Alexei Navalny

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Alexey Navalny)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Alexei Navalny
Алексей Навальный
Alexey Navalny 2017.jpg
Navalny in 2017
Leader of Russia of the Future
Progress Party (2014–2018)
Assumed office
17 November 2013
Preceded byOffice established
Anti-Corruption Foundation
In office
2011–2020
Personal details
Born
Alexei Anatolievich Navalny

(1976-06-04) 4 June 1976 (age 44)
Butyn, Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Russia)
NationalityRussian
Political partyRussia of the Future (since 2018)
Other political
affiliations
Spouse(s)
Yulia Navalnaya
(m. 2000)
Children2[1]
ResidenceMoscow
Education
OccupationLawyer, activist, politician
Known for
AwardsYale World Fellow (2010)
WebsiteNavalny.com
YouTube information
Channel
Subscribers4.1 million
(12 September 2020)
Total views817 million
(12 September 2020)

Alexei Anatolievich Navalny (Russian: Алексей Анатольевич Навальный, IPA: [ɐlʲɪkˈsʲej ɐnɐˈtolʲjɪvʲɪtɕ nɐˈvalʲnɨj]; born 4 June 1976 in Butyn[2]) is a Russian opposition leader,[3][4][5][6] politician, jurist[7] and anti-corruption activist. He came to international prominence by organizing demonstrations, and running for office, to advocate reforms against corruption in Russia, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Putin's government. Navalny has been described as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most" by The Wall Street Journal.[8] Putin avoids directly referring to Navalny by name.[9]

Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the opposition political Progress Party.[10] In September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came in second, with 27% of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. Navalny claimed election fraud and that he actually received more votes.[11] Navalny has over four million YouTube subscribers and over two million Twitter followers.[12][13] Through these channels he published videos and documents about alleged corruption by Russian officials and businessmen, organized political demonstrations and promoted his campaigns for office. In a 2011 radio interview he described Russia's ruling party United Russia as a "party of crooks and thieves", which became a popular epithet.[14] He created the Anti-Corruption Foundation in 2011, which was dissolved in 2020. Navalny was nominated for the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize.[15][16][17]

Navalny has been arrested several times by Russian authorities.[18] He received two suspended sentences for embezzlement in two cases, one in July 2013 and another in December 2014, for five-years and three-and-a-half-years of imprisonment, respectively.[19][20][21][22] Both cases are widely considered to be politically motivated and to bar him from running in future elections.[23][24] According to rulings by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), the cases violated Navalny's right to a fair trial. In 2013, the Russia-based Memorial Human Rights Center recognized Navalny as a political prisoner.[25] In total, Navalny won 6 complaints against the Russian authorities in the ECHR for a total of 225 thousand euros.[26]

In December 2016, Navalny tried to run for President of Russia during the 2018 election but was barred by Russia's Central Electoral Commission in December 2017 due to his prior criminal conviction, seen as politically motivated. The Supreme Court of Russia rejected his appeal and upheld the ban, leading to him to call for a boycott of the election.[23][27][28] In March 2017, Alexei Navalny and his Anti-Corruption Foundation created a documentary He Is Not Dimon to You, accusing Dmitry Medvedev, the prime minister and former president of Russia, of significant corruption.[29]

On 20 August 2020, Navalny was hospitalized and left in a serious but stable condition after a Novichok poisoning during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow in a presumably politically motivated attack.[30][31] On 22 August, he was transported to Berlin on a medical evacuation flight.[32][33] He was discharged on 22 September.[34] The EU and the UK have imposed sanctions over Navalny's poisoning on six senior Russian officials and a chemical centre.[35][36]

Early life and career[edit]

Navalny is of Russian and Ukrainian descent.[37] His father is from Zalissia, a village near the border of Belarus in Ivankiv Raion, Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny grew up in Obninsk about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south-west of Moscow, but spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine, acquiring a proficiency in the Ukrainian language.[37][38] His parents, Anatoly Navalny and Lyudmila Navalnaya, own a basket-weaving factory in the village of Kobyakovo, Moscow Oblast, which they have run since 1994.[39]

Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 1998 with a law degree. He then studied securities and exchanges at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation.[40][41] Navalny received a scholarship to the Yale World Fellows program at Yale University in 2010.[42][43]

Anti-corruption investigations[edit]

Navalny arrested during the 2017 Russian protests on 26 March 2017

In 2008, Navalny invested 300,000 rubles in stocks of 5 oil and gas companies: Rosneft, Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, and Surgutneftegaz, thus becoming an activist shareholder.[44] As such, he began to aim at making the financial properties of these companies transparent. This is required by law, but there are allegations that some of the high-level managers of these companies are involved in thefts and are obscuring transparency.[45] Other activities deal with wrongdoings by Russian police, such as Sergei Magnitsky's case.

In November 2010, Navalny published[46] confidential documents about Transneft's auditing. According to Navalny's blog, about 4 billion were stolen by Transneft's leaders during the construction of the Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.[47][48]

In December 2010, Navalny announced the launch of the RosPil project, which seeks to bring to light corrupt practices in the government procurement process.[49] The project takes advantage of existing procurement regulation that requires all government requests for tender to be posted online. Information about winning bids must be posted online as well. The name RosPil is a pun on the slang term "raspil" (wikt:ru:распил) for a corruption practice of appropriating the money allocated from the state budget.

In May 2011, Navalny launched RosYama (literally "Russian Hole"), a project that allowed individuals to report potholes and track government responses to complaints.[50]

In August 2011, Navalny publicized papers related to a scandalous real estate deal[51] between the Hungarian and Russian governments.[52][53] According to the papers, Hungary sold a former embassy building in Moscow for USD 21 million to an offshore company of Viktor Vekselberg, who immediately resold it to the Russian government for USD 116 million. Irregularities in the paper trail implied a collusion. Three Hungarian officials responsible for the deal were detained in February 2011.[54] It is unclear whether any official investigation was conducted on the Russian side.

In February 2012, Navalny concluded that Russian federal money going to Ramzan Kadyrov's Chechen Interior Ministry is spent "in a totally shadowy and fraudulent way."[55]

The Levada Center survey showed that 58% of surveyed Russians supported the 2017 Russian protests against corruption in the Russian government.[56]

In May 2012, Navalny accused Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov of corruption, stating that companies owned by Roman Abramovich and Alisher Usmanov had transferred tens of millions of dollars to Shuvalov's company, allowing Shuvalov to share in the profit from Usmanov's purchase of the British steel company Corus.[57][58] Navalny posted scans of documents to his blog showing the money transfers.[58] Usmanov and Shuvalov stated the documents Navalny had posted were legitimate, but that the transaction had not represented a violation of Russian law. Shuvalov stated, "I unswervingly followed the rules and principles of conflict of interest. For a lawyer, this is sacred".[57]

In July 2012, Navalny posted documents on his blog allegedly showing that Alexander Bastrykin, head of the Investigative Committee of Russia, owned an undeclared business in the Czech Republic. The posting was described by the Financial Times as Navalny's "answering shot" for having had his emails leaked during his arrest in the previous month.[59]

In March 2017, Navalny launched the campaign "He Is Not Dimon To You", accusing Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister, of corruption. The authorities either ignored the report produced by Navalny, or commented that the report was issued by a "convicted criminal" and is not worth commenting on. On 26 March, Navalny organized a series of anti-corruption rallies in different cities across Russia. In some cities, the rallies were sanctioned by the authorities, but in others, including Moscow and Saint Petersburg, they were not allowed. The Moscow police said that 500 people had been detained, but according to the human rights group OVD-Info, 1,030 people were detained in Moscow alone, including Navalny himself.[60][61][62] On 27 March, he was fined 20,000 rubles minimum for organizing an illegal protest, and jailed for 15 days for resisting arrest.[62]

In August 2018, Navalny alleged Viktor Zolotov stole at least $29m from procurement contracts for the National Guard of Russia. Shortly after his allegations against Zolotov, Navalny was imprisoned for staging protests in January 2018. Subsequently, Viktor Zolotov published a video message on September 11, where he called Navalny into a duel and promised to make "good, juicy mincemeat" of him.[63][64]

Political activity[edit]

Yabloko[edit]

In 2000, following the announcement of a new law that would raise the electoral threshold for State Duma elections, Navalny joined the Russian United Democratic Party Yabloko. According to Navalny, the law was stacked against Yabloko and Union of Right Forces, and he decided to join, even though he was not "a big fan" of either organization.[44] In 2001, he was listed as a member of the party.[44] In 2002, he was elected to the regional council of the Moscow branch of Yabloko.[65] In 2003, he headed the Moscow subdivision of the election campaign of the party for the parliamentary election held in December. In April 2004, Navalny became Chief of staff of the Moscow branch of Yabloko, which he remained until February 2007. Also in 2004, he also became Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of the party. From 2006 to 2007, he was a member of the Federal Council of the party.[66]

In August 2005, Navalny was incorporated into the Social Council of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, created prior to the Moscow City Duma election held later that year, in which he took part as a candidate. In November, he was one of the initiators of Youth Public Chamber, intended to help younger politicians take part in legislative initiatives.[66]

At the same time, in 2005, Navalny started another youth social movement, named "DA! – Democratic Alternative".[note 1] The project was not connected to Yabloko (nor any other political party). Within the movement, Navalny participated in a number of projects. In particular, he was one of the organizers of the movement-run political debates, which soon got resonance in the media.[66] Navalny also organized television debates via state-run Moscow channel TV Center; two initial episodes showed high ratings, but the show was suddenly cancelled. According to Navalny, authorities prohibited some people from receiving TV coverage.[66]

In late 2006, Navalny appealed to the Moscow City Hall, asking it to grant permission to conduct the nationalist 2006 Russian March. However, he added that Yabloko condemned "any ethnic or racial hatred and any xenophobia" and called on the police to oppose "any Fascist, Nazi, xenophobic manifestations".[note 2] Navalny was an observer during the organizing committee meetings; he was named as an organizer for the march in the media, which he denied.[66]

In July 2007, Navalny resigned from the post of Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of the party.[66] By then, he had founded a nationalist movement, "The People" (see below). During a party council in December 2007, Navalny publicly demanded "the immediate resignation of party chairman and all his deputies, and the re-election of at least 70% of the Bureau".[66] He was consequently expelled from Yabloko "for causing political damage to the party; in particular, for nationalist activities".[68] Navalny declared the actual rationale behind his exclusion was his demanding the resignation of Grigory Yavlinsky, the then leader of the party.[69]

