needful, requisite, incidental, useful, or conductive to", and the bank was a "convenient species of medium in which they (taxes) are to be paid.": 272–73 Washington would eventually sign the bill into law.: 272–73
Establishing the U.S. Mint
In 1791, Hamilton submitted the Report on the Establishment of a Mint to the House of Representatives. Many of Hamilton's ideas for this report were from European economists, resolutions from Continental Congress meetings from 1785 and 1786, and from people such as Robert Morris, Gouverneur Morris and Thomas Jefferson.: 197 
Because the most circulated coins in the United States at the time were Spanish currency, Hamilton proposed that minting a United States dollar weighing almost as much as the Spanish peso would be the simplest way to introduce a national currency. Hamilton differed from European monetary policymakers in his desire to overprice gold relative to silver, on the grounds that the United States would always receive an influx of silver from the West Indies.: 197 Despite his own preference for a monometallic gold standard, he ultimately issued a bimetallic currency at a fixed 15:1 ratio of silver to gold.: 197 
Hamilton proposed that the U.S. dollar should have fractional coins using decimals, rather than eighths like the Spanish coinage. This innovation was originally suggested by Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris, with whom Hamilton corresponded after examining one of Morris's Nova Constellatio coins in 1783. He also desired the minting of small value coins, such as silver ten-cent and copper cent and half-cent pieces, for reducing the cost of living for the poor.: 198  One of his main objectives was for the general public to become accustomed to handling money on a frequent basis.: 198
By 1792, Hamilton's principles were adopted by Congress, resulting in the Coinage Act of 1792, and the creation of the United States Mint. There was to be a ten-dollar Gold Eagle coin, a silver dollar, and fractional money ranging from one-half to fifty cents. The coining of silver and gold was issued by 1795.
Revenue Cutter Service
Smuggling off American coasts was an issue before the Revolutionary War, and after the Revolution it was more problematic. Along with smuggling, lack of shipping control, pirating, and a revenue unbalance were also major problems. In response, Hamilton proposed to Congress to enact a naval police force called revenue cutters in order to patrol the waters and assist the custom collectors with confiscating contraband. This idea was also proposed to assist in tariff controlling, boosting the American economy, and promote the merchant marine. It is thought that his experience obtained during his apprenticeship with Nicholas Kruger was influential in his decision-making.
Concerning some of the details of the "System of Cutters", [note 2] Hamilton wanted the first ten cutters in different areas in the United States, from New England to Georgia. Each of those cutters was to be armed with ten muskets and bayonets, twenty pistols, two chisels, one broad-ax and two lanterns. The fabric of the sails was to be domestically manufactured; and provisions were made for the employees' food supply and etiquette when boarding ships. Congress established the Revenue Cutter Service on August 4, 1790, which is viewed as the birth of the United States Coast Guard.
Whiskey as tax revenue
One of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upon Congress to approve was an excise tax on whiskey. In his first Tariff Bill in January 1790, Hamilton proposed to raise the three million dollars needed to pay for government operating expenses and interest on domestic and foreign debts by means of an increase on duties on imported wines, distilled spirits, tea, coffee, and domestic spirits. It failed, with Congress complying with most recommendations excluding the excise tax on whiskey (Madison's tariff of the same year was a modification of Hamilton's that involved only imported duties and was passed in September).
In response of diversifying revenues, as three-fourths of revenue gathered was from commerce with Great Britain, Hamilton attempted once again during his Report on Public Credit when presenting it in 1790 to implement an excise tax on both imported and domestic spirits. The taxation rate was graduated in proportion to the whiskey proof, and Hamilton intended to equalize the tax burden on imported spirits with imported and domestic liquor. In lieu of the excise on production citizens could pay 60 cents by the gallon of dispensing capacity, along with an exemption on small stills used exclusively for domestic consumption. He realized the loathing that the tax would receive in rural areas, but thought of the taxing of spirits more reasonable than land taxes.
Opposition initially came from Pennsylvania's House of Representatives protesting the tax. William Maclay had noted that not even the Pennsylvanian legislators had been able to enforce excise taxes in the western regions of the state. Hamilton was aware of the potential difficulties and proposed inspectors the ability to search buildings that distillers were designated to store their spirits, and would be able to search suspected illegal storage facilities to confiscate contraband with a warrant. Although the inspectors were not allowed to search houses and warehouses, they were to visit twice a day and file weekly reports in extensive detail. Hamilton cautioned against expedited judicial means, and favored a jury trial with potential offenders. As soon as 1791, locals began to shun or threaten inspectors, as they felt the inspection methods were intrusive. Inspectors were also tarred and feathered, blindfolded, and whipped. Hamilton had attempted to appease the opposition with lowered tax rates, but it did not suffice.
Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia, whiskey was the basic export product and was fundamental to the local economy. In response to the rebellion, believing compliance with the laws was vital to the establishment of federal authority, Hamilton accompanied to the rebellion's site President Washington, General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, and more federal troops than were ever assembled in one place during the Revolution. This overwhelming display of force intimidated the leaders of the insurrection, ending the rebellion virtually without bloodshed.
Manufacturing and industry
Hamilton's next report was his Report on Manufactures. Although he was requested by Congress on January 15, 1790, for a report for manufacturing that would expand the United States' independence, the report was not submitted until December 5, 1791.: 274, 277 In the report, Hamilton quoted from Wealth of Nations and used the French physiocrats as an example for rejecting agrarianism and the physiocratic theory, respectively.: 233 Hamilton also refuted Smith's ideas of government noninterference, as it would have been detrimental for trade with other countries.: 244 Hamilton also thought that the United States, being a primarily agrarian country, would be at a disadvantage in dealing with Europe. In response to the agrarian detractors, Hamilton stated that the agriculturists' interest would be advanced by manufactures,: 276 and that agriculture was just as productive as manufacturing.: 233 : 276
Hamilton argued that developing an industrial economy is impossible without protective tariffs. Among the ways that the government should assist manufacturing, Hamilton argued for government assistance to "infant industries" so they can achieve economies of scale, by levying protective duties on imported foreign goods that were also manufactured in the United States, for withdrawing duties levied on raw materials needed for domestic manufacturing,: 277  and pecuniary boundaries.: 277 He also called for encouraging immigration for people to better themselves in similar employment opportunities. Congress shelved the report without much debate (except for Madison's objection to Hamilton's formulation of the General Welfare clause, which Hamilton construed liberally as a legal basis for his extensive programs).
In 1791, Hamilton, along with Coxe and several entrepreneurs from New York and Philadelphia formed the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private industrial corporation. In May 1792, the directors decided to examine The Passaic Falls as a possible location for a manufacturing center. On July 4, 1792, the society directors met Philip Schuyler at Abraham Godwin's hotel on the Passaic River, where they would lead a tour prospecting the area for the national manufactory. It was originally suggested that they dig mile-long trenches and build the factories away from the falls, but Hamilton argued that it would be too costly and laborious. 
The location at Great Falls of the Passaic River in New Jersey was selected due to access to raw materials, it being densely inhabited, and having access to water power from the falls of the Passaic.: 231 The factory town was named Paterson after New Jersey's Governor William Paterson, who signed the charter.: 232  The profits were to derive from specific corporates rather than the benefits to be conferred to the nation and the citizens, which was unlike the report. Hamilton also suggested the first stock to be offered at $500,000 and to eventually increase to $1 million, and welcomed state and federal government subscriptions alike.: 280  The company was never successful: numerous shareholders reneged on stock payments, some members soon went bankrupt, and William Duer, the governor of the program, was sent to debtors' prison where he died. In spite of Hamilton's efforts to mend the disaster, the company folded.
Jay Treaty and Britain
When France and Britain went to war in early 1793, all four members of the Cabinet were consulted on what to do. They and Washington unanimously agreed to remain neutral, and to have the French ambassador who was raising privateers and mercenaries on American soil, "Citizen" Genêt, recalled.: 336–41 However, in 1794 policy toward Britain became a major point of contention between the two parties. Hamilton and the Federalists wished for more trade with Britain, the largest trading partner of the newly formed United States. The Republicans saw monarchist Britain as the main threat to republicanism and proposed instead to start a trade war.: 327–28
To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British; Hamilton largely wrote Jay's instructions. The result was Jay's Treaty. It was denounced by the Republicans, but Hamilton mobilized support throughout the land. The Jay Treaty passed the Senate in 1795 by exactly the required two-thirds majority. The Treaty resolved issues remaining from the Revolution, averted war, and made possible ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain.: Ch 9 Historian George Herring notes the "remarkable and fortuitous economic and diplomatic gains" produced by the Treaty.
Several European states had formed a League of Armed Neutrality against incursions on their neutral rights; the Cabinet was also consulted on whether the United States should join the alliance, and decided not to. It kept that decision secret, but Hamilton revealed it in private to George Hammond, the British minister to the United States, without telling Jay or anyone else. His act remained unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the 1920s. This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat.: 411 ff 
Resignation from public office
His wife Eliza suffered a miscarriage while Hamilton was absent during his armed repression of the Whiskey Rebellion. In the wake of this Hamilton tendered his resignation from office on December 1, 1794, giving Washington two months' notice, Before leaving his post on January 31, 1795, Hamilton submitted a Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit to Congress to curb the debt problem. Hamilton grew dissatisfied with what he viewed as a lack of a comprehensive plan to fix the public debt. He wished to have new taxes passed with older ones made permanent and stated that any surplus from the excise tax on liquor would be pledged to lower public debt. His proposals were included in a bill by Congress within slightly over a month after his departure as treasury secretary. Some months later Hamilton resumed his law practice in New York to remain closer to his family.
