Alexander Nesmeyanov

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Alexander Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov
Александр Николаевич Несмеянов
Aleksandr Nikolayevich Nesmeyanov (3).jpg
Born9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1899
Moscow, Russian Empire
Died17 January 1980(1980-01-17) (aged 80)
Moscow, USSR
AwardsLomonosov Gold Medal (1962)

Alexander Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov ForMemRS[1] (Russian: Александр Николаевич Несмеянов; 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1899, Moscow – 17 January 1980, Moscow) was a prominent Soviet chemist and academician (1943) specializing in organometallic chemistry.

Life[edit]

He was born in Moscow on 9 September 1899 the son of Nikolai Vasilevich Nesmeyanov, a teacher, and his wife Lyudmila Danilovna.[2]

He obtained his degree in chemistry in 1920 from Moscow State University where he thereafter served as lecturer, professor, and eventually rector.

He was the President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1951–1961. As the rector of the Moscow State University in 1948–1951, he oversaw the construction of its new campus at Sparrow Hills. He was twice awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor (1969, 1979).[3]

He had organized and headed the laboratory of organometallic compounds first in the Institute of Organic Chemistry of USSR (1939–1954) and then in the new Institute of Organoelement Compounds of USSR (1954–1980) as the founder and the first director. This institute and the nearby street were named after A. N. Nesmeyanov. His monument is placed in front of the institute.

Prof. Nesmeyanov had popularized the term "organometallic chemistry" and became the leader of this science in USSR. He had also organized the investigations of artificial and synthetic food chemistry. Prof. Nesmeyanov had discovered the reaction of diazo-compounds with metal halides which was later named after him. This reaction is widely used for the synthesis of organic derivatives of non-transition metals with their further transformation into various classes of organometallic compounds. Prof. Nesmeyanov had also developed a number of industrial chemistry processes, including production of pharmaceuticals, antiknock agents, and artificial black caviar. The later was the first commercial protein analogue product.

Family[edit]

He married twice: firstly to Nina Vladimirovna, secondly to Marina Antol'evna Vinogradova.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chatt, J.; Rybinskaya, M. I. (1983). "Aleksandr Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov. 9 September 1899-17 January 1980". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 29: 399. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1983.0016. JSTOR 769809.
  2. ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
  3. ^ "Communities - The IET". 2.theiet.org. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  4. ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by
Sergey Vavilov
President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
1951–1961
Succeeded by
Mstislav Keldysh