"The People" movement[edit]

On 23 June 2007, Navalny co-founded a new political movement, simply named "The People", which upheld the positions of "democratic nationalism", defined as a fight for democracy and the rights of ethnic Russians;[66] according to one of Navalny's biographers, Navalny differentiates the ethnic and social aspects of the term, highlighting the latter.[70]

In June 2008, the movement joined forces with two other Russian nationalist movements, Movement Against Illegal Immigration (MAII) and Great Russia, to form a new coalition, Russian National Movement. Navalny declared the movement would participate in the next parliamentary elections, planning to get a great share of votes; he added, "up to 60% of the population upholds spontaneous nationalism, but it is not legally effectuated".[71] Later the same month, the MAII and The People signed a cooperation agreement; at the procedure, he defined the "new political nationalism" as democratic, "fundamentally and statistically", adding, "we can teach blatant liberals a thing or two". He also declared he wanted to distance the coalition from the skinheads, calling for close collaboration with the leftists and the liberals for fair elections the coalition "would win", and demanded political liberalization and early parliamentary elections in Russia.[72]

In 2011, Navalny admitted the movement "The People" had failed to establish itself as a working structure.[73]

Involvement in 2011 parliamentary election and 2011–13 Russian protests[edit]

Navalny at the courthouse, 6 December 2011

In December 2011, after parliamentary elections and accusations of electoral fraud,[74] around 6,000 people gathered in Moscow to protest over the contested result, and some 300 were arrested including Navalny. After a period of uncertainty, Navalny was produced at court and thereafter sentenced to the maximum 15 days "for defying a government official". Alexei Venediktov, editor-in-chief of Echo of Moscow radio station, called the arrest "a political mistake: jailing Navalny transforms him from an online leader into an offline one".[75] Navalny was kept in the same prison as several other activists, including Ilya Yashin and Sergei Udaltsov, the unofficial leader of the Vanguard of Red Youth, a radical Russian communist youth group. Udaltsov has gone on hunger strike to protest against the conditions.[76]

Navalny at Moscow rally, 10 March 2012

Navalny was arrested on 5 December, convicted and sentenced to 15 days in jail. Since his arrest, his blog has become available in English.[77]

In a profile published the day after his release, BBC News described Navalny as "arguably the only major opposition figure to emerge in Russia in the past five years".[78]

On his release on 20 December, Navalny called on Russians to unite against Putin, who Navalny said would try to snatch victory in the presidential election, which was held on 4 March 2012.[79]

Navalny told reporters on his release that it would be senseless for him to run in the presidential elections because the Kremlin would not allow them to be fair. But he said that if free elections were held, he would "be ready" to run.[79] On 24 December, he helped lead a demonstration much larger than the post-election one (50,000 strong, in one Western-media account[who?]), telling to the crowd, "I see enough people to take the Kremlin right now".[80]

In March 2012, after Putin was elected president, Navalny helped lead an anti-Putin rally in Moscow's Pushkin Square, attended by between 14,000 and 20,000 people. After the rally, Navalny was detained by authorities for several hours, then released.[81]

On 8 May, the day after Putin was inaugurated, Navalny and Udaltsov were arrested after an anti-Putin rally at Clean Ponds, and were each given 15-day jail sentences.[82] Amnesty International designated the two men prisoners of conscience.[83] On 11 June, Moscow prosecutors conducted a 12-hour search of Navalny's home, office, and the apartment of one of his relatives. The searches were undertaken, according to the RT television network, as part of a broader investigation into the clashes between opposition activists and riot police that happened on 6 May.[84] Soon afterwards, some of Navalny's personal emails were posted online by a pro-government blogger.[59]

New party[edit]

A paper plane, coloured pink and purple, and a text saying "НАРОДНЫЙ АЛЬЯНС" to the right of it, over a white background
Logo of the People's Alliance, used in 2012–2014
A turquoise simplified the shape of a ribbon, labelled "ПАРТИЯ ПРОГРЕССА", over a white background
Logo of Progress Party, used since 2014

On 26 June 2012, it was announced that Navalny's comrades would establish a new political party based on e-democracy; Navalny declared he did not plan to participate in this project at the moment.[85] On 31 July, they filed a document to register an organizing committee of the future party; the party was named "The People's Alliance".[86] The party was declared to be centrist; one of the then-current leaders of the party and Navalny's ally Vladimir Ashurkov explained this was intended to help the party get a large share of voters. Navalny said the concept of political parties was "outdated", and added his participation would make maintaining the party more difficult. However, he "blessed" the party and discussed its maintenance with its leaders. They, in turn, stated they wanted to eventually see Navalny as a member of the party.[87]

On 15 December 2012, Navalny expressed his support of the party, saying, "The People's Alliance is my party", but again refused to join it, citing the criminal cases against him. The party announced it planned reforms on judiciary and law enforcements, a partial transfer of presidential powers to the parliament, and limiting migration into the country.[citation needed] On 10 April 2013, the party filed documents for the official registration of the party.[88] On 30 April, the registration of the party was suspended.[89] On 5 July, the party was declined registration; according to Izvestia, not all founders of the party were present during the congress, even though the papers were signed by their autographs.[90] Navalny reacted to that with a tweet saying, "[...] A salvo of all guns".[91] (On the same day, he also spoke his last words before the Kirovles trial.) Following the mayoral election, on 15 September, Navalny declared he would join and, possibly, head the party.[92] On 17 November Navalny was elected as the leader of the party.[93]

On 8 January 2014, Navalny's party filed documents for registration for the second time.[94] On 20 January, registration of the party was suspended;[95] according to Russian laws, no two parties can share a name.[96] On 8 February 2014, Navalny's party changed its name to "Progress Party".[97] On 25 February, the party was registered.[98] At that moment it had six months to register regional branches in at least half of the federal subjects of Russia.[note 3] On 26 September, the party declared it had registered 43 regional branches.[100] An unnamed source of Izvestia in the ministry said registrations completed after the six-month term would not be taken into consideration, adding, "Yes, trials are taking place in some regions [...] they cannot register new branches in other regions during the trials, because the main term is over". Navalny's blog countered, "Our answer is simple. A six-month term for registration has been legally prolonged ad interim prosecution of appeals of denials and registration suspensions".[100]

Navalny's election campaign in 2013

On 1 February, the party held a convention, where Navalny stated the party was preparing for the 2016 elections, declaring the party would maintain its activity across Russia, saying, "We are unabashed to work in remote lands where the opposition does not work. We can even [work] in Crimea". The candidates the party would appoint were to be chosen via primary elections; however, he added, the party's candidates may be removed from elections.[101] On 17 April, the party initiated a coalition of democratic parties.[102]

On 28 April 2015, the party was deprived of registration by the Ministry of Justice, which stated the party had not registered the required number of regional branches within six months after the official registration.[103] Krainev claimed the party could only be eliminated by the Supreme Court, and he added not all trials of registration of regional branches were over, calling the verdict "illegal twice". He added, the party would refer to the European Court of Human Rights, and expressed confidence the party would be restored and admitted to elections.[104] The next day, the party officially challenged the verdict.[105]

Moscow mayoral candidacy[edit]

On 30 May 2013, Sergey Sobyanin, the mayor of Moscow, argued an elected mayor is an advantage for the city compared to an appointed one,[106] and on 4 June, he announced he would meet President Vladimir Putin and ask him for a snap election, mentioning the Muscovites would agree the governor elections should take place in the city of Moscow and the surrounding Moscow Oblast simultaneously.[107] On 6 June, the request was granted,[108] and the next day, the Moscow City Duma appointed the election on 8 September, the national voting day.[109]

Navalny, in front of his electorate, asking Muscovites to vote for him in August 2013

On 3 June, Navalny announced he would run for the post.[110] To become an official candidate, he would need either seventy thousand signatures of Muscovites or to be pegged for the office by a registered party, and then to collect 110 signatures of municipal deputies from 110 different subdivisions (three quarters of Moscow's 146). Navalny chose to be pegged by a party, RPR-PARNAS (which did peg him, but this move sharpened relations within the party; after one of its three co-chairmen and the original founder, Vladimir Ryzhkov, had left the party, he said this had been one of the signs the party was "being stolen from him").[111] Among the six candidates who were officially registered as such, only two (Sobyanin and Communist Ivan Melnikov) were able to collect the required number of the signatures themselves, and the other four were given a number of signatures by the Council of Municipal Formations, following a recommendation by Sobyanin,[112] to overcome the requirement (Navalny accepted 49 signatures, and other candidates accepted 70, 70, and 82).[113]

On 17 July, Navalny was registered as one of the six candidates for the Moscow mayoral election.[114] However, on 18 July, he was sentenced for a five-year prison term for the embezzlement and fraud charges that were declared in 2012. Several hours after his sentencing, he pulled out of the race and called for a boycott of the election.[115] However, later that day, the prosecution office requested the accused should be freed on bail and travel restrictions, since the verdict had not yet taken legal effect, saying they had previously followed the restrictions, Navalny was a mayoral candidate, and an imprisonment would thus not comply with his rule for equal access to the electorate.[116] On his return to Moscow after being freed pending an appeal, he vowed to stay in the race.[117] The Washington Post has speculated that his release was ordered by the Kremlin in order to make the election and Sobyanin appear more legitimate.[11]

Ratings of Sobyanin and Navalny
among those who said they would vote,
according to Synovate Comcon polls
Time Sobyanin Navalny Ref
29 August–2 September 60.1% 21.9% [118]
22–28 August 63.9% 19.8% [119]
15–21 August 62.5% 20.3% [120]
8–14 August 63.5% 19.9% [121]
1–7 August 74.6% 15.0% [121]
25–31 July 76.2% 16.7% [122]
18–24 July 76.6% 15.7% [123]
11–16 July 76.2% 14.4% [124]
4–10 July 78.5% 10.7% [124]
27 June–3 July 77.9% 10.8% [124]

Navalny's campaign was based mainly on fundraising: out of 103.4 million rubles (approximately  million as of the election day[rates 1]), the total size of his electoral fund, 97.3 million ( million) were transferred by individuals throughout Russia;[126] such a number is unprecedented in Russia.[127] It achieved a high profile through an unprecedentedly large campaign organization that involved around 20,000 volunteers who passed out leaflets and hung banners, as well as several campaign rallies a day around the city;[128] they were the main driving force for the campaign.[129] The New Yorker described the resulted campaign as "a miracle", along with Navalny's release on 19 July, the fundraising campaign, and the personality of Navalny himself.[130] The campaign received very little television coverage and did not utilize billboards. Thanks to Navalny's strong campaign (and Sobyanin's weak one[128]), his result grew over time, weakening Sobyanin's, and in the end of the campaign, he declared the runoff election (to be conducted if none of the candidates receives at least 50% of votes) was "a hair's breadth away".