Emergence of political parties
Hamilton's vision was challenged by Virginia agrarians Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who formed a rival party, the Jeffersonian Republican party. They favored strong state governments based in rural America and protected by state militias as opposed to a strong national government supported by a national army and navy. They denounced Hamilton as insufficiently devoted to republicanism, too friendly toward corrupt Britain and toward monarchy in general, and too oriented toward cities, business and banking.
The American two-party system began to emerge as political parties coalesced around competing interests. A congressional caucus, led by Madison, Jefferson and William Branch Giles, began as an opposition group to Hamilton's financial programs. Hamilton and his allies began to call themselves Federalists. The opposition group, now called the Democratic-Republican Party by political scientists, at the time called itself Republicans.
Hamilton assembled a nationwide coalition to garner support for the Administration, including the expansive financial programs Hamilton had made administration policy and especially the president's policy of neutrality in the European war between Britain and revolutionary France. Hamilton publicly denounced the French minister Edmond-Charles Genêt (he called himself "Citizen Genêt") who commissioned American privateers and recruited Americans for private militias to attack British ships and colonial possessions of British allies. Eventually, even Jefferson joined Hamilton in seeking Genêt's recall. If Hamilton's administrative republic was to succeed, Americans had to see themselves first as citizens of a nation, and experience an administration that proved firm and demonstrated the concepts found within the United States Constitution. The Federalists did impose some internal direct taxes but they departed from most implications of the Hamilton administrative republic as risky.
The Jeffersonian Republicans opposed banks and cities, and favored the series of unstable revolutionary governments in France. They built their own national coalition to oppose the Federalists. Both sides gained the support of local political factions, and each side developed its own partisan newspapers. Noah Webster, John Fenno, and William Cobbett were energetic editors for the Federalists; Benjamin Franklin Bache and Philip Freneau were fiery Republican editors. All of their newspapers were characterized by intense personal attacks, major exaggerations, and invented claims. In 1801, Hamilton established a daily newspaper that is still published, the New York Evening Post (now the New York Post), and brought in William Coleman as its editor.
The opposition between Hamilton and Jefferson is the best known and historically the most important[weasel words] in American political history.[original research?] Hamilton's and Jefferson's incompatibility was heightened by the unavowed wish of each to be Washington's principal and most trusted advisor.
An additional partisan irritant to Hamilton was the 1791 United States Senate election in New York, which resulted in the election of Democratic-Republican candidate Aaron Burr, previously the New York state attorney general, over Senator Philip Schuyler, the Federalist incumbent and Hamilton's father-in-law. Hamilton blamed Burr personally for this outcome, and negative characterizations of Burr began to appear in his correspondence thereafter. The two men did work together from time to time thereafter on various projects, including Hamilton's army of 1798 and the Manhattan Water Company.
1796 presidential election
Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life. With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an advisor and friend. Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his farewell address by writing drafts for Washington to compare with the latter's draft, although when Washington contemplated retirement in 1792, he had consulted James Madison for a draft that was used in a similar manner to Hamilton's.
In the election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men. The one who received the most votes would become president, the second-most, vice president. This system was not designed with the operation of parties in mind, as they had been thought disreputable and factious. The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, then vice president, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.
Adams resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be president. Hamilton took the election as an opportunity: he urged all the northern electors to vote for Adams and Pinckney, lest Jefferson get in; but he cooperated with Edward Rutledge to have South Carolina's electors vote for Jefferson and Pinckney. If all this worked, Pinckney would have more votes than Adams, Pinckney would become president, and Adams would remain vice president, but it did not work. The Federalists found out about it (even the French minister to the United States knew), and northern Federalists voted for Adams but not for Pinckney, in sufficient numbers that Pinckney came in third and Jefferson became vice president. Adams resented the intrigue since he felt his service to the nation was much more extensive than Pinckney's.
Reynolds affair scandal
In the summer of 1797, Hamilton became the first major American politician publicly involved in a sex scandal. Six years earlier, in the summer of 1791, 34-year-old Hamilton became involved in an affair with 23-year-old Maria Reynolds. According to Hamilton's account Maria approached him at his house in Philadelphia, claiming that her husband James Reynolds was abusive and had abandoned her, and she wished to return to her relatives in New York but lacked the means.: 366–69 Hamilton recorded her address and subsequently delivered $30 personally to her boarding house, where she led him into her bedroom and "Some conversation ensued from which it was quickly apparent that other than pecuniary consolation would be acceptable". The two began an intermittent illicit affair that lasted approximately until June 1792.
Over the course of that year, while the affair was taking place, James Reynolds was well aware of his wife's unfaithfulness, and likely orchestrated it from the beginning. He continually supported their relationship to extort blackmail money regularly from Hamilton. The common practice of the day for men of equal social standing was for the wronged husband to seek retribution in a duel, but Reynolds, of a lower social status and realizing how much Hamilton had to lose if his activity came into public view, resorted to extortion. After an initial request of $1,000 to which Hamilton complied, Reynolds invited Hamilton to renew his visits to his wife "as a friend" only to extort forced "loans" after each visit that, most likely in collusion, Maria solicited with her letters. In the end, the blackmail payments totaled over $1,300 including the initial extortion.: 369 Hamilton at this point may have been aware of both spouses being involved in the blackmail, and he welcomed and strictly complied with James Reynolds' request to end the affair.
In November 1792, James Reynolds and his associate Jacob Clingman were arrested for counterfeiting and speculating in Revolutionary War veterans' unpaid back wages. Clingman was released on bail and relayed information to Democratic-Republican congressman James Monroe that Reynolds had evidence incriminating Hamilton in illicit activity as Treasury Secretary. Monroe consulted with congressmen Muhlenberg and Venable on what actions to take and the congressmen confronted Hamilton on December 15, 1792. Hamilton refuted the suspicions of speculation by exposing his affair with Maria and producing as evidence the letters by both of the Reynolds, proving that his payments to James Reynolds related to blackmail over his adultery, and not to treasury misconduct. The trio agreed on their honor to keep the documents privately with the utmost confidence.: 366–69
In the summer of 1797, however, the "notoriously scurrilous" journalist James T. Callender published A History of the United States for the Year 1796.: 334 The pamphlet contained accusations, based on documents from the confrontation of December 15, 1792 taken out of context, that James Reynolds had been an agent of Hamilton. On July 5, 1797, Hamilton wrote to Monroe, Muhlenberg, and Venable, asking them to confirm that there was nothing that would damage the perception of his integrity while Secretary of Treasury. All but Monroe complied with Hamilton's request. Hamilton then published a 100-page booklet, later usually referred to as the Reynolds Pamphlet, and discussed the affair in indelicate detail for the time. Hamilton's wife Elizabeth eventually forgave him, but never forgave Monroe. Although Hamilton faced ridicule from the Democratic-Republican faction, he maintained his availability for public service.: 334–36
During the military build-up of the Quasi-War of 1798–1800, and with the strong endorsement of Washington (who had been called out of retirement to lead the Army if a French invasion materialized), Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a major general of the army. At Washington's insistence, Hamilton was made the senior major general, prompting Henry Knox to decline appointment to serve as Hamilton's junior (Knox had been a major general in the Continental Army and thought it would be degrading to serve beneath him).
Hamilton served as inspector general of the United States Army from July 18, 1798, to June 15, 1800. Because Washington was unwilling to leave Mount Vernon unless it were to command an army in the field, Hamilton was the de facto head of the army, to Adams's considerable displeasure. If full-scale war broke out with France, Hamilton argued that the army should conquer the North American colonies of France's ally, Spain, bordering the United States. Hamilton was prepared to march the army through the Southern United States if necessary.
To fund this army, Hamilton wrote regularly to Oliver Wolcott Jr., his successor at the treasury; William Loughton Smith, of the House Ways and Means Committee; and Senator Theodore Sedgwick of Massachusetts. He urged them to pass a direct tax to fund the war. Smith resigned in July 1797, as Hamilton complained to him for slowness, and urged Wolcott to tax houses instead of land. The eventual program included taxes on land, houses, and slaves, calculated at different rates in different states and requiring assessment of houses, and a Stamp Act like that of the British before the Revolution though this time Americans were taxing themselves through their own representatives. This provoked resistance in southeastern Pennsylvania nevertheless, led primarily by men such as John Fries who had marched with Washington against the Whiskey Rebellion.
Hamilton aided in all areas of the army's development, and after Washington's death he was by default the senior officer of the United States Army from December 14, 1799, to June 15, 1800. The army was to guard against invasion from France. Adams, however, derailed all plans for war by opening negotiations with France that led to peace. There was no longer a direct threat for the army Hamilton was commanding to respond to. Adams discovered that key members of his cabinet, namely Secretary of State Timothy Pickering and Secretary of War James McHenry, were more loyal to Hamilton than himself; Adams fired them in May 1800.
1800 presidential election
In November 1799, the Alien and Sedition Acts had left one Democratic-Republican newspaper functioning in New York City; when the last, the New Daily Advertiser, reprinted an article saying that Hamilton had attempted to purchase the Philadelphia Aurora and close it down, Hamilton had the publisher prosecuted for seditious libel, and the prosecution compelled the owner to close the paper.
