Alexander Vraciu

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Alexander Vraciu
Beyond Darkness June 20 1944.jpg
LTJG Alexander Vraciu in his Grumman F6F Hellcat after the "Mission Beyond Darkness" during the Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 20, 1944)
Born (1918-11-02)November 2, 1918
East Chicago, Indiana, United States
Died January 29, 2015(2015-01-29) (aged 96)
West Sacramento, California, United States
Buried at Oakmont Memorial Park, Lafayette, California
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1941–1964
Rank Commander

Alexander Vraciu (November 2, 1918 – January 29, 2015) was a U.S. Navy fighter ace, a Navy Cross recipient, and a Medal of Honor nominee during World War II. At the end of the war, Vraciu ranked fourth among the U.S. Navy's flying aces, with 19 enemy planes downed during flight and 21 destroyed on the ground. After the war, he served as a test pilot and was instrumental in forming the post-war Naval and Marine Air Reserve program. From 1956 to 1958 Vraciu led his own fighter squadron, VF-51, for twenty-two months. He retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of commander on December 31, 1963. Vraciu later moved to Danville, California, and worked for Wells Fargo.

Vraciu was born in East Chicago, Indiana of Romanian immigrant parents. He graduated from DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, and began his military career in 1941, when he enlisted in the U.S. Navy. During his military service in World War II, Vraciu flew Grumman F6F Hellcats in the Pacific, spending five months as a wingman to his mentor, Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the navy's first ace of the war. Vraciu's greatest success took place on June 19, 1944, during what became known as the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot," when he engaged a Japanese fighter squadron in air-to-air combat, downing six Japanese aircraft in eight minutes using only 360 rounds of ammunition. In December 1944 Vraciu parachuted from his downed plane during a mission over the Philippines and spent five weeks with Filipino resistance fighters before rejoining American military forces and returning to the USS Lexington. Vraciu spent the last few months of the war serving at the Naval Air Test Center in Patuxent, Maryland.

Early life and education[edit]

Vraciu was born in East Chicago, Indiana, on November 2, 1918, the second child and only son of Alexandru Sr. and Maria (née Tincu) Vraciu. Vraciu's parents immigrated from Transylvania, Romania at the turn of the century, settling in East Chicago, where they met and were married. (His father was born in Poiana Sibiului, and his mother was from Sebeș.) When Alex was seven or eight years old, the family traveled to Transylvania (Romania) for a brief residence. His parents hoped that the experience would immerse their children in the culture.[1] Afterward, the family returned to Indiana, where Vraciu resumed his education, graduating from East Chicago's Washington High School in 1937.[2]

Vraciu earned a four-year scholarship to DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, and graduated with a degree in sociology in 1941. At DePauw, Vraciu was active on the school's sports teams (track and football), became a member of the Delta Chi fraternity, and made the decision to become a pilot. During the summer between his junior and senior years in college, Vraciu participated in the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP) at Muncie, Indiana, where he received a private pilot's license. On October 9, 1941, he enlisted as a naval aviator in the U.S. Navy Reserve.[3] [4]

Marriage and family[edit]

Vraciu married Kathryn Horn on August 24, 1944. The couple had five children, three daughters and two sons. Kathryn died in 2003.[5][6]

Naval career[edit]

Pilot training[edit]

Following Vraciu's naval enlistment in 1941, he reported to Glenview Naval Air Station in suburban Chicago for preliminary training as a pilot, and received additional pilot training at Dallas and Corpus Christi, Texas, in early 1942, and in San Diego, California, in 1943.[7]

Vraciu was designated as a naval aviator and commissioned as a Naval Reserve ensign in August 1942, and promoted at the end of March 1943. Vraciu left San Diego in June for additional training at Pu'unene Naval Air Station in Hawaii and joined Fighting Squadron 3 (VF-3), under Lieutenant Commander Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first ace of the war. O'Hare chose Vraciu as his wingman and gave him valuable advice regarding air combat tactics.[8]

World War II service[edit]

Vraciu's first air-to air combat took place over Wake Island in October 1943, flying from the light aircraft carrier USS Independence. Vraciu scored his first victory on October 5, 1943, when he and O'Hare encountered an enemy formation. O'Hare flew below the clouds to find a Japanese Mitsubishi Zero and Vraciu lost sight of him. Vraciu followed a second Zero to Wake Island, where it landed, and strafed the Zero on the ground. Vraciu also destroyed his first Mitsubishi G4M ("Betty") bomber while it was parked on the runway.[9] During a mission in the Gilbert Islands (Makin and Tarawa atolls) on November 20, 1943, Vraciu downed a Betty bomber. (During his earlier training with O’Hare, Vraciu had learned to use the high side pass maneuver when attacking a Betty to avoid the lethal 20mm cannon wielded by its tail gunner.)[10]