The largest sociological companies predicted (Levada Center was the only one not to have made any predictions; the data it had on 28 August, however, falls in line with other companies') Sobyanin would win the election, scoring 58% to 64% of the vote; they expected Navalny to receive 15–20% of the vote, and the turnout was to be 45–52%.[131] The final results of the voting showed Navalny received 27% of the vote, more than candidates appointed by the parties that received second, third, fourth, and fifth highest results during the 2011 parliamentary elections, altogether. Navalny fared better in the center and southwest of Moscow, which have higher income and education levels.[11] However, Sobyanin received 51% of the vote, which meant he won the election. The turnout was 32%.[132] The companies explained the differences arose from the fact Sobyanin's electorate did not vote, feeling their candidate was guaranteed to win.[131] Navalny's campaign office's measures predicted Sobyanin would score 49–51%, and Navalny would get 24–26% of votes.[131]

Navalny's meeting at Bolotnaya Square in Moscow, 9 September 2013

Many experts said the election had been fair, that the number of irregularities had been much lower than those of other elections held within the country, and that the irregularities had had little effect on the result.[133][134] Dmitri Abyzalov, leading expert of Center of Political Conjuncture, added low turnout figures provide a further sign of fairness of the election, because that shows they were not overestimated.[133] However, according to Andrei Buzin, co-chairman of the GOLOS Association, State Departments of Social Security added people who did not originally want to vote to lists of those who would vote at home, with the number of such voters being 5% of those who voted, and added this did cause questions if Sobyanin would score 50% if this did not take place.[134] Dmitry Oreshkin, leader of the "People's election commission" project (who did a separate counting based on the data from election observers; their result for Sobyanin was 50%), said now that the runoff election was only 2% away, all details would be looked at very closely, and added it was impossible to prove "anything" juridically.[135]

Percentages of Muscovites who voted for Navalny during the election

On 9 September, the day following the election, Navalny publicly denounced the tally, saying, "We do not recognize the results. They are fake". Sobyanin's office rejected an offer of a vote recount.[136] On 12 September, Navalny addressed the Moscow City Court to overturn the result of the poll; the court rejected the assertion. Navalny then challenged the decision in the Supreme Court of Russia, but the court ruled that the election results were legitimate.[137]

RPR-PARNAS and democratic coalition[edit]

Following the mayoral election, Navalny was offered a position of a fourth co-chairman of RPR-PARNAS.[138] However, Navalny made no public reaction.

In early 2014, Russia's political landscape changed dramatically: Following the Euromaidan demonstrations and civil unrest in Kyiv, which resulted in establishment of a new pro-EU president and government, a countering wave of protests and civil unrest started in Southern and Eastern Ukraine, and in Crimea, a "volunteer force of self-defense of Crimea" announced a referendum, the question for which eventually was, whether Crimea should join the Russian Federation or not. (Later, Putin publicly declared the self-defense forces were composed of Russian military.) Following the referendum, Crimea de facto became a part of Russia.

On 14 November 2014, the two remaining RPR-PARNAS co-chairmen, Boris Nemtsov and former Prime Minister of Russia Mikhail Kasyanov, declared it was the right moment to create a wide coalition of political forces, who favor the "European choice"; Navalny's Progress Party was seen as one of the potential participants.[139] However, on 27 February 2015, Nemtsov was shot dead. Prior to his assassination, Nemtsov worked on a project of a coalition (in which Navalny and Khodorkovsky would become co-chairmen of RPR-PARNAS; Navalny declared merging parties would invoke bureaucratic difficulties and question the legitimacy of party's right to participate in federal elections without signatures collecting[140]); the murder accelerated the work, and on 17 April, Navalny declared a wide discussion had taken place among Progress Party, RPR-PARNAS, and other closely aligned parties, which resulted in an agreement of formation of a new electoral bloc between the two leaders.[102] Soon thereafter, it was signed by four other parties and supported by Khodorkovsky's Open Russia foundation.[141] Electoral blocs are not present within the current law system of Russia, so it would be realized via means of a single party, RPR-PARNAS, which is not only eligible for participation in statewide elections, but is also currently not required to collect citizens' signatures for the right to participate in the State Duma elections scheduled for September 2016 thanks to the regional parliament mandate previously taken by Nemtsov. The candidates RPR-PARNAS would appoint were to be chosen via primary elections.[142]

Protesters marching along Moscow's Tverskaya Street, 26 March 2017

The coalition claimed to have collected enough citizens' signatures for registration in the four regions it originally aimed for. However, in one region, the coalition would declare some signatures and personal data have been altered by malevolent collectors;[143] signatures in the other regions have been rejected by regional election commissions.[144][145][146] Сomplaints have been issued to the Central Election Commission of Russia, after which the coalition has been registered as a participant in a regional election in one of the three contested regions, Kostroma Oblast. According to a source of Gazeta.ru "close to the Kremlin", the presidential administration saw coalition's chances as very low, yet was wary, but the restoration in one region occurred so PARNAS could "score a consolation goal".[147] According to the official election results, the coalition scored 2% of votes, not enough to overcome the 5% threshold; the party admitted the election was lost.[148]

Presidential election 2018[edit]

On 13 December 2016 Navalny announced his entry into the presidential race.[149][150]

On 8 February 2017, the Leninsky district court of Kirov repeated its sentence of 2013 (which was previously annulled after the decision of ECHR, which ruled that Russia had violated Navalny's right for a fair trial, see the Kirovles case) and charged him with a five-year suspended sentence.[151] This sentence, if it comes into force and remains valid, might prohibit the future official registration of Navalny as a candidate. Navalny announced that he will pursue the annulment of the sentence that clearly contradicts the decision of ECHR. Moreover, Navalny announced that his presidential campaign will proceed independently of courts decisions. He referred to the Russian Constitution (Article 32), which deprives only two groups of citizens of the right to be elected: those recognized by court as legally unfit and those kept in places of confinement by a court sentence. According to Freedom House and The Economist, Navalny was the most viable contender to Vladimir Putin in the 2018 election.[23][152]

On 26 March 2017, Navalny organized a series of anti-corruption rallies in different cities across Russia. This appeal was responded to by the representatives of 95 Russian cities, and four cities abroad: London, Prague, Basel and Bonn.[153]

On 27 April 2017, Navalny was attacked by unknown assailants outside his office in the Anti-Corruption Foundation. They sprayed brilliant green dye, possibly mixed with other components, into his face (see Zelyonka attack). He reportedly lost 80 percent of the sight in his right eye.[154][155] Navalny accused the Kremlin of orchestrating the attack.[156][157]

Navalny campaign rally in Yekaterinburg, 16 September 2017

On 7 July 2017, he was released from jail after spending 25 days of imprisonment. Before that, he was arrested in Moscow for participating in protests and was sentenced to 30 days in jail for organizing illegal protests.[158]

On 6 September 2017, Human Rights Watch accused Russian police with systematic interference with Navalny's presidential campaign. "The pattern of harassment and intimidation against Navalny's campaign is undeniable," said Hugh Williamson, Europe and Central Asia director at Human Rights Watch. "Russian authorities should let Navalny's campaigners work without undue interference and properly investigate attacks against them by ultra-nationalists and pro-government groups."[159]

On 21 September 2017, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe invited Russian authorities, in connection with the Kirovles case, "to use urgently further avenues to erase the prohibition on Mr. Navalny's standing for election".[160]

On 2 October 2017, Navalny was sentenced to 20 days in jail for calls to participate in protests without approval from state authorities.[161]

In December 2017, Russia's Central Electoral Commission barred Navalny from running for president in 2018, citing Navalny's corruption conviction. The European Union said Navalny's removal cast "serious doubt" on the election. Navalny called for a boycott of the 2018 presidential election, stating his removal meant that millions of Russians were being denied their vote.[28]

Navalny filed an appeal against the Russian Supreme Court's ruling on 3 January 2018.[162] On 6 January, the Supreme Court of Russia rejected his appeal.[163]

Navalny led protests on 28 January 2018 to urge a boycott of Russia's 2018 presidential election. Navalny was arrested on the day of the protest and then released the same day, pending trial. OVD-Info reported that 257 people were arrested throughout the country. According to Russian news reports, police stated Navalny was likely to be charged with calling unauthorized demonstrations.[164] Two of Navalny's associates were given brief jail terms for urging people to attend unsanctioned opposition rallies. Navalny stated on 5 February 2018 the government was accusing Navalny of assaulting an officer during the protests.[165] Navalny was among 1600 people detained during 5 May protests prior to Putin's inauguration; Navalny was charged with disobeying police.[166] On 15 May, he was sentenced to 30 days in jail.[167] Immediately after his release on 25 September 2018, he was arrested and convicted for organising illegal demonstrations and sentenced to another 20 days in jail.

Moscow City Duma elections 2019[edit]

During the 2019 Moscow City Duma election Navalny supported independent candidates, most of whom were not allowed to participate in the elections, which led to mass street protests. In July 2019, Navalny was arrested, first for ten days, and then, almost immediately, for 30 days. On the evening of 28 July, he was hospitalized with severe damage to his eyes and skin. At the hospital, he was diagnosed with an "allergy," although this diagnosis was disputed by Anastasia Vasilieva, an ophthalmologist who previously treated Navalny after a chemical attack by an alleged protester in 2017.[168] Vasilieva questioned the diagnosis and suggested the possibility that Navalny's condition was the result of "the damaging effects of undetermined chemicals".[169] On 29 July 2019, Navalny was discharged from hospital and taken back to prison, despite the objections of his personal physician who questioned the hospital's motives.[168][170] Supporters of Navalny and journalists near the hospital were attacked by the police and many were detained.[169] In response, he initiated the Smart voting project.