In the 1800 election, Hamilton worked to defeat not only the rival Democratic-Republican candidates, but also his party's own nominee, John Adams.: 392–99 Aaron Burr had won New York for Jefferson in May; now Hamilton proposed a rerun of the election under different rules—with carefully drawn districts and each choosing an elector—such that the Federalists would split the electoral vote of New York.[note 3] (John Jay, a Federalist who had given up the Supreme Court to be Governor of New York, wrote on the back of the letter the words, "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt," and declined to reply.)
John Adams was running this time with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina (the elder brother of candidate Thomas Pinckney from the 1796 election). Hamilton now toured New England, again urging northern electors to hold firm for Pinckney in the renewed hope of making Pinckney president; and he again intrigued in South Carolina.: 350–51 Hamilton's ideas involved coaxing middle-state Federalists to assert their non-support for Adams if there was no support for Pinckney and writing to more of the modest supports of Adams concerning his supposed misconduct while president.: 350–51 Hamilton expected to see southern states such as the Carolinas cast their votes for Pinckney and Jefferson, and would result in the former being ahead of both Adams and Jefferson.: 394–95
In accordance with the second of the aforementioned plans, and a recent personal rift with Adams,: 351 Hamilton wrote a pamphlet called Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq. President of the United States that was highly critical of him, though it closed with a tepid endorsement.: 396 He mailed this to two hundred leading Federalists; when a copy fell into the Democratic-Republicans' hands, they printed it. This hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800; it diminished Hamilton's position among many Federalists.
Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and Aaron Burr had received 73 votes in the Electoral College (Adams finished in third place, Pinckney in fourth, and Jay received one vote). With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men.: 352 : 399 Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, and for the first 35 ballots, Jefferson was denied a majority. Before the 36th ballot, Hamilton threw his weight behind Jefferson, supporting the arrangement reached by James A. Bayard of Delaware, in which five Federalist Representatives from Maryland and Vermont abstained from voting, allowing those states' delegations to go for Jefferson, ending the impasse and electing Jefferson president rather than Burr.: 350–51
Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he viewed Jefferson as the lesser of two evils. Hamilton spoke of Jefferson as being "by far not so a dangerous man", and that Burr was a "mischievous enemy" to the principal measure of the past administration. It was for that reason, along with the fact that Burr was a northerner and not a Virginian, that many Federalist Representatives voted for him.
Hamilton wrote many letters to friends in Congress to convince the members to see otherwise.: 352 : 401 The Federalists rejected Hamilton's diatribe as reasons to not vote for Burr,: 353 : 401 although historian Cokie Roberts claimed that Hamilton's campaign against Burr was a major reason Burr failed to win in the end. Nevertheless, Burr would become Vice President of the United States after losing to Jefferson. When it became clear that Jefferson had developed his own concerns about Burr and would not support his return to the vice presidency, Burr sought the New York governorship in 1804 with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis, but was defeated by forces including Hamilton.
Duel with Burr and death
Soon after the 1804 gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis, greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr—the Albany Register published Charles D. Cooper's letters, citing Hamilton's opposition to Burr and alleging that Hamilton had expressed "a still more despicable opinion" of the Vice President at an upstate New York dinner party. Cooper claimed that the letter was intercepted after relaying the information, but stated he was "unusually cautious" in recollecting the information from the dinner.
Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and recovering from his defeat, demanded an apology in letter form. Hamilton wrote a letter in response and ultimately refused because he could not recall the instance of insulting Burr. Hamilton would also have been accused of recanting Cooper's letter out of cowardice.: 423–24 After a series of attempts to reconcile were to no avail, a duel was arranged through liaisons on June 27, 1804.: 426
The concept of honor was fundamental to Hamilton's vision of himself and of the nation. Historians have noted, as evidence of the importance that honor held in Hamilton's value system, that Hamilton had previously been a party to seven "affairs of honor" as a principal, and to three as an advisor or second. Such affairs of honor were often concluded prior to reaching their final stage, i.e. a duel.
Before the duel, Hamilton wrote an explanation of his decision to participate while at the same time intending to "throw away" his shot. Hamilton viewed his roles of being a father and husband, putting his creditors at risk, placing his family's welfare in jeopardy and his moral and religious stances as reasons not to duel, but he felt it impossible to avoid due to having made attacks on Burr which he was unable to recant, and because of Burr's behavior prior to the duel. He attempted to reconcile his moral and religious reasons and the codes of honor and politics. He intended to accept the duel in order to satisfy his political ethics, and throw away his fire to satisfy his moral codes.[note 4] His desire to be available for future political matters also played a factor. A week before the duel, at an annual Independence Day dinner of the Society of the Cincinnati, both Hamilton and Burr were in attendance. Separate accounts confirm that Hamilton was uncharacteristically effusive while Burr was by contrast uncharacteristically withdrawn. Accounts also agree that Burr became roused when Hamilton, again uncharacteristically, sang a favorite song. Long thought to have been a different tune, recent scholarship indicates that it was "How Stands the Glass Around", an anthem sung by military troops about fighting and dying in war:
How stands the glass around?
For shame, ye take no care, me boys!
How stands the glass around?
Let mirth and wine abound
The trumpets sound!
The colours, they are flying, boys
To fight, kill or wound
may we still be found
content with our hard fare, me boys
on the cold ground
Why, soldiers, why
should we be melancholy, boys?
Why, soldiers, why
whose business ’tis to die?
What? Sighing? Fie!
Damn fear, drink on, be jolly boys!
’Tis he, you and I
cold, hot, wet or dry
we’re always bound to follow, boys
and scorn to fly
’Tis but in vain
(I mean not to upbraid you, boys)
’Tis but in vain
for soldiers to complain
Should next campaign
send us to Him that made us, boys
we’re free from pain
But should we remain
a bottle and kind landlady
cures all again
The duel began at dawn on July 11, 1804, along the west bank of the Hudson River on a rocky ledge in Weehawken, New Jersey. Both opponents were rowed over from Manhattan separately from different locations, as the spot was not accessible from the west due to the steepness of the adjoining cliffs. Coincidentally, the duel took place relatively close to the location of the duel that had ended the life of Hamilton's eldest son, Philip, three years earlier. Lots were cast for the choice of position and which second should start the duel. Both were won by Hamilton's second, who chose the upper edge of the ledge for Hamilton facing the city to the east, toward the rising sun. After the seconds had measured the paces Hamilton, according to both William P. Van Ness and Burr, raised his pistol "as if to try the light" and had to wear his glasses to prevent his vision from being obscured. Hamilton also refused the more sensitive hairspring setting for the dueling pistols offered by Nathaniel Pendleton.
Vice President Burr shot Hamilton, delivering what proved to be a fatal wound. Hamilton's shot broke a tree branch directly above Burr's head. Neither of the seconds, Pendleton nor Van Ness, could determine who fired first, as each claimed that the other man had fired first.
Soon after, they measured and triangulated the shooting, but could not determine from which angle Hamilton had fired. Burr's shot hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen above his right hip. The bullet ricocheted off Hamilton's second or third false rib, fracturing it and causing considerable damage to his internal organs, particularly his liver and diaphragm, before becoming lodged in his first or second lumbar vertebra.: 429  The biographer Ron Chernow considers the circumstances to indicate that, after taking deliberate aim, Burr fired second, while the biographer James Earnest Cooke suggests that Burr took careful aim and shot first, and Hamilton fired while falling, after being struck by Burr's bullet.
The paralyzed Hamilton was immediately attended by the same surgeon who tended Phillip Hamilton, and ferried to the Greenwich Village boarding house of his friend William Bayard Jr., who had been waiting on the dock. After final visits from his family and friends and considerable suffering for at least 31 hours, Hamilton died at two o'clock the following afternoon, July 12, 1804, at Bayard's home just below the present Gansevoort Street. The city fathers halted all business at noon two days later for Hamilton's funeral, the procession route of about two miles organized by the Society of the Cincinnati had so many participants of every class of citizen that it took hours to complete, and was widely reported nationwide by newspapers. Gouverneur Morris gave the eulogy at his funeral and secretly established a fund to support his widow and children. Hamilton was buried in the Trinity Churchyard Cemetery in Manhattan.
While Hamilton was stationed in Morristown, New Jersey, in the winter of December 1779 – March 1780, he met Elizabeth Schuyler, a daughter of General Philip Schuyler and Catherine Van Rensselaer. They were married on December 14, 1780, at the Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York.
Elizabeth and Alexander Hamilton had eight children, though there is often confusion because two sons were named Philip:
- Philip (1782–1801), died in a duel, just as his father would three years later.
- Angelica (1784–1857)
- Alexander Jr. (1786–1875)
- James Alexander (1788–1878)
- John Church (1792–1882)
- William Stephen (1797–1850)
- Eliza (1799–1859)
- Philip, also called Little Phil (1802–1884), named after his older brother who had been killed in a duel the previous year
After Hamilton's death in 1804, Elizabeth endeavored to preserve his legacy. She re-organized all of Alexander's letters, papers, and writings with the help of her son, John Church Hamilton, and persevered through many setbacks in getting his biography published. She was so devoted to Alexander's memory that she wore a small package around her neck containing the pieces of a sonnet which Alexander wrote for her during the early days of their courtship.
