Alexandrium fundyense

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Alexandrium fundyense
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae
Order: Gonyaulacales
Suborder: Gonyaulaceae
Genus: Alexandrium
Species: A. fundyense
Binomial name
Alexandrium fundyense

Alexandrium fundyense is a dinoflagellate. It produces toxins that induce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), and is a common cause of red tide. A. fundyense regularly forms massive blooms along the northeastern coasts of the United States and Canada (;,[1][2] resulting in enormous economic losses and public health concerns.[3]

Enzyme electrophoretic data [4] and RNA genetic analysis [5][6] show Alexandrium fundyense and A. tamarense to be closely related, while mating compatibilities even suggest them to be varieties of a single heterothallic species.[7]

Recent molecular work shows that this species belongs to the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Atama complex, including A. tamarense, Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium catenella) and that none of the three original morphospecies designations forms monophyletic groups in the present SSUbased and previous LSU-based [8] phylogenetic trees, i.e. these species designations are invalid. This currently needs further investigation.[9]

Formation of dinocysts was observed in grazing experiments with oysters.[10] The cyst dynamics of this species have been studied in the Gulf of Maine.[11] Genetic studies of bloom development of this species show rapid selection occurring at a timescale of a few weeks.[12]

References[edit]

Encyclopedia of Life entry on Alexandrium fundyense

  1. ^ ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M., DOUCETTE, G.J., GALLAGHER, J.C. & BALECH, E. 1994 Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium from the northeastern United States and Canada; Marine Biology, 120: 467-478.
  2. ^ Martin, J.L., Page, F.H., Hanke, A., Strain, P.M., LeGresley, M.M., 2005. Alexandrium fundyense vertical distribution patterns during 1982, 2001 and 2002 in the offshore Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada. Deep Sea Res. Part II: Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 52 (19–21), 2569–2592.
  3. ^ Anderson, D.M., Kaoru, Y., White, A.W., 2000. Estimated annual economic impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report. WHOI-2000-11. p. 97.
  4. ^ HAYHOME, B.A., ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M. & WHITTEN, D.J. 1989 Variation among congeneric dinoflagellates from the northeastern United States and Canada. I. Enzyme electrophoresis; Marine Biology, 101: 427-435.
  5. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). I. RFLP analysis of SSU rRNA genes; Journal of Phycology, 30: 744-754.
  6. ^ SCHOLIN, C.A., HERZOG, M., SOGIN, M. & ANDERSON, D.M. 1994 Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae). II. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the LSU rRNA gene; Journal of Phycology, 30: 991-1011.
  7. ^ ANDERSON, D.M., KULIS, D.M., DOUCETTE, G.J., GALLAGHER, J.C. & BALECH, E. 1994 Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium from the northeastern United States and Canada; Marine Biology, 120: 467-478.
  8. ^ Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M., Anderson, D.M., 2007. Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 43 (6), 1329–1338.
  9. ^ Lilibeth N. Miranda, Yunyun Zhuang, Huan Zhang, Senjie Lin, 2012. Phylogenetic analysis guided by intragenomic SSU rDNA polymorphism refines classification of ‘‘Alexandrium tamarense’’ species complex. Harmful Algae 16: 35-48.
  10. ^ Persson A., Smith B.C., Wikfors, G.H., Quilliam, M., 2006. Grazing on toxic Alexandrium fundyense resting cysts and vegetative cells by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Harmful Algae 5 (2006) 678–684.
  11. ^ Anderson D. M., Stock C. A., Keafer B. A., et al. Alexandrium fundyense cyst dynamics in the Gulf of Maine. Deep Sea Res. II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 2005a;52:2522-2542.
  12. ^ Erdner DL, Richlen M, McCauley LAR, Anderson DM (2011) Diversity and Dynamics of a Widespread Bloom of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22965. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022965

Further Readings[edit]

Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J. (May 2014). "Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine". Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 103 (Harmful Algae in the Gulf of Maine: Oceanography, Population Dynamics, and Toxin Transfer in the Food Web): 79–95. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 

Shankar, Sugandha; Townsend, David; Thomas, Maura (17 July 2014). "Ammonium and maintenance of bloom populations of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank: results of laboratory culture experiments". Marine Ecology Progress Series 507: 57–67. doi:10.3354/meps10853. Retrieved 11 February 2015.