Vote on constitutional amendments 2020[edit]

Navalny campaigned against the vote on constitutional amendments that took place on 1 July, calling it a "coup" and a "violation of the constitution".[30] He also said that the changes would allow President Putin to become "president for life".[171][172] After the results were announced, he called them a "big lie" that did not reflect public opinion.[173] The reforms include an amendment allowing Putin to serve another two terms in office (until 2036), after his current term ends.[30]


Persecution[edit]

Kirovles case[edit]

Case[edit]

Navalny in court as part of the Kirovles trial

On 30 July 2012, the Investigative Committee charged Navalny with embezzlement. The committee stated that he had conspired to steal timber from Kirovles, a state-owned company in Kirov Oblast, in 2009, while acting as an adviser to Kirov's governor Nikita Belykh.[57][174] Investigators had closed a previous probe into the claims for lack of evidence.[175] Navalny was released on his own recognizance but instructed not to leave Moscow.[176]

Navalny described the charges as "weird" and unfounded.[175] He stated that authorities "are doing it to watch the reaction of the protest movement and of Western public opinion [...] So far they consider both of these things acceptable and so they are continuing along this line".[57] His supporters protested before the Investigative Committee offices.[174]

In April 2013, Loeb&Loeb LLP issued "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny", a paper detailing Investigative Committee accusations. The paper concludes that "the Kremlin has reverted to misuse of the Russian legal system to harass, isolate and attempt to silence political opponents".[177][178]

Conviction and release[edit]

The Kirovles trial commenced in the city of Kirov on 17 April 2013.[179] On 18 July, Navalny was sentenced to five years in jail for embezzlement.[19] He was found guilty of misappropriating about 16 million rubles'[180] worth of lumber from a state-owned company.[181] The sentence read by the judge Sergey Blinov was textually the same as the request of the prosecutor, with the only exception that Navalny was given five years, and the prosecution requested six years.[182]

"Enough of fake cases". The protest against the verdict in Moscow, 18 July 2013

Later that evening, the Prosecutor's Office appealed Navalny and Ofitserov jail sentences, arguing that until the higher court affirmed the sentence, the sentence was invalid. The next morning, the appeal was granted. Navalny and Ofitserov were released on 19 July, awaiting the hearings of the higher court.[183] The prosecutor's requested decision was described as "unprecedented" by experts.[who?][184]

Probation[edit]

The prison sentence was suspended by a court in Kirov on 16 October 2013, still being a burden for his political future.[22]

Review of the sentence[edit]

On 23 February 2016, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Russia had violated Navalny's right to a fair trial, and ordered the government to pay him 56,000 euros in legal costs and damages.[185]

On 16 November 2016, Russia's Supreme Court overturned the 2013 sentence, sending the verdict back to the Leninsky District Court in Kirov for review.[186]

On 8 February 2017, the Leninsky district court of Kirov repeated its sentence of 2013 and charged Navalny with a five-year suspended sentence.[151] Navalny announced that he will pursue the annulment of the sentence that clearly contradicts the decision of ECHR.[187][188]

Yves Rocher case and home arrest[edit]

Case[edit]

In 2008, Oleg Navalny made an offer to Yves Rocher Vostok, the Eastern European subsidiary of Yves Rocher between 2008 and 2012, to accredit Glavpodpiska, which was created by Navalny, with delivering duties. On 5 August, the parties signed a contract. To fulfill the obligations under the agreement, Glavpodpiska outsourced the task to sub-suppliers, AvtoSAGA and Multiprofile Processing Company (MPC). In November and December 2012, the Investigating Committee interrogated and questioned Yves Rocher Vostok. On 10 December, Bruno Leproux, general director of Yves Rocher Vostok, filed to the Investigative Committee, asking to investigate if the Glavpodpiska subscription company had damaged Yves Rocher Vostok, and the Investigative Committee initiated a case.[189]

The prosecution claimed Glavpodpiska embezzled money by taking duties and then redistributing them to other companies for lesser amounts of money, and collecting the surplus: 26.7 million rubles () from Yves Rocher Vostok, and 4.4 million rubles from the MPC. The funds were claimed to be subsequently legalized by transferring them on fictitious grounds from a fly-by-night company to Kobyakovskaya Fabrika Po Lozopleteniyu, a willow weaving company founded by Navalny and operated by his parents.[190][191][192] Navalnys denied the charges. The brothers' lawyers claimed, the investigators "added phrases like 'bearing criminal intentions' to a description of regular entrepreneurial activity". According to Oleg Navalny's lawyer, Glavpodpiska did not just collect money, it controlled provision of means of transport, execution of orders, collected and expedited production to the carriers, and was responsible before clients for terms and quality of executing orders.[189]

Yves Rocher denied that they had any losses, as did the rest of the witnesses, except the Multiprofile Processing Company CEO Sergei Shustov, who said he had learned about his losses from an investigator and believed him, without making audits. Both brothers and their lawyers claimed Alexei Navalny did not participate in the Gladpodpiska operations, and witnesses all stated they had never encountered Alexei Navalny in person before the trial.[189]

Home arrest and limitations[edit]

Following the imputed violation of travel restrictions, Navalny was placed under house arrest and prohibited from communicating with anyone other than his family, lawyers, and investigators on 28 February 2014.[193][194] Navalny claimed the arrest was politically motivated, and he filed a complaint to the European Court of Human Rights. On 7 July, he declared the complaint had been accepted and given priority; the court compelled the Government of Russia to provide answers to a questionnaire.

The home arrest, in particular, prohibited usage of Internet; however, new posts were released under his social media accounts after the arrest was announced. A 5 March post claimed the accounts were controlled by his Anti-Corruption Foundation teammates and his wife Yulia. On 13 March, his LiveJournal blog was blocked in Russia, because, according to the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor), "functioning of the given web page breaks the regulation of the juridical decision of the bail hearing of a citizen, against who a criminal case has been initiated".[195] Navalny's associates started a new blog, navalny.com, and the LiveJournal blog was eventually abolished, with the last post published on 9 July.

The home arrest was eased a number of times: On 21 August, Navalny was allowed to communicate with his co-defendants;[196] a journalist present in the courthouse at the moment confirmed Navalny was allowed to communicate with "anyone but the Yves Rocher case witnesses".[197] On 10 October, his right to communicate with the press was confirmed by another court, and he was allowed to make comments on the case in media (Navalny's plea not to prolong the arrest was, however, rejected).[198] On 19 December, he was allowed to mail correspondence to authorities and international courts. Navalny again pleaded not to prolong the arrest, but the plea was rejected again.[199]

Conviction[edit]

The verdict was announced on 30 December 2014. Alexei Navalny was given 3½ years of suspended sentence, and Oleg Navalny was sentenced to 3½ years in prison and was arrested after the verdict was announced;[200] both had to pay a fine of 500,000 rubles and a compensation to the Multiprofile Processing Company of over 4 million rubles.[201] In the evening, several thousand protesters gathered in the center of Moscow. Navalny broke his home arrest to attend the rally and was immediately arrested by the police and brought back home.[202]

Both brothers filed complaints to the European Court of Human Rights: Oleg's was communicated and given priority; Alexei's was reviewed in the context of the previous complaint related to this case and the Government of Russia had been "invited to submit further observations".[203] The second instance within the country confirmed the verdict, only releasing Alexei from the responsibility to pay his fine. Both prosecutors and defendants were not satisfied with this decision.[201]

ECHR[edit]

On 17 October 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Navalny's conviction for fraud and money laundering "was based on an unforeseeable application of criminal law and that the proceedings were arbitrary and unfair." The Court found that the domestic court's decisions had been arbitrary and manifestly unreasonable. ECHR found the Russian courts' decisions violated articles 6 and 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights.[204][205] On 15 November 2018, the Grand Chamber upheld the decision.[206]

Indemnification[edit]

After the Yves Rocher case, Navalny had to pay a compensation of 4.4 million rubles. He declared the case was "a frame up", but he added he would pay the sum as this could affect granting his brother parole.[207] On 7 October 2015, Alexei's lawyer announced the defendant willingly paid 2.9 million and requested an installment plan for the rest of the sum.[208] The request was granted, except the term was contracted from the requested five months to two,[209] and a part of the sum declared paid (900,000 rubles; arrested from Navalny's banking account) was not yet received by the police; the prosecutors declared that may happen because of inter-process delays.[210]

Later that month, Kirovles sued Navalny for the 16.1 million rubles declared pecuniary injury; Navalny declared he had not expected the suit, as Kirovles did not initiate it during the 2012–13 trial.[211] On 23 October, a court resolved the said sum should be paid by the three defendants.[211] The court denied the defendants' motion 14.7 million had already been paid by that point; the verdict and the payment sum were justified by a ruling by a Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.[212] Navalny declared he could not cover the requested sum; he called the suit a "drain-dry strategy" by authorities.[211]

Other cases[edit]

In late December 2012, Russia's federal Investigative Committee asserted that Allekt, an advertising company headed by Navalny, defrauded the Union of Right Forces (SPS) political party in 2007 by taking 100 million rubles ( million) payment for advertising and failing to honor its contract. If charged and convicted, Navalny could be jailed for up to 10 years. "Nothing of the sort happened—he committed no robbery", Leonid Gozman, a former SPS official, was quoted as saying. Earlier in December, "the Investigative Committee charged [...] Navalny and his brother Oleg with embezzling 55 million rubles ( million) in 2008–2011 while working in a postal business". Navalny, who denied the allegations in the two previous cases, sought to laugh off news of the third inquiry with a tweet stating "Fiddlesticks [...]".[18]

In April 2020 Yandex search engine started artificially placing negative commentary about Navalny on the top positions in its search results for his name.[213] Yandex declared this was part of an "experiment" and returned to presenting organic search results.[214][215][216]

Navalny alleged that Russian billionaire and businessman Yevgeny Prigozhin was linked to a company called Moskovsky Shkolnik (Moscow schoolboy) that had supplied poor quality food to schools which had caused a dysentery outbreak.[217][218] In April 2019, Moskovsky Shkolnik filed a lawsuit against Navalny. In October 2019, the Moscow Arbitration Court ordered Navalny to pay 29.2 million rubles. Navalny said that "Cases of dysentery were proven using documents. But it's us that has to pay."[219] Prigozhin was quoted by the press service of his catering company Concord Management and Consulting on the 25 August 2020 as saying that he intended to enforce a court decision that required Navalny, his associate Lyubov Sobol and his Anti-Corruption Foundation to pay 88 million rubles in damages to the Moskovsky Shkolnik company over a video investigation.[220]

Poisoning[edit]

On 20 August 2020, Navalny fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalised in the Emergency City Clinical Hospital No. 1 in Omsk (Russian: Городская клиническая больница скорой медицинской помощи №1), where the plane had made an emergency landing. The change in his condition on the plane was sudden and violent, and video footage showed crewmembers on the flight scurrying towards him and him screaming loudly[221] (as he later said, not screaming from pain, but from the knowledge that he was dying).[222]

