Alexander John Ellis
Alexander John Ellis
|Died||28 October 1890 (aged 76)|
Kensington, London, England
|Education||Shrewsbury School, Eton College|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Occupation||mathematician and philologist|
Alexander John Ellis, FRS (14 June 1814 – 28 October 1890) was an English mathematician, philologist and early phonetician, who also influenced the field of musicology. He changed his name from his father's name Sharpe to his mother's maiden name Ellis in 1825, as a condition of receiving significant financial support from a relative on his mother's side. He is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London.
He was born Alexander John Sharpe in Hoxton, Middlesex to a wealthy family. His father James Birch Sharpe was a notable artist and physician, who was later appointed Esquire of Windlesham. His mother Ann Ellis was from a noble background, but it is not known how her family made its fortune. Alexander's brother James Birch Sharpe junior died at the Battle of Inkerman during the Crimean War. His other brother William Henry Sharpe served with the Lancashire Fusiliers after moving north with his family to Cumberland, due to military work.
Alexander was educated at Shrewsbury School, Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1837). Initially trained in mathematics and the classics, he became a well-known phonetician of his time and wrote the article on phonetics for Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1887. Through his work in phonetics, he also became interested in vocal pitch and by extension, in musical pitch as well as speech and song.
Ellis is noted for translating and extensively annotating Hermann von Helmholtz's On the Sensations of Tone. The second edition of this translation, published in 1885, contains an appendix which summarises Ellis' own work on related matters.
In his writings on musical pitch and scales, Ellis elaborates his notion and notation of cents for musical intervals. This concept became especially influential in Comparative musicology, a predecessor of ethnomusicology. Analyzing the scales (tone systems) of various European musical traditions, Ellis also showed that the diversity of tone systems cannot be explained by a single physical law, as had been argued by earlier scholars.
In part V of his work On Early English Pronunciation, he applied the Dialect Test across Britain. He distinguished forty-two different dialects in England and the Scottish Lowlands. This was one of the first works to apply phonetics to English speech. The work was criticised by Joseph Wright, author of the English Dialect Dictionary, and Eugen Dieth, one of the pioneers of the Survey of English Dialects, but regained popularity in the second half of the 20th century as many dialect researchers said that their results were similar to that found in Ellis's work. Some have argued that much of Ellis's information was appropriated without sufficient citation by his critic Joseph Wright.
He was acknowledged by George Bernard Shaw as the prototype of Professor Henry Higgins of Pygmalion (adapted as the musical My Fair Lady). He was elected in June 1864 as a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Ellis developed two phonetic alphabets, the English Phonotypic Alphabet (together with Isaac Pitman), which used many new letters, and the Palaeotype alphabet, which replaced many of these with turned letters (such as ⟨ə⟩, ⟨ɔ⟩), small caps (such as ⟨ɪ⟩), and italics. Two of his novel letters survived: ⟨ʃ⟩ and ⟨ʒ⟩ were passed on to Henry Sweet's Romic alphabet and from there to the International Phonetic Alphabet.
- 1845, The Alphabet of Nature
- 1848, A Plea for Phonetic Spelling: or, The Necessity of Orthographic Reform
- 1869, On Early English Pronunciation, London: N. Trübner / reissued by Greenwood Press: New York (1968).
- --do.-- On early English pronunciation : with especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, containing an investigation of the correspondence of writing with speech in England from the Anglosaxon period to the present day ... (text online at "archive.org")
- 1885, "On the Musical Scales of Various Nations", Journal of the Society of Arts 33, p. 485. (Link is to a HTML transcription (Accessed September 2008)
- 1890, English Dialects – Their Sounds and Homes
- John Hannavy (2008). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-97235-3.
- Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 28, p. 295
- An Atlas of Alexander J. Ellis's The Existing Phonology of English Dialects, http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/EllisAtlas/Index.html, has further details.
- Joseph Wright, A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill, Truebner & Co, London, 1892, page 174
- Eugen Dieth (1946). 'A New Survey of English Dialects'. Essays and Studies, 32, page 76
- Anderson, P. M. (1977). 'A New Light on Early English Pronunciation'. Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society, 77/14: 32–41.
- Shorrocks, G. (1991). 'A. J. Ellis as Dialectologist: A Reassessment’. Historiographia Linguistica XVIII, 2/3: 321–334.
- Maguire, Warren (August 2003). ""Mr. A. J. Ellis – the pioneer of scientific phonetics in England" (Sweet 1877, vii): an examination of Ellis's data from the northeast of England" (PDF). University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
I examined first the relatively accessible Wright (1905), but soon realised that most (perhaps all) of Wright's data for the north-east is derived from Ellis (1889).
- Helga Koekeritz, Phonology of the Suffolk Dialect, Uppsala, 1932, page vii as quoted in Peter Anderson (1977)
- Ross Duffin, How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony, W.W. Norton and Co., 2007
- "Library and Archive catalogue". Royal Society. Retrieved 30 November 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Black, Helen C. (1896), Pen, pencil, baton and mask: biographical sketches, Spottiswoode, pp. 345–351
- MacMahon, Michael K. C. (1996). "Phonetic Notation". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 831. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Carlyle, Edward Irving (1901). . In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- M. K. C. MacMahon, Ellis , Alexander John (1814–1890), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 14 June 2006