After the USS Independence was damaged in fighting with the Japanese, Vraciu's squadron transferred to the USS Essex, and by the end of January 1944 the men were aboard the USS Intrepid. The ship's nickname of the "The Evil I" because of its reputation for bad luck did not affect Vraciu's combat success; he began downing Japanese aircraft in multiples. On January 29, 1944, Vraciu shot down three Betty bombers, bringing his total number of downed enemy planes to five, achieving status as an ace. On February 17 he shot down four Japanese fighters over Truk Atoll.[11] With nine victories, he became and remained VF-6's leading ace of the war.[citation needed] When the USS Intrepid returned to Pearl Harbor for repairs in February 1944, Vraciu had an opportunity to rotate back to the United States, but he preferred to stay in the Pacific and requested additional combat duty. He joined VF-16 aboard the USS Lexington on February 27, 1944.[12]

Lt. Alex Vraciu uses his hands to indicate his downing of six aircraft on June 19, 1944. All were Yokosuka D4Y "Judies".

Vraciu's most successful day as an aviator occurred on June 19, 1944, during the First Battle of the Philippine Sea, also known as the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot." Despite a malfunctioning supercharger, he intercepted a formation of Japanese dive bombers and destroyed six in a period of eight minutes.[3][13] After Vraciu landed, the ordnancemen on Lexington discovered that he had used only 360 rounds of ammunition. (On average, each of the six kills followed a burst lasting less than five seconds.)[14] On June 20, 1944, while escorting bombers in an attack on the Japanese Mobile Fleet (Kido Butai), Vraciu downed his nineteenth plane, making him the leading U.S. Navy ace, although he held that title for only four months.[15] Vraciu was nominated for the Medal of Honor for his actions at the First Battle of the Philippine Sea; however, when the nomination reached the desk of Admiral George D. Murray at Pacific Fleet Headquarters in Hawaii, it was downgraded to a Navy Cross.[3][16] Vraciu returned to the United States on leave in August 1944, and was promoted to a lieutenant upon his return to San Diego, California. Until he received orders for a new combat assignment, Vraciu made public appearances to promote the U.S. Navy in the United States.[17]

Vraciu returned to combat in the Pacific in late 1944, flying Grumman F6F Hellcats in VF-20. On December 14, 1944, after two missions with VF-20, his plane was downed by anti-aircraft fire during a mission over the Philippines. Vraciu parachuted from his plane, landing in the Tarlac province of Luzon. He was rescued by Filipino resistance fighters, who appointed him a brevet major in command of a guerrilla unit.[18] After spending five weeks with the guerrilla fighters, Vraciu rejoined American military forces and returned to the USS Lexington. He spent the last few months of the war serving at the Naval Air Test Center in Patuxent, Maryland. Vraciu ended the war as the U.S. Navy's fourth highest ranking ace, credited with downing a total of nineteen enemy aircraft and destroying twenty-one on the ground.[6][19]

Date Type Total Citation
10/05/43 1 A6M Zeke 1 [20]
11/20/43 1 Mitsubishi G4M Betty 1 [21]
01/29/44 3 G4M Betty 3 [22]
02/16/44 3 A6M Zeke, 1 Nakajima A6M2-N Rufe 4 [23]
04/29/44 2 A6M Zeke 2 [24]
06/14/44 1 G4M Betty 1 [25]:34
06/19/44 6 Yokosuka D4Y Judy 6 [25]:63
06/20/44 1 A6M Zeke 1 [25]:79

Post War service[edit]

Following his World War II service, Vraciu was promoted to lieutenant commander and spent six years as a test pilot. He was instrumental in forming the post-war Naval and Marine Air Reserve program.[26]

After staff assignments with the U.S. Navy in Washington, D.C., Vraciu became a jet training officer at Los Alamitos Naval Air Station in Orange County, California, and attended the Naval Post-Graduate School at Monterey, California. Promoted to commander, Vraciu led his own fighter squadron, VF-51, for twenty-two months, from 1956 to 1958, and won the individual gunnery championship at the U.S. Navy's Air Weapons Meet at El Centro, California, in 1957.[27] Vraciu officially retired from the U. S. Navy on December 31, 1963, while serving as the public information officer at the Alameda Naval Air Station in Oakland, California.[28]

Later years[edit]

After retiring from the U.S. Navy, Vraciu moved to Danville, California, where he worked for Wells Fargo bank.[6] In retirement he continued to give public lectures to schools, businesses, and civic groups.[29]

Vraciu appeared in "The Zero Killer" (2006), during season one, episode six, of the History Channel's Dogfights series.[30]

In his later years, Vraciu declined invitations to write an autobiography; however, he agreed to be interviewed and participated in oral history projects at the Indiana Historical Society and the University of North Texas, which eventually resulted in the publication of his biography, Fighter Pilot: The World War II Career of Alex Vraciu (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press, 2010).[31]

Death and legacy[edit]