Afterwards, his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma and on a ventilator in the hospital. She also said that Navalny only drank tea since the morning and that it was suspected that something was mixed into his drink. The hospital said that he was in a stable but serious condition, and after initially acknowledging that Navalny had probably been poisoned, the hospital's deputy chief physician told reporters that poisoning was "one scenario among many" being considered.[221]

A plane was sent from Germany to evacuate Navalny from Russia for treatment at the Charité Hospital in Berlin, after the doctors treating him in Omsk had initially declared he was too sick to be transported[223] but later released him.[224][225] On 24 August, the doctors in Germany announced they had confirmed that Navalny had been poisoned with a cholinesterase inhibitor.[226]

Ivan Zhdanov, chief of Navalny's Anti-Corruption Foundation, said that Navalny could have been poisoned over one of the foundation's investigations.[217] On 2 September, the German government announced that Navalny was poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent, from the same family of nerve agents that was used to poison Sergei Skripal and his daughter. Officials said that they have obtained "unequivocal proof" from toxicology tests. It called on the Russian government for an explanation.[227][228][229] On 7 September, doctors announced that he was out of the coma.[230] On 15 September, Navalny's spokeswoman said that Navalny would return to Russia.[231] On 17 September, Navalny's team said that traces of the nerve agent used to poison Navalny was detected on an empty water bottle from his hotel room in Tomsk, suggesting that he was possibly poisoned before leaving the hotel.[232] On 23 September, Navalny was discharged from hospital after his condition had sufficiently improved.[233] On 6 October OPCW confirmed presence of cholinesterase inhibitor from the Novichok group in Navalny’s blood and urine samples.[234][235][236]

Political views[edit]

In February 2011, in an interview with the radio station finam.fm, Navalny called the main Russian party, United Russia, a "party of crooks and thieves".[14] In May 2011, the Russian government began a criminal investigation into Navalny, widely described in Western media as "revenge", and by Navalny himself as "a fabrication by the security services".[14][237][238] Meanwhile, "crooks and thieves" became a popular nickname for the party.[239]

On 4 June 2012, Navalny was ordered by Moscow's Lyublinsky District Court to pay 30,000 rubles () as compensation for "moral harm" to United Russia State Duma Deputy Vladimir Svirid, after Svirid filed charges against Navalny for comments he made in an article written for Esquire magazine about the United Russia party: "In United Russia, there are people I come across that I generally like. But if you have joined United Russia, you are still a thief. And if you are not a thief, then you are a crook, because you use your name to cover the rest of the thieves and crooks." Svirid had originally sought one million rubles in the case.[240]

In 2011, Navalny stated he considered himself a "nationalist democrat".[241] International media have often commented on his ambiguous but non-condemnatory stance toward ethnic Russian nationalism.[242][243] He also has been a co-organizer of the "Russian march",[244] which Radio Free Europe describes as "a parade uniting Russian nationalist groups of all stripes" and noted that Navalny had also endorsed a nationalist-led campaign called Stop Feeding the Caucasus to end federal subsidies to the Caucasian republics.[245] In 2011, Navalny defended his attendance at the march, where BBC News reported that racist slogans were chanted, saying to reporters that the rally was an outlet for anger at the government.[246][247]

Early in 2012, Navalny stated on Ukrainian TV, "Russian foreign policy should be maximally directed at integration with Ukraine and Belarus… In fact, we are one nation. We should enhance integration."[248] During the same broadcast Navalny said that he did not intend "to prove that the Ukrainian nation does not exist. God willing, it does". He added, "No one wants to make an attempt to limit Ukraine's sovereignty".[248][249]

He also said that the Russian government should stop "sponsoring the war" in Donbass.[250] Navalny has strongly criticized Vladimir Putin's policies in Ukraine: "Putin likes to speak about the 'Russian world' but he is actually making it smaller. In Belarus, they sing anti-Putin songs at football stadiums; in Ukraine they simply hate us. In Ukraine now, there are no politicians who do not have extreme anti-Russian positions. Being anti-Russian is the key to success now in Ukraine, and that is our fault".[251]

He has spoken against the Russian intervention in the Syrian Civil War, believing that there are internal problems in Russia that need to be dealt with rather than get involved in foreign wars.[252]

With regard to Russia's annexation of Crimea, Navalny shortly after the annexation urged further sanctions against officials and businessmen linked to Putin and proposed a sanctions list for Western countries, saying that previous US and EU sanctions were "mocked".[253] In October 2014, Navalny said in an interview that despite Crimea being illegally "seized", "the reality is that Crimea is now part of Russia". When asked if he would return Crimea to Ukraine if he became president, he said "Is Crimea some sort of sausage sandwich to be passed back and forth? I don't think so". He also said that a "normal referendum" would need to be held.[247][250] Navalny has also expressed his support for pro-Russian secessions in Georgia and Moldova. [254]

He is currently the only political leader in Russia in favor of the legalization of same-sex marriage.[255]

Navalny voiced support for the 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests in Khabarovsk and other cities in the Russian Far East and Siberia. He said that "Putin personally — and Putin's stooges who run the Far East — hate Khabarovsk region and its inhabitants because time and again, they lose elections there."[256]

Reception[edit]

Political activities[edit]

Navalny, his wife Yuliya and Russian opposition politician Ilya Yashin, 12 June 2013

In October 2010, Navalny was the decisive winner of on-line "Mayor of Moscow elections" held by Kommersant and Gazeta.ru. He received about 30,000 votes, or 45%, with the closest rival being "Against all candidates" with some 9,000 votes (14%), followed by former First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Boris Nemtsov with 8,000 votes (12%) out of a total of about 67,000 votes.[257]

The reaction to Navalny's mayoral election result in 2013 was mixed: Nezavisimaya Gazeta declared, "The voting campaign turned a blogger into a politician",[129] and following an October 2013 Levada Center poll that showed Navalny made it to the list of potential presidential candidates among Russians, receiving a rating of 5%, Konstantin Kalachev, the leader of the Political Expert Group, declared 5% was not the limit for Navalny, and unless something extraordinary happened, he could become "a pretender for a second place in the presidential race".[258] On the other hand, The Washington Post published a column by Milan Svolik that stated the election was fair so the Sobyanin could show a clean victory, demoralizing the opposition, which could otherwise run for street protests.[259] Putin's press secretary Dmitry Peskov stated on 12 September, "His momentary result cannot testify his political equipment and does not speak of him as of a serious politician".[260]

When referring to Navalny, Putin never actually pronounced his name, referring to him as a "mister" or the like;[260] Julia Ioffe took it for a sign of weakness before the opposition politician,[261] and Peskov later stated Putin never pronounced his name in order not to "give [Navalny] a part of his popularity".[262] In July 2015, Bloomberg's sources "familiar with the matter" declared there was an informal prohibition from the Kremlin for senior Russian officials from mentioning Navalny's name.[263] Peskov rejected the assumption there is such a ban; however, in doing so, he did not mention Navalny's name either.[264]

Ratings[edit]

Rally concert in support of Navalny, 6 September 2013

In a 2013 Levada Center poll, Navalny's recognition among the Russian population stood at 37%.[265] Out of those who were able to recognize Navalny, 14% would either "definitely" or "probably" support his presidential run.[266]

The Levada Center also conducted another survey, which was released on 6 April 2017, showing Navalny's recognition among the Russian population at 55%.[267] Out of those who recognized Navalny, 4% would "definitely" vote for him and 14% would "probably" vote for him in the presidential election.[268] In another poll carried out by the same pollster in August 2020, 4% of respondents said that they trusted Navalny the most (out of a list of politicians), an increase from 2% in the previous month.[269]

According to polls conducted by the Levada Center in September 2020, 20% of Russians approve Navalny's activities, 50% disapprove, and 18% had never heard of him.[270] Out of those who were able to recognize Navalny, 10% said that they have "respect" for him, 8% have sympathy and 15% "could not say anything bad" about him. 31% are "neutral" towards him, 14% "could not say anything good" about him and 10% dislike him.[271][270]

Criminal cases[edit]

Within Russia, reaction to Navalny's criminal cases varied with political views of commentators: Those who supported Navalny and/or his activities generally declared he was not guilty, while his political opponents generally claimed the opposite.

During and after the Kirovles trial, a number of prominent people expressed support to Navalny and/or condemned the trial. The last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev called it "proof that we do not have independent courts".[272] Former Minister of Finance Alexei Kudrin stated that it was "looking less like a punishment than an attempt to isolate him from social life and the electoral process".[273][274] It was also criticized by novelist Boris Akunin,[274] and jailed Russian oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who called it similar to the treatment of political opponents during the Soviet era.[273]

Other prominent Russians had different reactions: Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the nationalist LDPR, called the verdict "a direct warning to our 'fifth column'", and added, "This will be the fate of everyone who is connected with the West and works against Russia".[273] Duma Vice-Speaker Igor Lebedev stated that he did not understand the "fuss about an ordinary case". He added, "If you are guilty before the law, then whoever you were—a janitor, a homeless man or a president—you have to answer for your crimes in full accordance with the Criminal Code."[275]

A variety of officials from the Western countries condemned the verdict. United States Department of State Deputy Spokesperson Marie Harf stated that the United States was "very disappointed by the conviction and sentencing of opposition leader Aleksey Navalniy".[276] The spokesperson for European Union High Representative Catherine Ashton said that the outcome of the trial "raises serious questions as to the state of the rule of law in Russia".[273][277] Andreas Schockenhoff, Germany's Commissioner for German-Russian Coordination, stated, "For us, it's further proof of authoritarian policy in Russia, which doesn't allow diversity and pluralism".[278] Western media were also critical: in particular, The New York Times proclaimed in response to the verdict, "President Vladimir Putin of Russia actually seems weak and insecure".[272]

The verdict in the case of Yves Rocher caused similar reactions. According to Alexei Venediktov, the verdict was "unfair", Oleg Navalny was taken "hostage", while Alexei was not jailed to avoid "furious reaction" from Putin, which was caused by the change of measure of restraint after the Kirovles trial.[279] A number of deputies appointed by United Russia and LDPR found the verdict too mild.[280] Experts interrogated by BBC Russian Service expressed reactions close to the political positions their organizations generally stand on.[281] The spokesperson for EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini stated the same day that the sentence was likely to be politically motivated.[202]

