Alexandrium (dinoflagellate)

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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
(unranked): Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae
Order: Gonyaulacales
Suborder: Gonyaulacaceae
Genus: Alexandrium

Alexandrium is a genus of dinoflagellates, with many species related to toxin production leading to paralytic shellfish poisoning.[1] The dinoflagellate cysts produced by this species are considered much more toxic than swimming cells.[2] Enzyme electrophoretic data [3] and RNA genetic analysis [4][5] show two of the species, Alexandrium fundyense and A. tamarense to be closely related, while mating compatibilities even suggest them to be varieties of a single heterothallic species.[6]

Recent molecular work demonstrates an Alexandrium tamarense complex (Atama complex, including A. tamarense, Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium catenella) and that none of the three original morphospecies designations forms monophyletic groups in the present SSU-based and previous LSU-based [7] phylogenetic trees, i.e. these species designations are invalid. This currently needs further investigation.[8]

See also[edit]

  1. ^ Anderson, D.M. 1998. Physiology and bloom dynamics of toxic Alexandrium species, with emphasis on life cycle transitions. NATO ASI series, vol. G41. Physiology of harmful algal blooms. Edited by Anderson, DM, Cembella, AD and Hallegraeff, GM.
  2. ^ Dale, B., Yentsch, C. and Hurst, J. 1978. Toxicity in Resting Cysts of the Red-Tide Dinoflagellate Gonyaulax excavata from Deeper Water Coastal Sediments. Science 201, 1223-1224.
  3. ^ HAYHOME, B.A., ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M. & WHITTEN, D.J. 1989 Variation among congeneric dinoflagellates from the northeastern United States and Canada. I. Enzyme electrophoresis; Marine Biology, 101: 427-435.
  4. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). I. RFLP analysis of SSU rRNA genes; Journal of Phycology, 30: 744-754.
  5. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A., HERZOG, M., SOGIN, M. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). II. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the LSU rRNA gene; Journal of Phycology, 30: 991-1011.
  6. ^ ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M., DOUCETTE, G.J., GALLAGHER, J.C. & BALECH, E. 1994 Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium from the northeastern United States and Canada; Marine Biology, 120: 467-478.
  7. ^ Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M., Anderson, D.M., 2007. Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 43 (6), 1329–1338.
  8. ^ Lilibeth N. Miranda, Yunyun Zhuang, Huan Zhang, Senjie Lin, 2012. Phylogenetic analysis guided by intragenomic SSU rDNA polymorphism refines classification of ‘‘Alexandrium tamarense’’ species complex. Harmful Algae 16: 35-48.