Hamilton was also close to Elizabeth's sisters. During his lifetime he was even rumored to have had an affair with his wife's older sister Angelica who, three years before Hamilton's marriage to Elizabeth had eloped with John Barker Church, an Englishman who made a fortune in North America during the Revolution and later returned to Europe with his wife and children between 1783 and 1797. Even though the style of their correspondence during Angelica's fourteen-year residence in Europe was flirtatious, modern historians like Chernow and Fielding agree that despite contemporary gossip there is no conclusive evidence that Hamilton's relationship with Angelica was ever physical or went beyond a strong affinity between in-laws. Hamilton also maintained a correspondence with Elizabeth's younger sister Margarita, nicknamed Peggy, who was the recipient of his first letters praising her sister Elizabeth at the time of his courtship in early 1780.
Hamilton's religious faith
As a youth in the West Indies, Hamilton was an orthodox and conventional Presbyterian of the "New Light" evangelical type (as opposed to the "Old Light" tradition); he was taught there by a student of John Witherspoon, a moderate of the New School. He wrote two or three hymns, which were published in the local newspaper. Robert Troup, his college roommate, noted that Hamilton was "in the habit of praying on his knees night and morning".: 10
According to Gordon Wood, Hamilton dropped his youthful religiosity during the Revolution and became "a conventional liberal with theistic inclinations who was an irregular churchgoer at best"; however, he returned to religion in his last years. Chernow wrote that Hamilton was nominally an Episcopalian, but:
[H]e was not clearly affiliated with the denomination and did not seem to attend church regularly or take communion. Like Adams, Franklin, and Jefferson, Hamilton had probably fallen under the sway of deism, which sought to substitute reason for revelation and dropped the notion of an active God who intervened in human affairs. At the same time, he never doubted God's existence, embracing Christianity as a system of morality and cosmic justice.
Stories were circulated that Hamilton had made two quips about God at the time of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. During the French Revolution, he displayed a utilitarian approach to using religion for political ends, such as by maligning Jefferson as "the atheist", and insisting that Christianity and Jeffersonian democracy were incompatible.: 316 After 1801, Hamilton further attested his belief in Christianity, proposing a Christian Constitutional Society in 1802 to take hold of "some strong feeling of the mind" to elect "fit men" to office, and advocating "Christian welfare societies" for the poor. After being shot, Hamilton spoke of his belief in God's mercy.[note 5]
On his deathbed, Hamilton asked the Episcopal Bishop of New York, Benjamin Moore, to give him holy communion. Moore initially declined to do so, on two grounds: that to participate in a duel was a mortal sin, and that Hamilton, although undoubtedly sincere in his faith, was not a member of the Episcopalian denomination. After leaving, Moore was persuaded to return that afternoon by the urgent pleas of Hamilton's friends, and upon receiving Hamilton's solemn assurance that he repented for his part in the duel, Moore gave him communion. Bishop Moore returned the next morning, stayed with Hamilton for several hours until his death, and conducted the funeral service at Trinity Church.
Relationship with Jews and Judaism
Hamilton's birthplace on the island of Nevis had a large Jewish community, constituting one quarter of Charlestown's white population by the 1720s. He came into contact with Jews on a regular basis; as a small boy, he was tutored by a Jewish schoolmistress, and had learned to recite the Ten Commandments in the original Hebrew.
The state and progress of the Jews, from their earliest history to the present time, has been so entirely out of the ordinary course of human affairs, is it not then a fair conclusion, that the cause also is an extraordinary one—in other words, that it is the effect of some great providential plan? The man who will draw this conclusion, will look for the solution in the Bible. He who will not draw it ought to give us another fair solution.
Based on the phonetic similarity of "Lavien" to a common Jewish surname, it has often been suggested that the first husband of Hamilton's mother, Rachel Faucette, a German or Dane named Johann Michael Lavien, was Jewish or of Jewish descent. On this foundation, historian Andrew Porwancher, a self-acknowledged "lone voice" whose "findings clash with much of the received wisdom on Hamilton", has promoted a theory that Hamilton himself was Jewish. Porwancher argues that Hamilton's mother (French Huguenot on her father's side) must have converted to Judaism before marrying Lavien, and that even after her separation and bitter divorce from Lavien, she would still have raised her children by James Hamilton as Jews. Reflecting the consensus of modern historians, historian Michael E. Newton wrote that "there is no evidence that Lavien is a Jewish name, no indication that John Lavien was Jewish, and no reason to believe that he was." Newton traced the suggestions to a 1902 work of historical fiction by novelist Gertrude Atherton.
Hamilton's interpretations of the Constitution set forth in the Federalist Papers remain highly influential, as seen in scholarly studies and court decisions. Although the Constitution was ambiguous as to the exact balance of power between national and state governments, Hamilton consistently took the side of greater federal power at the expense of the states. As Secretary of the Treasury, he established—against the intense opposition of Secretary of State Jefferson—the country's first de facto central bank. Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other federal powers, under Congress's constitutional authority to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and to do anything else that would be "necessary and proper" to enact the provisions of the Constitution.
On the other hand, Jefferson took a stricter view of the Constitution. Parsing the text carefully, he found no specific authorization for a national bank. This controversy was eventually settled by the Supreme Court of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland, which in essence adopted Hamilton's view, granting the federal government broad freedom to select the best means to execute its constitutionally enumerated powers, essentially confirming the doctrine of implied powers. Nevertheless, the American Civil War and the Progressive Era demonstrated the sorts of crises and politics Hamilton's administrative republic sought to avoid.[how?]
Hamilton's policies as Secretary of the Treasury greatly affected the United States government and still continue to influence it. His constitutional interpretation, particularly of the Necessary and Proper Clause, set precedents for federal authority that are still used by the courts and are considered an authority on constitutional interpretation. The prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, who spent 1794 in the United States, wrote, "I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton", adding that Hamilton had intuited the problems of European conservatives.
Opinions of Hamilton have run the gamut as both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic. Hamilton's reputation was mostly negative in the eras of Jeffersonian democracy and Jacksonian democracy. The older Jeffersonian view attacked Hamilton as a centralizer, sometimes to the point of accusations that he advocated monarchy. By the Progressive era, Herbert Croly, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt praised his leadership of a strong government. Several nineteenth- and twentieth-century Republicans entered politics by writing laudatory biographies of Hamilton.
In more recent years, according to Sean Wilentz, favorable views of Hamilton and his reputation have decidedly gained the initiative among scholars, who portray him as the visionary architect of the modern liberal capitalist economy and of a dynamic federal government headed by an energetic executive. Modern scholars favoring Hamilton have portrayed Jefferson and his allies, in contrast, as naïve, dreamy idealists.
Monuments and memorials
U.S. Army unit lineage
The lineage of Hamilton's New York Provincial Company of Artillery has been perpetuated in the United States Army in a series of units nicknamed "Hamilton's Own". It was carried as of 2010 by the 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment. In the Regular Army, it is the oldest unit and the only one with credit for the Revolutionary War.
U.S. Coast Guard vessels
A number of Coast Guard vessels have been given a designation after Alexander Hamilton, including:
- USRC Hamilton (1830), the fastest vessel in Morris-Taney Class of cutters, operated out of Boston for much of her career. It became famous for rescues and saving property, and extremely popular; so much so that music was written in November 1839 titled "The Cutter Hamilton Quick step." Hamilton was lost in a gale in 1853.
- USS Alexander Hamilton (1871), was a revenue cutter in service from 1871 to 1906, and a participant in the Spanish–American War.
- Alexander Hamilton (WIX 272), as the U. S. Navy gunboat Vicksburg and others of the Annapolis-class were authorized to be built in 1895 with a mission to show the flag and keep order in foreign ports, supporting the "gunboat diplomacy" policy of the period. Gunboat technology advanced rapidly at the turn of the last century, and the class of steam and sail quickly became obsolete. The Vicksburg was transferred to the Coast Guard in 1921, and in the following year was commissioned with the name Alexander Hamilton, replacing the Itasca as the Coast Guard Academy's training ship. She was decommissioned in 1944 and was transferred to the War Shipping Administration in 1946.
- USCGC Alexander Hamilton (WPG-34) was a Treasury-class cutter launched in 1937. Sunk after an attack by a German U-boat in January 1942, the Hamilton was the U.S. Coast Guard's first loss of World War II.
- USCGC Hamilton (WHEC-715) was a cutter in service from 1967 to 2011 and transferred to the Philippine Navy as an excess defense article under the Foreign Assistance Act as BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PS-15).
- USCGC Hamilton (WMSL-753) is a U.S. Coast Guard cutter commissioned in 2014.
A number of vessels in the U.S. Navy have borne the designation USS Hamilton, though some have been named for other men. The USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617) was the second Lafayette-class nuclear-powered fleet ballistic missile submarine.
Portraits on currency and postage stamps
Since the beginning of the American Civil War, Hamilton has been depicted on more denominations of U.S. currency than anyone else. He has appeared on the $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $1,000 notes. Hamilton also appears on the $500 Series EE Savings Bond.
Hamilton's portrait has been featured on the front of the U.S. $10 bill since 1928. The source of the engraving is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Hamilton, in the portrait collection of New York City Hall. In June 2015, the U.S. Treasury announced a decision to replace the engraving of Hamilton with that of Harriet Tubman. It was later decided to leave Hamilton on the $10, and replace Andrew Jackson with Tubman on the $20.