Public opinion varied over time: According to Levada Center, 20% of people thought the Kirovles case had been caused by an actual violation of law, while 54% agreed the rationale beyond the case was his anti-corruption activity in May 2011. In May 2013, the shares of people who held these opinions were 28% and 47%, correspondingly; however, in September 2013, the shares were 35% and 45%. The organization suggested this had been caused by corresponding coverage in media.[282] By September 2014, the percentages had undergone further changes, and equaled 37% and 38%.[283] The center also stated the share of those who found the result of another criminal case against him was unfair and Navalny was not guilty dropped from 13% in July 2013 to 5% in January 2015, and the number of those who found the verdict was too tough also fell from 17% to 9%. The share of those who found the verdict to be either fair or too mild was 26% in July 2013, and has exceeded 35% since September 2013.[283]

Awards and honours[edit]

Navalny was named "Person of the Year 2009" by Russian business newspaper Vedomosti.[284][285]

Navalny was a World Fellow at Yale University's World Fellows Program, aimed at "creating a global network of emerging leaders and to broaden international understanding" in 2010.[286]

In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine named Navalny to the FP Top 100 Global Thinkers, along with Daniel Domscheit-Berg and Sami Ben Gharbia of Tunisia, for "shaping the new world of government transparency".[287] FP picked him again in 2012.[288] He was listed by Time magazine in 2012 as one of the world's 100 most influential people, the only Russian on the list.[289] In 2013, Navalny came in at No. 48 among "world thinkers" in an online poll by the UK magazine Prospect.[290]

In 2015, Alexei and Oleg Navalny were chosen to receive the "Prize of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience 2015". According to the Platform's statement, "The Members of the Platform have voted this year for the Navalny brothers, in recognition of their personal courage, struggle and sacrifices for upholding fundamental democratic values and freedoms in the Russian Federation today. By the award of the Prize, the Platform wishes to express its respect and support to Mr Oleg Navalny whom the Platform considers a political prisoner and to Mr Alexei Navalny for his efforts to expose corruption, defend political pluralism and opposition to the mounting authoritarian regime in the Russian Federation".[291]

In June 2017, Navalny was included Time magazine's list of the World's 25 Most Influential People on the Internet.[292]

Family and personal life[edit]

Navalny and his wife Yulia

Navalny is married to Yulia Navalnaya and has two children, daughter Daria, currently an undergraduate student at Stanford University, and son Zakhar.[78][293] Since 1998 he has lived in a three-room apartment in Maryino District in southeast Moscow.[294]

Alexei Navalny is a Russian Orthodox Christian.[295]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Russian word "да" (da) means "yes".
  2. ^ Argued as following: "It is clearly stated in the preamble of our declaration that the Yabloko Party thoroughly and sharply opposes any national and racial discord and any xenophobia. However, in this case, when we know [...] that the Constitution guarantees to us the right to gather peacefully and without a weapon, we see that in these conditions the prohibition of the Russian March as it was announced, provokes the organizers to some activities that could end not so well. Thus we appeal to the Moscow City Hall [...] for permission".[67]
  3. ^ Article 15, section 7: "Terms, as provided by sections 4 and 6 of the present article, are prolonged if a territorial body has passed a verdict of suspension of state registration of a regional branch of a political party, as provided by section 5.1 of the present article, or a verdict of denial of state registration of a regional branch of a political party has been challenged to a court and, as of the day of expiration of the said terms, has not gone into effect."[99] The following section is given as in force as on 2 April 2012 (the section had not changed by 1 May 2015).

Exchange rates used in the article[edit]

