Alexander R. Todd
OM PRS FRSE
|Born||Alexander Robertus Todd|
2 October 1907
|Died||10 January 1997 (aged 89)|
|Alma mater||University of Glasgow|
University of Frankfurt am Main
University of Oxford
|Awards||Davy Medal (1949)|
Royal Medal (1955)
Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1957)
Paul Karrer Gold Medal (1963)
Copley Medal (1970)
Lomonosov Gold Medal (1978)
|Institutions||Lister Institute |
University of Edinburgh
University of London
University of Manchester
University of Cambridge
Christ's College, Cambridge
University of Strathclyde
|Doctoral advisor||Walter Borsche, Sir Robert Robinson|
|Doctoral students||Ted Corbett|
Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron Todd OM PRS FRSE (2 October 1907 – 10 January 1997) was a British biochemist whose research on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes gained him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
Early life and education
Todd was born near Glasgow, attended Allan Glen's School and graduated from the University of Glasgow with a BSc in 1928. He received a PhD (Dr.phil.nat.) from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main in 1931 for his thesis on the chemistry of the bile acids.
After graduating from the University of Oxford, Todd held posts with the Lister Institute, the University of Edinburgh (staff, 1934–1936) and the University of London, where he was appointed Reader in Biochemistry.
In 1938, Alexander Todd spent six months as a visiting professor at California Institute of Technology, eventually declining an offer of faculty position. Todd became the Sir Samuel Hall Chair of Chemistry and Director of the Chemical Laboratories of the University of Manchester in 1938, where he began working on nucleosides, compounds that form the structural units of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
In 1944, he was appointed to the 1702 Chair of Chemistry in the University of Cambridge, which he held until his retirement in 1971. In 1949, he synthesised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Todd served as a visiting professor at the University of Chicago in Autumn 1948 and University of Sydney in 1950.
In 1955, he helped elucidate the structure of vitamin B12, although the final formula and definite structure was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin and her team, and later worked on the structure and synthesis of vitamin B1 and vitamin E, the anthocyanins (the pigments of flowers and fruits) from insects (aphids, beetles) and studied alkaloids found in hashish and marijuana. He served as chairman of the Government of the United Kingdom's advisory committee on scientific policy from 1952 to 1964.
He was elected a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge in 1944 and was Master from 1963 to 1978. He became Chancellor of the University of Strathclyde in 1975, and a visiting professor at Hatfield Polytechnic (1978–1986). Among his many honours, including over 40 honorary degrees, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1942, was President of the Royal Society from 1975 to 1980 and became a member of the Order of Merit in 1977.
Todd died in 1997 after a heart attack.
In 1937 Lord Todd married Alison Sarah, daughter of Nobel Prize winner Sir Henry Dale, who like Todd served as President of the Royal Society. They had a son, Alexander Henry, and two daughters, Helen Jean and Hilary Alison. Alison predeceased Lord Todd in 1987.
Todd was honoured as a Nieuwland Lecturer at the University of Notre Dame in 1948, an Arthur D. Little Visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1954, and a Hitchcock Lecturer at University of California, Berkeley, in 1957.
- Todd, Alexander (1983), A time to remember: the autobiography of a chemist, Cambridge University Press
- Brown, D. M.; Kornberg, H. (2000). "Alexander Robertus Todd, O.M., Baron Todd of Trumpington. 2 October 1907 – 10 January 1997: Elected F.R.S. 1942". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 46: 515. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1999.0099.
- 1851 Royal Commission Archives
- "Lord Todd - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
- Kay, Lily E. (1992-12-03). The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190281618.
- Archer, Mary D.; Haley, Christopher D. (2005), The 1702 chair of chemistry at Cambridge: transformation and change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-82873-2, Chapter 9: Alexander Todd, p 233
- Todd, Alexander (November 17, 1983). A Time to Remember: The Autobiography of a Chemist. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521255937.
- "Our Work with Cyanogenic Plants".
- "ChemNEWS (FACULTY OF SCIENCE)" (PDF). The University of Sydney.
- "No. 47362". The London Gazette. 28 October 1977. p. 13613.
- "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Todd, Alexander R (1949). Vitamins, coenzymes and nucleotides; a series of lectures presented at the University of Notre Dame on October 22, 25 and 27, 1948. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame.
- "Postdoc T.Y. Shen Honors his Wife | MIT Department of Chemistry". chemistry.mit.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
- "Nucleotide Co-Enzymes: A Study in Synthesis | Berkeley Graduate Lectures". gradlectures.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
- "No. 40227". The London Gazette. 9 July 1954. p. 4026.
- "No. 42651". The London Gazette. 17 April 1962. p. 3185.
- Reynolds, David (2005), Christ's: A Cambridge College Over Five Centuries, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-98988-0: "The Era of Todd, Plumb and Snow", by Sir David Cannadine.
- Obituary in the Independent
- Obituary in The New York Times
- Nobel Foundation biography
- Synthesis in the Study of Nucleotides, Todd's Nobel lecture
- Interviews with Nobel Prize winning scientists: Lord Alexander Todd, British Broadcasting Corporation, c. 1985. Video of an interviewed with Lewis Wolpert. Duration 37 minutes.
| Professor of Organic Chemistry, Cambridge University
| Master of Christ's College, Cambridge
Sir John Plumb