The first postage stamp to honor Hamilton was issued by the U.S. Post Office in 1870. The portrayals on the 1870 and 1888 issues are from the same engraved die, which was modeled after a bust of Hamilton by Italian sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi. The Hamilton 1870 issue was the first U.S. postage stamp to honor a Secretary of the Treasury. The three-cent red commemorative issue, which was released on the 200th anniversary of Hamilton's birth in 1957, includes a rendition of the Federal Hall building, located in New York City. On March 19, 1956, the United States Postal Service issued the $5 Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Hamilton.
The Grange is the only home Alexander Hamilton ever owned. It is a Federal style mansion designed by John McComb Jr. It was built on Hamilton's 32-acre country estate in what is now called "Hamilton Heights" in upper Manhattan, and was completed in 1802. Hamilton named the house "The Grange" after the estate of his grandfather Alexander in Ayrshire, Scotland. The house remained in the family until 1833, when his widow Eliza sold it to Thomas E. Davis, a British-born real estate developer, for $25,000. Part of the proceeds were used by Eliza to purchase a new townhouse from Davis in Greenwich Village (now known as the Hamilton-Holly House), where Eliza lived until 1843 with her grown children Alexander and Eliza, and their spouses.
The Grange was first moved from its original location in 1889, and was moved again in 2008 to a spot in St. Nicholas Park in Hamilton Heights, on land that was once part of the Hamilton estate. The historic structure, now designated as the Hamilton Grange National Memorial, was restored to its original 1802 appearance in 2011, and is maintained by the National Park Service for public visitation .
Colleges and universities
Columbia University, Hamilton's alma mater, has official memorials to Hamilton on its campus in New York City. The college's main classroom building for the humanities is Hamilton Hall, and a large statue of Hamilton stands in front of it. The university press has published his complete works in a multivolume letterpress edition. Columbia University's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates is named the Alexander Hamilton Society. Its undergraduate liberal arts college, Columbia College, also hands out the Alexander Hamilton Medal as its highest award to accomplished alumni and to those who have offered exceptional service to the school.
The main administration building of the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, is named Hamilton Hall to commemorate Hamilton's creation of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, one of the predecessor services of the United States Coast Guard.
- Alexander Hamilton High School (Los Angeles)
- Alexander Hamilton Jr./Sr. High School (Elmsford, New York)
- Alexander Hamilton High School (Brooklyn)
- Alexander Hamilton High School (Milwaukee)
Buildings, public works and public art
The U.S. Army's Fort Hamilton (1831) in Brooklyn at the entrance to New York Harbor is named after Hamilton. It is the fourth oldest installation in the nation, after: West Point (1778), Carlisle Barracks (1779), and Fort Leslie J McNair (1791).
The Hamilton Club in Brooklyn, NY commissioned William Ordway Partridge to cast a bronze statue of Hamilton that was completed in 1892 for exhibition at the World's Columbian Exposition and later installed in front of the club on the corner of Remsen and Clinton Streets in 1893. The club was absorbed by another and the building demolished, and so the statue was removed in 1936 to Hamilton Grange National Memorial, then located on Convent Avenue in Manhattan. Though the home it stood in front of on Convent Avenue was itself relocated in 2007, the statue remains at that location.
Construction for Hudson River Day Line of the PS Alexander Hamilton was completed in 1924. When the Alexander Hamilton retired from service as a passenger steamboat in 1971 it was one of the last operating sidewheel steamboats in the country. It was the last sidewheeler to traverse the Hudson River, and probably the East Coast. Its retirement signaled the end of an era.
In Chicago, a thirteen-foot tall statue of Hamilton by sculptor John Angel was cast in 1939. It was not installed at Lincoln Park until 1952, due to problems with a controversial 78-foot tall columned shelter designed for it and later demolished in 1993. The statue has remained on public display, and was restored and regilded in 2016.
Connecting the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx is the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, an eight-lane steel arch bridge that carries traffic over the Harlem River, near his former Grange estate. It connects the Trans-Manhattan Expressway in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan and the Cross-Bronx Expressway, as part of Interstate 95 and U.S. 1. The bridge opened to traffic on January 15, 1963, the same day that the Cross-Bronx Expressway was completed.
At Hamilton's birthplace in Charlestown, Nevis, the Alexander Hamilton Museum was located in Hamilton House, a Georgian-style building rebuilt on the foundations of the house where Hamilton was once believed to have been born and to have lived during his childhood. The Nevis Heritage Centre, located next door (to the south) of the museum building, is the current site of the museum's Alexander Hamilton exhibit. The wooden building, historically of the same age as the museum building, was known locally as the Trott House, as Trott was the surname of the family that owned the house in recent times. Evidence gradually accumulated that the wooden house was the actual historical home of Hamilton and his mother, and in 2011, the wooden house and land were acquired by the Nevis Historical and Conservation Society.
Numerous American towns and cities, including Hamilton, Kansas; Hamilton, Missouri; Hamilton, Massachusetts; and Hamilton, Ohio; were named in honor of Alexander Hamilton. In eight states, counties have been named for Hamilton:
Hamilton is not known to have ever owned slaves, although members of his family were slave owners. At the time of her death, Hamilton's mother owned two slaves named Christian and Ajax, and she had written a will leaving them to her sons; however, due to their illegitimacy, Hamilton and his brother were held ineligible to inherit her property, and never took ownership of the slaves.: 17 Later, as a youth in St. Croix, Hamilton worked for a company trading in commodities that included slaves.: 17 During his career, Hamilton did occasionally handle financial transactions involving slaves as the legal representative of his own family members, and one of Hamilton's grandsons interpreted some of these journal entries as being purchases for himself. His son John Church Hamilton maintained the converse in the 1840 biography of his father: “He never owned a slave; but on the contrary, having learned that a domestic whom he had hired was about to be sold by her master, he immediately purchased her freedom.”
By the time of Hamilton's early participation in the American Revolution, his abolitionist sensibilities had become evident. Hamilton was active during the Revolutionary War in trying to raise black troops for the army, with the promise of freedom. In the 1780s and 1790s, he generally opposed pro-slavery southern interests, which he saw as hypocritical to the values of the American Revolution. In 1785, he joined his close associate John Jay in founding the New-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, and Protecting Such of Them as Have Been, or May be Liberated, the main anti-slavery organization in New York. The society successfully promoted the abolition of the international slave trade in New York City and passed a state law to end slavery in New York through a decades-long process of emancipation, with a final end to slavery in the state on July 4, 1827.
At a time when most white leaders doubted the capacity of blacks, Hamilton believed slavery was morally wrong and wrote that "their natural faculties are as good as ours." Unlike contemporaries such as Jefferson, who considered the removal of freed slaves (to a western territory, the West Indies, or Africa) to be essential to any plan for emancipation, Hamilton pressed for emancipation with no such provisions.: 22 Hamilton and other Federalists supported Toussaint Louverture's revolution against France in Haiti, which had originated as a slave revolt.: 23 Hamilton's suggestions helped shape the Haitian constitution. In 1804, when Haiti became the Western Hemisphere's first independent state with a majority Black population, Hamilton urged closer economic and diplomatic ties.: 23
Hamilton has been portrayed as the "patron saint" of the American School of economic philosophy that, according to one historian, later dominated American economic policy after 1861. His ideas and work influenced the 19th century German economist Friedrich List, and Abraham Lincoln's chief economic advisor Henry C. Carey, among others.
Hamilton firmly supported government intervention in favor of business, after the manner of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as early as the fall of 1781. In contrast to the British policy of international mercantilism, which he believed skewed benefits to colonial and imperial powers, Hamilton was a pioneering advocate of protectionism. He is credited with the idea that industrialization would only be possible with tariffs to protect the "infant industries" of an emerging nation.
Political theorists credit Hamilton with the creation of the modern administrative state, citing his arguments in favor of a strong executive, linked to the support of the people, as the linchpin of an administrative republic. The dominance of executive leadership in the formulation and carrying out of policy was, in his view, essential to resist the deterioration of republican government. Some scholars point to similarities between Hamiltonian recommendations and the development of Meiji Japan after 1868 as evidence of the global influence of Hamilton's theory.
In popular culture
Hamilton has appeared as a significant figure in popular works of historical fiction, including many that focused on other American political figures of his time. In comparison to other Founding Fathers, Hamilton attracted relatively little attention in American popular culture in the 20th century, apart from his portrait on the $10 bill.
Theatre and film
- A stage play called Hamilton, which ran on Broadway in 1917, was co-written by George Arliss, who played the title role. Arliss reprised the role of Hamilton in a 1931 film based on the stage play.
- In 2015, Hamilton's profile in popular culture was significantly raised by the hit Broadway show Hamilton: An American Musical, written by Lin-Manuel Miranda, who débuted the title role. The musical, which Miranda based on a biography by Ron Chernow, was described by The New Yorker as "an achievement of historical and cultural reimagining. In Miranda's telling, the headlong rise of one self-made immigrant becomes the story of America." The Off-Broadway production of Hamilton won the 2015 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical as well as seven other Drama Desk Awards. In 2016, Hamilton received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, and set a record with 16 Tony Award nominations, of which the show won 11, including Best Musical. An Obama administration plan to replace Hamilton on the $10 bill was shelved due in part to the popularity of the musical.
- On July 3, 2020, Disney+ released the movie Hamilton, an authorized film of the Broadway stage production performed by the original cast.