  1. ^ According to the exchange rates[125] set by the Central Bank of Russia for 8 September 2013.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "биография – Алексей Навальный: Кто такой Алексей Навальный". 2018.navalny.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  2. ^ Aden, Mareike (5 September 2013). "Alexej Nawalny: Der dunkle Star". Zeit Online (in German). Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  3. ^ Walker, Shaun (29 July 2019). "Russian opposition leader ill after exposure to 'undefined chemical'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Alexei Navalny: Russian opposition leader found guilty". BBC News. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  5. ^ CNN, Matthew Chance, Mary Ilyushina and Sheena McKenzie. "Russian opposition leader freed after arrest during protests". CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Алексей Навальный как зеркало русской оппозиции. Перспективы протеста и лидера протеста". republic.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  7. ^ Sobchak, Ksenia (18 March 2016). "Цензура в СМИ. Дебаты Навального и Познера" [Censorship in the media. Debate between Navalny and Pozner]. tvrain.ru (in Russian). Dozhd. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  8. ^ Kaminski, Matthew (3 March 2012). "The Man Vladimir Putin Fears Most". Opinion. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  9. ^ "'This gentleman': Alexei Navalny, the name Putin dares not speak". The Guardian. 3 September 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  10. ^ Englund, Will (6 December 2011). "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny in spotlight after arrest". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Englund, Will (9 September 2013). "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny has strong showing in Moscow mayoral race, despite loss". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  12. ^ Kim, Lucian (8 February 2018). "Banned From Election, Putin Foe Navalny Pursues Politics By Other Means". NPR. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  13. ^ Sebastian, Clare (12 June 2017). "Alexey Navalny and Russia's YouTube insurgency". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  14. ^ a b c Parfitt, Tom (10 May 2011). "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny faces criminal investigation". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  15. ^ Picheta, Rob (3 October 2020). "Ardern, Navalny, WHO - but not Trump. A diverse list of contenders for the Nobel Peace Prize". CNN. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  16. ^ "Media: Navalny nominated for Nobel Peace Prize". NEWS.ru. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  17. ^ Steinbuch, Yaron (24 September 2020). "Vladimir Putin nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize". New York Post. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Russian opposition leader Navalny faces third inquiry". BBC News. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.. BBC. 24 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  19. ^ a b Brumfield, Ben; Black, Phil; Smith-Spark, Laura (18 July 2013). "Outspoken Putin critic Alexei Navalny hit with prison sentence". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  20. ^ David M. Herszenhorn (18 July 2013) "Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader" Archived 20 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times
  21. ^ Englund, Will (19 July 2013). "In Russia, activist Alexei Navalny freed one day after conviction". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  22. ^ a b Andrew E. Kramer (16 October 2013) Navalny Is Spared Prison Term in Russia Archived 1 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times.
  23. ^ a b c "Russia". Freedom House. 29 January 2019. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019. His most potent rival, Aleksey Navalny, had been disqualified before the campaign began due to his prior criminal conviction, seen as politically motivated. The presidential election was described by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) has having "a lack of genuine competition".
  24. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil; Nechepurenko, Ivan (8 February 2017). "Aleksei Navalny, Viable Putin Rival, Is Barred From a Presidential Run". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  25. ^ "Радио ЭХО Москвы :: Новости / Правозащитный центр Мемориал признал Алексея Навального политическим заключенным". Echo.msk.ru. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  26. ^ Safronov, Evgeniy (9 April 2019). "Навальный получил от ЕСПЧ больше 200 тыс. евро за пять лет" [Navalny received from the ECHR more than 200 thousand euros in five years]. openmedia.io (in Russian). Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  27. ^ "Russian Supreme Court Rejects Navalny Appeal On Presidential Election Ban". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Kremlin queries legality of boycott call". BBC News. 26 December 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  29. ^ "Navalny's Anti-Corruption Fund Accuses Medvedev of Secret Massive Estate". Foreign Policy. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  30. ^ a b c "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny 'poisoned'". BBC News. 20 August 2020. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  31. ^ Outspoken Putin critic Alexey Navalny hospitalized after suspected poisoning. CNN. 20 August 2020. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  32. ^ "Alexei Navalny: Putin critic arrives in Germany for medical treatment". BBC News. 22 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  33. ^ Nadine Schmidt; Gianluca Mezzofiore; Amy Woodyatt. "Russian opposition leader Alexey Navalny was poisoned, Berlin hospital says". CNN. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  34. ^ "Navalny Taken Off Ventilator as Novichok Recovery Continues – German Hospital". The Moscow Times. 14 September 2020.
  35. ^ Chappell, Bill (15 October 2020). "EU Sanctions Russian Officials Over Navalny Poisoning, Citing Chemical Weapons Use". NPR.org. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  36. ^ "Navalny Novichok poisoning: EU sanctions hit top Russians". BBC News. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  37. ^ a b Hrabovsky, Sergei. Олексій Навальний як дзеркало російської революції (in Ukrainian). day.kiev.ua. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  38. ^ АЛЕКСЕЙ НАВАЛЬНЫЙ (in Russian). esquire.ru. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  39. ^ Kanygin, Pavel (20 December 2012). Непр(е)ступная фабрика Навальных. Специальный репортаж из родительского гнезда лидера оппозиции. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  40. ^ "Alexei Navalny". The Moscow Times. 28 February 2012. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  41. ^ Faulconbridge, Guy (11 December 2011). "Newsmaker – Protests pitch Russian blogger against Putin". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  42. ^ "Kremlin critic Navalny: To Moscow via Yale". Deutsche Welle. 14 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  43. ^ "Alexey Navalny | Yale Greenberg World Fellows". worldfellows.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  44. ^ a b c Irina Mokrousova, Irina Reznik (13 February 2012). "Чем зарабатывает на жизнь Алексей Навальный". Vedomosti.ru. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  45. ^ Vasilyeva, Nataliya (1 April 2010). "Activist presses Russian corporations for openness". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  46. ^ Как пилят в Транснефти (in Russian). LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  47. ^ "Russia checks claims of $4bn oil pipeline scam". BBC News. 17 November 2010. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  48. ^ Soldatkin, Vladimir (14 January 2011). "Russia's Transneft denies bln theft". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  49. ^ Navalny, Alexei (29 December 2010). "RosPil". Navalny Live Journal Blog (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  50. ^ Navalny, Alexei (30 May 2011). "RosYama" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  51. ^ Ablonczy, Bálint (23 July 2012). "It's ugly, but it was ours". Hetivalasz. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  52. ^ Инновационные технологии: как это работает на самом деле (in Russian). Navalny Live Journal. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  53. ^ Potts, Andy (21 February 2011). "Vekselberg faces questions over Hungarian property fraud". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  54. ^ "Hungary: detentions linked to the sale of property in Moscow". OSW. 16 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  55. ^ "Anti-Corruption Blogger Navalny Takes On Chechnya's Kadyrov". North Caucasus Weekly. 10 February 2012.
  56. ^ "Акции протеста 12 июня Archived 18 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine" (in Russian). Levada Centre. 13 June 2017.
  57. ^ a b c d Andrew E. Kramer (30 March 2012). "Activist Presses for Inquiry into Senior Putin Deputy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
  58. ^ a b "Russian whistleblower accuses Putin's investment czar of multimillion dollar corruption". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  59. ^ a b Clover, Charles (26 July 2012). "Blogger strikes at Putin with data release". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  60. ^ Mortensen, Antonia; Pleitgen, Fred; Rehbein, Matt (25 March 2017). "Kremlin critic detained in tense anti-corruption protests". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  61. ^ Walker, Shaun (27 March 2017). "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny jailed after protests". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  62. ^ a b "Russia jails protests leader Alexei Navalny for 15 days". BBC News. 27 March 2017. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  63. ^ "The director of Russia's National Guard challenges Alexey Navalny to a fist fight". Meduza. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  64. ^ "Russian opposition leader injured following detention". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  65. ^ "About Navalny" (in Russian). navalny.ru. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h "Navalny, Alexei". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  67. ^ "Московское "Яблоко" поддержало проведение "Русского марша"". Радио Свобода. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  68. ^ Azarov, Ilya (15 December 2007). "Яблоко" откатилось (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  69. ^ "Алексей Навальный биография, фото, последние новости". Uznayvse.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  70. ^ Дмитрий Волчек (30 November 2011). "Метод Навального". Svoboda.org. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  71. ^ Националисты объединились в Русское национальное движение [Russian nationalists were united in a national movement]. Echo of Moscow (in Russian). 8 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  72. ^ "Политические националисты" заключили пакт о сотрудничестве ["Political nationalists" made a pact on cooperation]. grani.ru (in Russian). 6 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  73. ^ Albats, Evgeniya (25 April 2011). "Я думаю, власть в России сменится не в результате выборов". The New Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  74. ^ Julia Ioffe (5 December 2011). "Russian Elections: Faking It". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  75. ^ Julia Ioffe (6 December 2011). "Putin's Big Mistake?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  76. ^ Parfitt, Tom (17 December 2011). "Vladimir Putin's persecution campaign targets protest couple". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  77. ^ "The Blog on Navalny in English". LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  78. ^ a b Ennis, Stephen (21 December 2011). "Profile: Russian blogger Alexei Navalny". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  79. ^ a b Faulconbridge, Guy (20 December 2011). "Navalny challenges Putin after leaving Russian jail". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  80. ^ Weir, Fred (24 December 2011). "Huge protest demanding fair Russian elections hits Moscow". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  81. ^ "Russia election: Police arrest 550 at city protests". BBC News. 5 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  82. ^ "Police keep anti-Putin protesters on the run". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 8 May 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  83. ^ "Amnesty Calls Navalny, Udaltsov 'Prisoners of Conscience'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  84. ^ "Homes of Russian opposition figures searched ahead of rally". Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.. RT (TV network). 11 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  85. ^ "Соратники Навального создадут партию без него: Россия". Lenta.ru. 26 June 2012. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  86. ^ "Команда Алексея Навального создает партию". Vedomosti.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  87. ^ ""Лента.ру" изучила устройство "партии Навального": Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  88. ^ "Регистрация партии соратников Навального приостановлена". BBC Русская служба. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  89. ^ "О приостановлении государственной регистрации партии – Новости. Народный альянс". Peoplesalliance.ru. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  90. ^ "Минюст окончательно отказал в регистрации партии Навального – Известия". Izvestia. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  91. ^ "Партии сторонников Навального отказали в регистрации: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  92. ^ "Алексей Навальный намерен вступить в незарегистрированную партию "Народный альянс" и, возможно, возглавить ее". Echo.msk.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  93. ^ "Navalny becomes the People's Alliance party leader | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.com. 17 November 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  94. ^ "З – Юкейяеи Мюбюкэмши Онанперяъ Гю ╚Мюпндмши Юкэъмя╩". Kommersant.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  95. ^ "Минюст приостановил регистрацию партии А.Навального :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  96. ^ "Навальный решил отсудить "Народный альянс" у Богданова: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 28 November 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  97. ^ "Партия Навального сменила название: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  98. ^ "Партия Навального получила регистрацию: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 28 February 2014. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  99. ^ "Федеральный закон от 11.07.2001 N 95-ФЗ (ред. от 23.05.2015) "О политических партиях" / КонсультантПлюс". Consultant.ru. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  100. ^ a b "Навальный объявил о готовности подтвердить регистрацию партии :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  101. ^ "Navalny's party to continue working for participation in elections | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.com. 1 February 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  102. ^ a b "Алексей Навальный – Объединение состоялось, у нас будет предвыборный список". Navalny.com. 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  103. ^ "Минюст отменил регистрацию "Партии прогресса", нарушившей закон при регистрации отделений". TASS. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  104. ^ "Минюст отменил регистрацию "Партии прогресса", нарушившей закон при регистрации отделений". Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  105. ^ ""Партия прогресса" обжаловала решение Минюста о ликвидации". The-village.ru. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  106. ^ ""Нужны и демократия, и власть" | Городская власть | Москва | Московские новости". Mn.ru. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 6 August 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  107. ^ "Отставка Собянина и досрочные выборы мэра: причины и последствия | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  108. ^ "Собянин подписал указ о временном исполнении обязанностей мэра Москвы | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  109. ^ "з-мНБНЯРХ – дНЯПНВМШЕ БШАНПШ ЛЩПЮ лНЯЙБШ МЮГМЮВЕМШ МЮ 8 ЯЕМРЪАПЪ". Kommersant.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  110. ^ "Навальный заявил о намерении участвовать в выборах мэра Москвы: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  111. ^ ""Это рейдерский захват партии". Почему Рыжков ушел из РПР-ПАРНАС". Tvrain.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  112. ^ "Навального зарегистрировали кандидатом в мэры Москвы: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 17 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  113. ^ "Совет муниципальных депутатов передал Навальному 49 подписей: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  114. ^ Smolchenko, Anna (17 July 2013). "Navalny Moscow mayoral bid accepted ahead of verdict". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  115. ^ "Navalny pulls out of Moscow poll, calls for boycott". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  116. ^ "Прокуратура просит выпустить Навального и Офицерова под подписку | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. 19 July 2013. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  117. ^ "Freed Kremlin critic arrives in Moscow". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  118. ^ "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  119. ^ "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  120. ^ "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  121. ^ a b "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  122. ^ "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  123. ^ "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. 