Vraciu died on January 29, 2015, in West Sacramento, California, at the age of 96.[32]

Historian Barrett Tillman acknowledged that Vraciu's mild-mannered and easy-going demeanor in his everyday life was atypical of his "steely aggressiveness" in combat.[33] Ray Boomhower, Vraciu's biographer, commented that the fighter pilot and wartime hero was straightforward in their discussions, adding that Vraciu "always gave credit to those who had trained him."[6]

Military Awards[edit]

Vraciu's decorations and awards include:[34]

Navy Cross
Gold star
Gold star
Distinguished Flying Cross with two 5/16 inch stars
Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Air Medal with three 5/16 inch star
Combat Action Ribbon
Bronze star
Bronze star
Navy Presidential Unit Citation with two stars
Navy Unit Commendation
China Service Medal
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars
World War II Victory Medal
Bronze star
National Defense Service Medal with one service star
Naval Reserve Medal
Philippine Defense Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Philippine Liberation Medal with two service stars
Philippine Independence Medal
  • United States Navy High Individual (Aerial Gunnery), 1957[35]



  1. ^ Ray E. Boomhower (2010). Fighter Pilot: The World War II Career of Alex Vraciu. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. pp. 18, 20. ISBN 9780871952820. 
  2. ^ Boomhower, p. 22–24.
  3. ^ a b c "Alex Vraciu, 'Indestructible' Ace of World War II, Dies at 96". 
  4. ^ Boomhower, pp. 24–25, 30–32.
  5. ^ Boomhower, pp. 125, 155.
  6. ^ a b c d Dawn Mitchell (2015-02-03). "Alex Vraciu, Hoosier WWII fighter pilot, dead at age 96". Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis, IN: The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  7. ^ Boomhower, pp. 35, 40, 49.
  8. ^ Boomhower, pp. 54–56.
  9. ^ Boomhower, pp. 63, 72–73.
  10. ^ Boomhower, pp. 78–79.
  11. ^ Boomhower, pp. 84–85; 87–88.
  12. ^ Boomhower, pp. 90–91.
  13. ^ Vraciu's actions on June 19, 1944 are documented in chapter seven of Edward H. Sims (1962). Greatest Fighter Missions of the Top Navy and Marine Aces of World War II. New York: Harper. OCLC 1349967.  Vraciu's recollections of the day appear in "In the Hot Pacific Sun". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 3 (4): 53–54. 1991. 
  14. ^ Barrett Tillman (2005). Clash of the Carriers: The True Story of the Marianas Turkey Shoot of World War II. New York: New American Library. p. 173. ISBN 9780451216700. 
  15. ^ Boomhower, p. 119.
  16. ^ "Alexander Vraciu - The Medal of Honor Controversy". Friends of Alex ( 2006. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. 
  17. ^ Boomhower, pp. 121, 125, 127.
  18. ^ Boomhower, pp. 128–32.
  19. ^ Boomhower, pp. 136–38, 140, 148.
  20. ^ Johnson, R.L. "Attack on Wake Island, 5-6 November 1943". Fold3. p. 23. Retrieved July 14, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  21. ^ Sears, David (August 2015). "Butch's Wingman". U.S. Naval Institute. Naval History Magazine. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  22. ^ Harrison, Jr., H.W. "ACA Reports Marshall Islands, 29 Jan to 1 Feb 1944". Fold3. p. 33. Retrieved July 14, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  23. ^ Harrison, Jr., H.W. "ACA Reports Caroline Islands, 16-17 February 1944". Fold3. p. 4. Retrieved July 14, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  24. ^ Litch, E.W. "ACA Reports Truk, 29-30 April 1944". Fold3. p. 13. Retrieved July 14, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  25. ^ a b c Litch, E.W. "ACA Reports Marianas Islands 11-19 June 1944". Fold3. Retrieved July 14, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 
  26. ^ Boomhower, pp. 150.
  27. ^ "VMF-314, VA-26 Tops In Meet" (PDF). Naval Aviation News. June 1957. pp. 11–13. Retrieved September 28, 2016. 
  28. ^ Boomhower, pp. 152–55.
  29. ^ Boomhower, p. 157.
  30. ^ Paul Mavis (2007-04-24). "Dogfights - The Complete Season One". Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  31. ^ Boomhower, pp. 159, and Douglas E. Clanin Transcriptions of Oral History Interviews Collection Guide (pdf). Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 2013.  See also: Ronald E. Marcello (1994-10-09). "Oral history project: Vraciu, Alex (B. 1918)". University of North Texas. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  32. ^ "Alexander Vraciu Obituary". Contra Costa Times via Retrieved 2015-01-31. 
  33. ^ David Colker (2015-02-14). "Alex Vraciu dies at 96: World War II fighter ace". Los Angeles Times. Los Angesles, CA: Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  34. ^
  35. ^ Boomhower, pp. 154–55.


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