- Novelist Gertrude Atherton wrote a fictionalized biography, The Conqueror, Being the True and Romantic Story of Alexander Hamilton, published in 1902.
- Gore Vidal's 1973 historical novel Burr included Hamilton as a major character.
- L. Neil Smith cast Hamilton as a principal villain in the historical background of his 1980 libertarian alternative history novel The Probability Broach and its sequels in the North American Confederacy series.
- The Adams Chronicles, a 1976 PBS miniseries, featured Hamilton in a major recurring role.
- George Washington II: The Forging of a Nation, a 1986 TV series, included Hamilton as a main character, portrayed by Richard Bekins.
- In the 2000 A&E TV movie The Crossing, about Valley Forge, Hamilton is played by Canadian actor Steven McCarthy and is portrayed memorably at the start of the Battle of Trenton.
- John Adams, a 2008 HBO miniseries in seven parts, featured Rufus Sewell as Hamilton in two episodes.
- Legends & Lies, a documentary series produced by Bill O'Reilly, featured Alexander McPherson as Hamilton in eight episodes that aired on Fox News in 2016.
- Turn: Washington's Spies, an AMC period drama, included Sean Haggerty in a recurring role as Hamilton in its final two seasons (2016–2017).
- An organized group of faithless electors in the 2016 United States presidential election called themselves "Hamilton electors", seeking to link their efforts to Hamilton's Federalist No. 68.
- Founding Fathers of the United States
- Founders Online
- Compromise of 1790
- History of central banking in the United States
- List of foreign-born United States Cabinet Secretaries
- Panic of 1792
- Sources disagree on the spelling of Hamilton's mother's birth name, which varies widely in primary sources (e.g., Faucett, Fawcett, Facet, Fatzieth). Hamilton's grandfather signed his name "John Faucett" on a legal document dated May 31, 1720, which some historians consider authoritative as a primary source. Hamilton himself spelled the name as Faucette in a letter dated August 26, 1800, which was corrected to Faucett in a footnote by the editor of Hamilton's papers. Hamilton's son and biographer, John Church Hamilton, wrote Faucette. Chernow and many early historians followed Hamilton by writing Faucette, while another group of historians adopted the anglicized name Fawcett, reflecting an absence of consensus.
- The System of Revenue Cutters was also known as the Revenue Service, Revenue-Marine Service, and System of Cutters after being enacted by Congress. It officially became the Coast Guard in 1915.
- The May 1800 election chose the New York legislature, which would in turn choose electors; Burr had won this by making it a referendum on the presidency, and by persuading better-qualified candidates to run, who declared their candidacy only after the Federalists had announced their ticket. Hamilton asked Jay and the lame-duck legislature to pass a law declaring a special federal election, in which each district would choose an elector. He also supplied a map, with as many Federalist districts as possible.
- Hamilton had given his son Philip the same advice in his duel with George I. Eacker in 1801 that resulted in Philip's death. The maneuver of throwing shots on the field of honor was referred to as delope by the French. (Chernow, p. 653)
- Adair and Harvey, "Christian Statesman?"; Quotes on the Christian Constitutional Society are from Hamilton's letter to James A. Bayard of April 1802, quoted by Adair and Harvey. McDonald, says p. 356, that Hamilton's faith "had not entirely departed" him before the crisis of 1801.
- Chernow, p. 17.
- Robertson, William (1889). Historical Tales and Legends of Ayrshire, Vol. II. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co. p. Plate 6. OCLC 1741572.
- Ramsing, Holger Utke (1939). "Alexander Hamilton". Personalhistorisk Tidsskrift (in Danish): 225–70.
- Newton, Michael E. (2019). Discovering Hamilton: New Discoveries in the Lives of Alexander Hamilton, His Family, Friends, and Colleagues, from Various Archives Around the World. Eleftheria Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-9826040-4-5.
- Newton (2019), p. 28.
- Hamilton, Alexander (August 26, 1800). "From Alexander Hamilton to William Jackson". Founders Online (Letter). National Archives. Archived from Syrett, Harold C., ed. (1977) [July 1800 – April 1802]. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Vol. 25. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 88–91 & n.4.
- Hamilton, John Church (1879). Life of Alexander Hamilton: A History of the Republic of the United States of America, as Traced in His Writings and in Those of His Contemporaries. Houghton, Osgood and Company. p. 41.
- Chernow, pp. 8–9
- Newton, Michael E. (2015). Alexander Hamilton: The Formative Years. Eleftheria Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-9826040-3-8.
- Chernow, 2005, p. 8.
- Randall, Willard Sterne (2004). Foreword. Practical Proceedings in the Supreme Court of the State of New York. By Hamilton, Alexander. New York: New York Law Journal. p. ix.
- Chernow, pp. 9, 734–35.
- Owens, Mitchell (January 8, 2004). "Surprises in the Family Tree". The New York Times. Appended correction dated January 15, 2004. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
While there have been suggestions that the mother, Rachel Faucett or Fawcett—and therefore Hamilton himself—was of mixed ancestry, it is not an established fact.
- Logan, Erin B. (July 12, 2018). "Alexander Hamilton, immigrant and statesman, dies at 47 — or 49". The Washington Post.
- Brookhiser, Richard (2000). Alexander Hamilton, American. Simon and Schuster. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-43913-545-7.
- Newton (2015), pp. 19–30.
- See, e.g., Chernow, Flexner, and Mitchell's Concise Life. Compare Brookhiser, at 16, and McDonald, at p. 366, n. 8. McDonald favors 1757 but acknowledges its minority status, saying that the probate clerk's alternate spelling of "Lavien" suggests unreliability.
- Chernow, pp. 10–12.
- Brookhiser, Richard (2000). Alexander Hamilton, American. Simon and Schuster. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-43913-545-7.
- Newton (2015), p. 14.
- Brockenbrough, Martha (2017). Alexander Hamilton, Revolutionary. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-250-12319-0.
- E.g., Flexner, passim.
- Chernow, pp. 25–30.
- Chernow, p. 29.
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- "Letter on the hurricane of August 1772".
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- Adair and Harvey.
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- Mitchell 1:65–73; Miller, p. 19.
- Newton (2015), pp. 116, 117, 573.
- Mitchell, I:74–75.
- Robert Troup "Memoir of General Hamilton", March 22, 1810
- Murray, Joseph A. (2007). Alexander Hamilton: America's Forgotten Founder. Algora Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87586-502-7.
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- The enlightened Corsican Republic, headed by Pasquale Paoli, had been suppressed six years before, and young American Patriots were likely to regard it as a model to be emulated
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- McDonald, Forrest (1982). Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. W. W. Norton Company. ISBN 978-0-393-30048-2.
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- Stryker, William S. (1898). The Battles of Trenton and Princeton (page image). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. pp. 158–9.
- Ketchum, Richard (1999). The Winter Soldiers: The Battles for Trenton and Princeton (1st Owl Books ed.). Holt Paperbacks. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-8050-6098-0.
- Stryker, William S. (1898). The Battles of Trenton and Princeton (page image). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. p. 290.
- Newton (2015), pp. 189–190.
- Lefkowitz, Arthur S., George Washington's Indispensable Men: The 32 Aides-de-Camp Who Helped Win the Revolution, Stackpole Books, 2003, pp. 15, 108.
- Hendrickson, Robert (1976). Hamilton I (1757–1789). New York: Mason/Charter. p. 119.
- Chernow, p. 90.
- Lodge, pp. 1:15–20
- Miller, pp. 23–26.
- Flexner, Young Hamilton, p. 316.
- Trees, Andrew S., "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton", Reviews in American History 2005, pp. 33(1):8–14, finding Chernow's inferences to be overreading the contemporary style.
- Katz, Jonathan Ned, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A., Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1976, ISBN 978-0-690-01164-7, p. 445.
- Gregory D. Massey, John Laurens and the American Revolution; University of South Carolina Press, 2000.
- Chernow 2004, pp. 151–152
- Chernow 2004, pp. 153–159
- Murray, p. 69.
- Mitchell, pp. I:254–60.
- Morris, Richard Brandon (1970). The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence. Harper & Row.
- Chernow, pp. 165–171
- Syrett, p. III:117; for a one-year term beginning the "first Monday in November next", arrived in Philadelphia between November 18 and 25, and resigned July 1783.
- Hamilton, Alexander. Alexander Hamilton: Writings. Compiled by Joanne B. Freeman. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, Inc., 2001. pp. 70–71
- Kohn; Brant, p. 45; Rakove, p. 324.
- Chernow, p. 176.
- Brant, p. 100
- Martin and Lender, pp. 109, 160: at first for seven years, increased to life after Arnold's treason.
- Tucker, p. 470.
- Kohn; Ellis 2004, pp. 141–44.
- Kohn, p. 196.
- Chernow, pp. 177–80.
- Hamilton's letter of February 13, 1783; Syrett, pp. III:253–55.
- Washington to Hamilton, March 4 and 12, 1783; Kohn; Martin and Lender, pp. 189–90.
- "To Alexander Hamilton from George Washington, 4 April 1783". Founders Online. National Archives. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
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- Brant, p. 108.
- Chernow, pp. 182–83.
- "Timeline | Articles and Essays | Alexander Hamilton Papers | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Chernow, pp. 197–99.
