Alexander Ferdinand Koenig (20 February 1858–16 July 1940) was a German naturalist and zoologist.
Koenig was born at St Petersburg, Russia where his father was a successful merchant. He grew up in Bonn. Koenig became interested in natural history at an early age and started to collect specimens.
He studied zoology at the universities of Greifswald and Marburg. He funded expeditions to the Spitzbergen region of the Arctic and Africa, and visited Egypt and Sudan. With his collections he founded the Museum Koenig in Bonn in 1912. The museum collection includes specimens Koenig collected from even early in his life.
He died in Mecklenburg.