- The Bank of New York operated under that name continuously for over 220 years before merging with Mellon Financial in 2007 to form BNY Mellon. Wallack, Todd (December 20, 2011). "Which bank is the oldest? Accounts vary". Boston Globe.
- Morris, Richard B. (1988). The Forging of the Union, 1781–1789. Harper & Row. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-06-015733-3.
- Schachner, Nathan (1946). Alexander Hamilton. New York: D. Appleton Century Co. ASIN B0006AQUG2.
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- Morton, p. 131.
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- Madison, James (2005). Larson, Edward J.; Winship, Michael P. (eds.). The Constitutional Convention: A Narrative History from the Notes of James Madison. New York: Modern Library. pp. 50–1. ISBN 978-0-8129-7517-8.
- Stewart, 2016, p. 33
- Mitchell, pp. I:397 ff.
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- Denboer, p. 196.
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- Chernow, pp. 247–48.
- Chernow, pp. 252–57.
- Hall, Benjamin Homer, History of Eastern Vermont : From Its Earliest Settlement to the Close of the Eighteenth Century, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1858. p. 553.
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- Hamilton; Hamilton; pp. 1, 54, 106, 149, 192, 465
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- Murray, p. 121.
- Chernow, pp. 296–99.
- Chernow, p. 121.
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- Chernow, pp. 300–05.
- Chernow, p. 307.
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- Cooke, p. 90.
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- Hamilton, Alexander. "Letter from Alexander Hamilton to Angelica Schuyler Church, 6 March 1795". Founders Online. National Archives.
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I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose
- See also Smith (2004), p. 832.
- Young, Christopher J. (Fall 2011). "Connecting the President and the People: Washington's Neutrality, Genet's Challenge, and Hamilton's Fight for Public Support". Journal of the Early Republic. 31 (3): 435–66. doi:10.1353/jer.2011.0040. S2CID 144349420.
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- Balogh 2009, 72–110
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- Cooke, pp. 109–10
- Lomask, pp. 139–40, 216–17, 220.
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- Elkins and McKitrick; Age of Federalism, pp. 523–28, 859. Rutledge had his own plan, to have Pinckney win with Jefferson as Vice President.
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- Freeman 2001
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- Elkins and McKitrick, like other historians, speak of Hamilton's self-destructive tendencies in this connection.
- Harper, p. 259.
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At two in the afternoon, my father died.
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The first story alleges [that he was asked] why God had not been suitably recognized in the Constitution. 'Indeed, Doctor,' Hamilton is supposed to have replied, 'we forgot it.' ... The second story [is of a] purported remark on the Convention floor, when Franklin moved that each session in the future be opened with prayer. Hamilton is supposed to have replied that there was no need for calling in 'foreign aid.'
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- Before they became senators, Lodge and Arthur H. Vandenberg wrote highly favorable biographies. See also Peterson, Merrill D. (1960). The Jefferson Image in the American Mind. pp. 114, 278–80. ISBN 978-0-8139-1851-8.
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It has been stated that Hamilton never owned a negro slave, but this is untrue. We find that in his books there are entries showing that he purchased them for himself and for others.
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- Austin, pp. 261–62.
- Hamilton was not mentioned in standard reference guides to popular culture. See, e.g., Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat, eds. (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture (index). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 971. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
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- Vidal, Gore (1973). Burr: A Novel. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-48024-4.
- Baker, Susan; Gibson, Curtis S. (1997). Gore Vidal: A Critical Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 978-0-313-29579-9.
- Smith, L. Neil (2001). The Probability Broach. Tom Doherty Associates. pp. 101–5. ISBN 978-0-7653-0153-6.
- Fleming, Thomas (March 22, 1976). "The Selling of the Adams Family". New York Magazine. 9 (12): 78–80. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Boardman, Madeline (January 11, 2017). "11 Stars Who Played Alexander Hamilton". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017.
- "George Washington II: The Forging of a Nation (1986)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017.
- The Crossing, Sony Pictures, 2000
- "John Adams | About". HBO. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017.
- O'Donnell, Lilly (November 21, 2016). "Meet the 'Hamilton Electors' Campaigning for an Electoral College Revolt". The Atlantic.
- Ambrose, Douglas; Martin, Robert W.T. (2006). The Many Faces of Alexander Hamilton: The Life & Legacy of America's Most Elusive Founding Father. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-0714-2.
- Bailey, Ralph Edward (1933). An American Colossus: The Singular Career of Alexander Hamilton. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
- Brookhiser, Richard (2000). Alexander Hamilton, American. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86331-3.
- Chernow, Ron (2005). Alexander Hamilton. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14-303475-9.
- Cooke, Jacob Ernest (1982). Alexander Hamilton. Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-17344-3.
- Ellis, Joseph J. (2002). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-375-70524-3.
- Ellis, Joseph J. (2005). His Excellency: George Washington. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3253-2.
- Emery, Noemie (1982). Alexander Hamilton: An intimate portrait. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-399-12681-9.
- Flaumenhaft, Harvey (1980). The Administrative Republic of Alexander Hamilton. University of Chicago, Department of Political Science.
- Fleming, Thomas (2000). Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01737-9.
- Flexner, James Thomas (1997). The Young Hamilton: A Biography. Fordham University Press (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-0-8232-1790-8.
- Hendrickson, Robert (1976). Hamilton I (1757–1789). Mason/Charter, 1976. ASIN B003VZWXVA.
- McDonald, Forrest (1982). Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. W. W. Norton Company. ISBN 978-0-393-30048-2.
- Miller, John Chester (1959). Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-012975-0.
- Mitchell, Broadus (1957). Alexander Hamilton: Youth to Maturity (1755–1788), Volume 1. Macmillan.
- Mitchell, Broadus (1957). Alexander Hamilton: The National Adventure (1788–1804), Volume 2. Macmillan.
- Murray, Joseph A. (2007). Alexander Hamilton: America's Forgotten Founder. Algora. ISBN 978-0-87586-501-0.
- Newton, Michael E. (2015). Alexander Hamilton: The Formative Years. Eleftheria Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9826040-3-8.
- Randall, William Sterne (2015). Alexander Hamilton: A Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-0620-1532-7.
- Schachner, Nathan (1946). Alexander Hamilton. New York City: D. Appleton Century Co. ASIN B0006AQUG2.
- Adair, Douglas & Harvey, Marvin (1955). "Was Alexander Hamilton a Christian Statesman?". William and Mary Quarterly. 12 (2): 308–29. doi:10.2307/1920511. JSTOR 1920511.
- Austin, Ian Patrick (2009). Common Foundations of American and East Asian Modernisation: From Alexander Hamilton to Junichero Koizumi. Singapore: Select Books. ISBN 978-981-4022-52-1.
- Bailey, Jeremy D. (2008). "The New Unitary Executive and Democratic Theory: The Problem of Alexander Hamilton". American Political Science Review. 102 (4): 453–65. doi:10.1017/S0003055408080337.
- Balogh, Brian. 2009. A Government out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth Century American. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Bordewich, Fergus M. The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington, and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government (2016) on 1789–91.
- Brant, Irving (1970). The Fourth President: a Life of James Madison. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill. A one-volume recasting of Brant's six-volume life.
- Burns, Eric (2007). Infamous Scribblers: The Founding Fathers and the Rowdy Beginnings of American Journalism. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-428-6.
- Chan, Michael D. (2004). "Alexander Hamilton on Slavery". Review of Politics. 66 (2): 207–31. doi:10.1017/s003467050003727x. JSTOR 1408953.
- Denboer, Gordon R. (1987). The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections, 1788–1790, Volume III. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-10650-8.
- Derthick, Martha (June 13, 1999). Dilemmas of Scale in America's Federal Democracy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64039-8. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Elkins, Stanley; McKitrick, Eric (1993). Age of Federalism (online edition). New York: Oxford University Press. Detailed political history of the 1790s; online free
- Engerman, Stanley L.; Gallman, Robert E. (2000). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States. Cambridge University Books. ISBN 978-0-521-55307-0.
- Fatovic, Clement (2004). "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives". American Journal of Political Science. 48 (3): 429–44. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00079.x.
- Federici, Michael P. (2012). The Political Philosophy of Alexander Hamilton. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0539-1.
- Flaumenhaft, Harvey (1992). The Effective Republic: Administration and Constitution in the Thought of Alexander Hamilton. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1214-7.
- Flexner, James Thomas (1965–1972). George Washington. Little Brown.. Four volumes, with various subtitles, cited as "Flexner, Washington". Vol. IV. ISBN 978-0-316-28602-2.
- Garrity, Patrick J.; Spalding, Matthew (2000). A Sacred Union of Citizens: George Washington's Farewell Address and the American Character. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-8262-1.
- Gaspar, Vitor. "The making of a continental financial system: Lessons for Europe from early American history." Journal of European Integration 37.7 (2015): 847–859, summarizes Hamilton's achievements in Atlantic perspective.
- Gibowicz, Charles J. (2007). Mess Night Traditions. Author House. ISBN 978-1-4259-8446-5.
- Harper, John Lamberton (2004). American Machiavelli: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of US Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83485-8.
- Horton, James Oliver (2004). "Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation" (PDF). New York Journal of American History. 65 (3): 16–24.
- Kaplan, Edward (1999). The Bank of the United States and the American Economy. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-30866-6.
- Kaplan, Lawrence S. (2001). Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8420-2878-3.
- Keister, Doug (2011). Stories in Stone New York: A Field Guide to New York City Area Cemeteries & Their Residents. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 978-1-4236-2102-7.
- Kennedy, Roger G. (2000). Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513055-3.
- Knott, Stephen F. (2002). Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1157-7.
- Kohn, Richard H. (1970). "The Inside History of the Newburgh Conspiracy: America and the Coup d'Etat". The William and Mary Quarterly. 27 (2): 188–220. doi:10.2307/1918650. JSTOR 1918650. A review of the evidence on Newburgh; despite the title, Kohn is doubtful that a coup d'état was ever seriously attempted.
- Larsen, Harold (1952). "Alexander Hamilton: The Fact and Fiction of His Early Years". William and Mary Quarterly. 9 (2): 139–51. doi:10.2307/1925345. JSTOR 1925345.
- Levine, Yitzchok (May 2, 2007). "The Jews of Nevis And Alexander Hamilton". Glimpses into American Jewish History. The Jewish Press. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011.
- Lind, Michael (1994). "Hamilton's Legacy". The Wilson Quarterly. 18 (3): 40–52. JSTOR 40258878.
- Littlefield, Daniel C. (2000). "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery". New York History. 81 (1): 91–132. ISSN 0146-437X.
- Lomask, Milton (1979). Aaron Burr, the Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756–1805. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-10016-2. First volume of two, contains Hamilton's lifetime.
- Martin, Robert W. T. (2005). "Reforming Republicanism: Alexander Hamilton's Theory of Republican Citizenship and Press Liberty". Journal of the Early Republic. 25 (1): 21–46. doi:10.1353/jer.2005.0012. S2CID 143255588.
- Matson, Cathy (2010). "Flimsy Fortunes: Americans' Old Relationship with Paper Speculation and Panic". Common-place. 10 (4). Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2018. Summarizes speculations of William Duer and others in the context of the national economy.
- McCraw, Thomas K. (2012). The Founders and Finance: How Hamilton, Gallatin, and Other Immigrants Forged a New Economy.
- McManus, Edgar J. (1966). History of Negro Slavery in New York. Syracuse University Press.
- Mitchell, Broadus (1951). "The man who 'discovered' Alexander Hamilton". Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. 69: 88–115.
- Monaghan, Frank (1935). John Jay. Bobbs-Merrill.
- Morgan, Philip D. & O'Shaughnessy, A. J. (2006). "Arming Slaves in the American Revolution". In Brown, Christopher Leslie & Morgan, Philip D. (eds.). Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age. New York: Yale University Press. pp. 180–208. ISBN 978-0-300-10900-9.
- Nester, William (June 2012). The Hamiltonian Vision, 1789-1800: The Art of American Power During the Early Republic. ISBN 978-1-59797-675-6.
- Nettels, Curtis P. (1962). The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Newman, Paul Douglas (2004). Fries's Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3815-0.
- Newton, Michael E. (2019). Discovering Hamilton: New Discoveries in the Lives of Alexander Hamilton, His Family, Friends, and Colleagues, from Various Archives Around the World. Eleftheria Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9826040-4-5.
- Northup, Cynthia Clark; Turney, Elaine C. Prange; Stockwell, Mary (2003). Encyclopedia of Tariffs and Trade in U.S. History. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31943-3.
- Norton, Joseph (2005). Shapers of the Great Debate at the Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Biographical Dictionary (Shapers of the Great American Debates). Greenwood; annotated edition. ISBN 978-0-313-33021-6.
- Rakove, Jack N. (1979). The beginnings of National Politics: an interpretive history of the Continental Congress. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-42370-8.
- Rossiter, Clinton (1964). Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
- Sharp, James (1995). American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06519-0. Survey of politics in the 1790s.
- Sheehan, Colleen (2004). "Madison v. Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism and the Role of Public Opinion". American Political Science Review. 98 (3): 405–24. doi:10.1017/S0003055404001248. S2CID 145693742.
- Smith, Robert W. (2004). Keeping the Republic: Ideology and Early American Diplomacy. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-326-5.
- Staloff, Darren (2005). Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-7784-7.
- Steward, David O. (2016). Madison's Gift: Five Partnerships That Built America. imon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-8859-7.
- Storbridge, Truman R.; Noble, Dennis L. (1999). Alaska and the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service: 1867–1915. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-845-4.
- Stourzh, Gerald (1970). Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0724-4.
- Stryker, William S. (1898). The Battles of Trenton and Princeton. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.
- Studenski, Paul; Krooss, Herman Edward (2003). Financial History of the United States (5th ed.). Frederick, Md.: Beard Books. ISBN 978-1-58798-175-3.
- Sylla, Richard; Wright, Robert E. & Cowen, David J. (2009). "Alexander Hamilton, Central Banker: Crisis Management during the US Financial Panic of 1792". Business History Review. 83 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1017/s0007680500000209. S2CID 153842455.
- Thomas, Charles Marion (1931). American neutrality in 1793; a study in cabinet government. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Trees, Andrew S. (2005). "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton". Reviews in American History. 33 (1): 8–14. doi:10.1353/rah.2005.0019. S2CID 143944159.
- Trees, Andrew S. (2004). The Founding Fathers and the Politics of Character. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11552-8.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2014). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812 [three volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-156-5.
- Wallace, David Duncan (1915). Life of Henry Laurens, with a sketch of the life of Lieutenant-Colonel John Laurens. New York: Putnam.
- Weston, Rob N. (1994). "Alexander Hamilton and the Abolition of Slavery in New York". Afro-Americans in New York Life and History. 18 (1): 31–45. ISSN 0364-2437. An undergraduate paper, which concludes that Hamilton was ambivalent about slavery.
- White, Leonard D. (1949). The Federalists. New York: Macmillan. Coverage of how the Treasury and other departments were created and operated.
- White, Richard D. (2000). "Exploring the Origins of the American Administrative State: Recent Writings on the Ambiguous Legacy of Alexander Hamilton". Public Administration Review. 60 (2): 186–90. doi:10.1111/0033-3352.00077.
- Wood, Gordon S. (2009). Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503914-6. The most recent synthesis of the era.
- Wright, Robert E. (2002). Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32397-3.
- ——— (2008). One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-154393-4.
- Cooke, Jacob E., ed. Alexander Hamilton: A Profile. 1967. (short excerpts from Hamilton and his critics)
- Cunningham, Noble E. Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Confrontations that Shaped a Nation. 2000. (short collection of primary sources, with commentary)
- Freeman, Joanne B., ed. (2001). Alexander Hamilton: Writings. The Library of America. p. 1108. ISBN 978-1-931082-04-4. (all of Hamilton's major writings and many of his letters)
- Freeman, Joanne B., ed., The Essential Hamilton: Letters & Other Writings (Library of America, 2017) 424 pp. (abridged ed.)
- Frisch, Morton J., ed. Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton. 1985.
- Goebel, Julius, Jr., and Joseph H. Smith, eds. The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton. 5 vols. Columbia University Press, 1964–80. (comprehensive edition of Hamilton's legal papers)
- Hamilton, Alexander. Report on Manufactures. (economic program for the United States)
- Hamilton, Alexander. Report on Public Credit. (financial program for the United States)
- Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, John Church. The Works of Alexander Hamilton: Miscellanies, 1789–1795: France; Duties on imports; National bank; Manufactures; Revenue circulars; Reports on claims. 1850. John F. Trow, printer. (free online e-book edition)
- Hamilton, Alexander; Madison, James; Jay, John. The Federalist Papers. (published under the shared pseudonym "Publius")
- Lodge, Henry Cabot, ed. (1904). The Works of Alexander Hamilton, 10 vols (full text online at Internet Archive). New York, London, G.P. Putnam's Sons.
- Morris, Richard, ed. Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation. 1957. (excerpts from Hamilton's writings)
- National Archives, Founders Online – searchable edition
- Sylla, Richard and David J. Cowen, eds. Alexander Hamilton on Finance, Credit, and Debt (Columbia UP, 2018) 346 pp. (partly abridged version of key documents; online review)
- Syrett, Harold C., Jacob E. Cooke, and Barbara Chernow, eds. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 27 vols. Columbia University Press, 1961–87. (Includes all letters and writings by Hamilton, and all important letters written to him; the definitive edition of Hamilton's works, intensively annotated)
- Taylor, George Rogers, ed. Hamilton and the National Debt. 1950. (excerpts from 1790s writings representing all sides)
|Library resources about |
|By Alexander Hamilton|
- Alexander Hamilton on PBS' American Experience Archived February 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Alexander Hamilton: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
- Alexander Hamilton Papers from the Library of Congress (newly available August 2017)
- The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, subset of Founders Online from the National Archives
- New-York Historical Society's Alexander Hamilton Exhibit
- Works by Alexander Hamilton at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Alexander Hamilton at Internet Archive
- Works by Alexander Hamilton at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Hamilton's Report on Manufactures (Columbia University Press)
- Hamilton's Congressional biography
- "Alexander Hamilton: Debate over a National Bank (February 23, 1791)". Archived from the original on November 10, 2000. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Alexander Hamilton by Henry Cabot Lodge
- Alexander Hamilton's Plan of Government
- Hamilton Grange National Memorial
- Alexander Hamilton and the National Triumph of New York City, WNET video lecture; overview of Hamilton's career
- Alexander Hamilton records Archived June 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine at Trinity Wall Street Archives