24 July 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  124. ^ a b c "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  125. ^ "База данных по курсам валют | Банк России". Cbr.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  126. ^ "Алексей НАвАльНый, кандидат в мэры москвы 2013. отчет о предвыборной кампании" [Alexei Navalny, candidate for mayor of Moscow 2013. Report on the election campaign.] (PDF). Report.navalny.ru (in Russian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  127. ^ Ennis, Stephen. "Alexei Navalny runs Western-style campaign in Moscow poll". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  128. ^ a b Laura Mills and Lynn Berry (8 September 2013). "Strong Showing for Navalny in Moscow Mayoral Race". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  129. ^ a b "Участие Навального в выборах мэра Москвы / Итоги года / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 31 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  130. ^ Lipman, Masha (6 September 2013). "Alexey Navalny's Miraculous, Doomed Campaign". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  131. ^ a b c "Почему социологические службы не смогли спрогнозировать результаты выборов московского мэра – Газета.Ru". Gazeta.ru. 16 November 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  132. ^ "Ябедемхъ Н Опнбндъыхуяъ Бшанпюу Х Петепемдслюу". Moscow_city.vybory.izbirkom.ru. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  133. ^ a b "Выборы мэра превратились в "большую проблему"". Utro.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  134. ^ a b Мнения. "Безусловный рефлекс: сколько сомнительных голосов на выборах мэра Москвы". Forbes.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  135. ^ "Политолог Д.Орешкин: Выборы мэра Москвы были в 10 раз честнее думских :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  136. ^ Анастасия Агамалова; Наталья Райбман; Алексей Никольский. "На Болотной площади прошел митинг в поддержку Навального". Vedomosti.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  137. ^ "Верховный суд не согласился отменить итоги выборов мэра Москвы". Vesti.ru. 21 December 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  138. ^ "От Навального требуют конкретики / Политика / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 8 October 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  139. ^ "З-Цюгерю – Делнйпюрш Сксвхкх Лнлемр Дкъ Назедхмемхъ". Kommersant.ru. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  140. ^ "З-Цюгерю – Лхуюхк Йюяэъмнб Х Юкейяеи Мюбюкэмши Онькх Мю Мнбне Назедхмемхе". Kommersant.ru. 18 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  141. ^ "Алексей Навальный – Демократическая коалиция. Уже шесть партий и конкретные планы". Navalny.com. 20 April 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  142. ^ "Алексей Навальный – Разворот". Echo of Moscow (in Russian). 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  143. ^ "ПАРНАС отказалась от выборов в Калужской области". Slon.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  144. ^ "Новосибирский облизбирком отказался регистрировать Демократическую коалицию". Slon.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  145. ^ "ПАРНАС сняли с выборов в Магадане". Slon.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  146. ^ "ПАРНАС сняли с выборов в Костромской области". Slon.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  147. ^ "ЦИК обязал избирком Костромской области рассмотреть вопрос о регистрации Демкоалиции – Газета.Ru". Gazeta.ru. 13 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  148. ^ "Озвучены окончательные результаты ПАРНАСа на выборах в Костромской области". vz.ru. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  149. ^ Перцев, Андрей (13 December 2016). "Алексей Навальный намерен участвовать в президентских выборах". Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017 – via Kommersant.
  150. ^ Алексей Навальный (13 December 2016). Пора выбирать: Алексей Навальный – кандидат в президенты России. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017 – via YouTube.
  151. ^ a b Galperovich, Danila (8 February 2017). "Navalny was re-sentenced to a suspended sentence in the 'Kirovles case'". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017.
  152. ^ "Aleksei Navalny's protesters are a force to be reckoned with". The Economist. 16 June 2017. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  153. ^ "Мы ждем перемен? [We are waiting for change?]". ROSBALT. 23 March 2017. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  154. ^ Navalny Accuses Police Of Failing To Investigate Attack Archived 2 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, by RFE/RL
  155. ^ Zelyonka: The Green 'Weapon Of Choice' Archived 2 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  156. ^ "Navalny Sues Police, Loses Vision in One Eye, and Launches New Manhunt". The Moscow Times. 2 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  157. ^ "Alexei Navalny, Putin foe, claims vision loss after chemical attack; blames Kremlin". The Washington Post. 2 May 2017. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  158. ^ "Russian opposition leader Navalny released from prison". Politico. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  159. ^ "Russia: Nationwide Assaults on Political Opposition Campaign". Human Rights Watch. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  160. ^ "H46-25 Navalnyy and Ofitserov v. Russian Federation (Application No. 46632/13)". Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. 21 September 2017. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017.
  161. ^ Алексей Навальный арестован на 20 суток (in Russian). www.kommersant.ru. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  162. ^ "Навальный обжаловал решение Верховного суда о недопуске на выборы". РБК. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  163. ^ "Russian Supreme Court Rejects Navalny Appeal On Presidential Election Ban". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  164. ^ Heintz, Jim (28 January 2018). "Russian opposition leader arrested amid election protests". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  165. ^ Bennetts, Marc (5 February 2018). "Russian police accuse Navalny of assaulting officer during protest". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  166. ^ Bennetts, Marc (5 May 2018). "Russia's Alexei Navalny arrested as 1,600 detained nationwide". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  167. ^ Ivanova, Polina (15 May 2018). "Russian opposition leader Navalny jailed for 30 days over protest". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  168. ^ a b Walker, Shaun (29 July 2019). "Alexei Navalny discharged from hospital against wishes of doctor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  169. ^ a b Kovalev, Alexey (29 July 2019). "Discharge, itching, and lesions: Doctors disagree about why Russia's jailed opposition leader needed to be hospitalized". Meduza. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  170. ^ Pleitgen, Fred; Ilyushina, Mary; Hodge, Nathan; Shukla, Sebastian. "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny is hospitalized after being detained". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  171. ^ "Russians vote on Putin's reforms to constitution". BBC News. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  172. ^ Gershkovich, Evan (10 March 2020). "'President for Life': Putin Opens Door to Extending Rule until 2036". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  173. ^ "Putin strongly backed in controversial Russian reform vote". BBC News. 2 July 2020. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  174. ^ a b "Russian blogger Navalny charged with embezzlement". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  175. ^ a b "Putin critic Navalny charged with theft". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  176. ^ Barry, Ellen (31 July 2012). "Russian Prosecutors Charge Protest Movement Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  177. ^ "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  178. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. 2013. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  179. ^ Sandford, Daniel (17 April 2013). "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny goes on trial". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  180. ^ Elder, Miriam (18 July 2013). "Russia: Alexei Navalny found guilty of embezzlement". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  181. ^ "Outspoken Putin critic Alexei Navalny hit with prison sentence". CNN. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  182. ^ Воронин, Николай (18 July 2013). Как судили Навального: репортаж из зала суда (in Russian). BBC. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  183. ^ "Alexei Navalny freed following anti-Putin protests in Moscow – video". The Guardian. London. 19 July 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  184. ^ Alpert, Lukas I. (19 July 2013). "Alexei Navalny Freed Pending Appeal". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  185. ^ "European Court: Trial Against Putin Foe Navalny Was Unfair". ABC News. 23 February 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  186. ^ "Верховный суд отменил приговор Навальному по делу "Кировлеса"". ТАСС Информационное Агентство России. 16 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  187. ^ "Навальный обжаловал в ЕСПЧ повторный приговор по делу «Кировлеса»" [Navalny appealed to the ECHR against the repeated sentence in the Kirovles case]. meduza.io. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  188. ^ Baranovskaya, Marina (22 November 2017). "ЕСПЧ принял к рассмотрению жалобу Навального | DW | 22.11.2017" [ECHR accepted Navalny's complaint for consideration]. DW.COM (in Russian). Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  189. ^ a b c "Суть "дела Ив Роше" и братьев Навальных – BBC Русская служба". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  190. ^ "Details Of Yves Rocher Case :: Politics :: Society & Politics :: Russia-InfoCentre". Russia-ic.com. 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  191. ^ "Opposition activist Navalny gets suspended sentence in Yves Rocher case | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.co.uk. 30 December 2014. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  192. ^ "Navalny brothers Yves Rocher embezzlement case investigation completed | Russian Legal Information Agency (RAPSI)". Rapsinews.com. 15 November 2013. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  193. ^ Vasilyeva, Nataliya (30 December 2014). "Conviction of Putin foe sets off protest in Moscow". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  194. ^ "Court puts Russian opposition leader under house arrest". Moscow News.Net. 28 February 2014.[permanent dead link]
  195. ^ "Роскомнадзор заблокировал блог Навального – Газета.Ru | Новости". Gazeta.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  196. ^ ""Триумф российского правосудия": суд смягчил условия ареста Алексея Навального". Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  197. ^ "Суд спустя полгода снял с Навального "обет молчания", разрешив отвечать на накопившиеся к нему претензии". newsru.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  198. ^ "Суд разрешил Алексею Навальному комментировать дело "Ив Роше"". Bfm.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  199. ^ "Суд смягчил условия домашнего ареста Навального :: Общество :: РБК". Top.rbc.ru. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  200. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura; Chance, Matthew; Eshchenko, Alla (30 December 2014). "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny gets 3.5-year suspended sentence". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  201. ^ a b Могилевская, Анна (17 February 2015). "Приговор Алексею и Олегу Навальным вступил в силу". Коммерсантъ. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  202. ^ a b Alexander, Harriet (30 December 2014). "Alexei Navalny breaks his house arrest to attend protest against his sentence". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  203. ^ Некоторые юридические новости. "Алексей Навальный – Некоторые юридические новости". Navalny.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  204. ^ "Human rights court: Kremlin critic's conviction 'arbitrary and unfair'". Politico. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  205. ^ "HUDOC – European Court of Human Rights". hudoc.echr.coe.int. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  206. ^ (in Italian) Giampiero Buonomo, La tutela del dibattito politico al di là delle immunità. Questione giustizia. 20 February 2019 Archived 20 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
  207. ^ "Суд предоставил Навальному отсрочку для оплаты долга по «делу «Ив Роше»". Росбалт. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  208. ^ "Алексей Навальный в рамках дела «Ив Роше» выплатил 3 млн рублей". Коммерсантъ. 10 July 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  209. ^ "Алексей Навальный получил два месяца отсрочки выплаты по делу "Ив Роше"". Коммерсантъ. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  210. ^ "Алексей Навальный получил два месяца отсрочки выплаты по делу "Ив Роше"". Коммерсантъ. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  211. ^ a b c "Алексей Навальный должен оплатить ущерб по делу "Кировлеса"". vedomosti.ru. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  212. ^ "Навальному грозит банкротство после решения суда о выплате "Кировлесу" 16 миллионов". mk.ru. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  213. ^ "Yandex says its experimental search results trashing Alexey Navalny were 'a mistake'". Meduza. 28 April 2020. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  214. ^ ""Яндекс" выделял в результатах поиска негативные материалы о Навальном. Компания назвала это экспериментом". tvrain.ru. TV Rain. 28 April 2020. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  215. ^ ""Яндекс" выделял в выдаче негативные материалы по запросу "Навальный". Компания назвала это экспериментом". Meduza (in Russian). 27 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  216. ^ "Вкладка с обсуждаемым контентом: разбор полётов – Блог Яндекса". yandex.ru. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  217. ^ a b "Kremlin-Linked Businessman Prigozhin Vows to Ruin Navalny". The Moscow Times. 26 August 2020.
  218. ^ "Parents sue tycoon's firm over dysentery outbreak in Moscow". Financial Post. 14 May 2019.
  219. ^ "Kremlin Critic Navalny and Allies Hit With M Lawsuit Payout". The Moscow Times. 28 October 2019.
  220. ^ "'Putin's chef' promises to ruin comatose Navalny with m bill". Al Jazeera. 26 August 2020.
  221. ^ a b Harding, Luke; Roth, Andrew (20 August 2020). "A cup of tea, then screams of agony: how Alexei Navalny was left fighting for his life". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  222. ^ Bidder, Benjamin; Esch, Christian (1 October 2020). "Russian Opposition Leader Alexei Navalny on His Poisoning". Spiegel. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  223. ^ "Alexei Navalny doctors refuse to let Putin critic leave Russia – aide". The Guardian. 21 August 2020. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  224. ^ "Alexei Navalny: Russian doctors agree to let Putin critic go to Germany". BBC News. 21 August 2020. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  225. ^ "Alexei Navalny arrives in Germany for treatment". BBC News. 22 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  226. ^ Osborne, Samuel (24 August 2020). "Alexei Navalny: Russian opposition leader was poisoned, German hospital suggests". The Independent. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  227. ^ Rainsford, Sarah (2 September 2020). "Russia's Navalny poisoned with Novichok - German government". BBC News. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  228. ^ Halasz, Stephania; Jones, Brony; Mezzofiore, Gianluca (2 September 2020). "Novichok nerve agent used in Alexey Navalny poisoning, says German government". CNN. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  229. ^ Schwirtz, Michael; Eddy, Melissa (2 September 2020). "Aleksei Navalny Was Poisoned With Novichok, Germany Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  230. ^ "Russia's Navalny out of coma after poisoning". BBC News. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  231. ^ "Alexei Navalny: Poisoned Putin critic 'will return to Russia'". BBC News. 15 September 2020.
  232. ^ "Navalny team says nerve agent found on Russian hotel room water bottle". Reuters. 17 September 2020.
  233. ^ "Alexei Navalny: Russian activist discharged from Berlin hospital". BBC News. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  234. ^ "OPCW: Novichok found on Alexei Navalny samples | DW | 06.10.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  235. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (14 October 2020). "Nerve Agent Was Used to Poison Navalny, Chemical Weapons Body Confirms". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  236. ^ Deutsch, Anthony (6 October 2020). "Chemical weapons body confirms nerve agent Novichok in Navalny's blood". Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  237. ^ Belton, Catherine (10 May 2011). "Russia Targets Anti-Graft Blogger". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  238. ^ Bratersky, Alexander (11 May 2011). "Navalny Targeted in Fraud Inquiry". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  239. ^ Sandford, Daniel (30 November 2011). "Russians tire of corruption spectacle". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  240. ^ "Navalny Must Pay for 'Crooks and Thieves' Comment". Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012. The Moscow Times. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  241. ^ "The birth of Russian citizenry". The Economist. 17 December 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  242. ^ Adomanis, Mark (15 July 2013). "Did Russian Opposition Leader Alexey Navalny Just Endorse A Race Riot?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  243. ^ "So where's the change in Russia? – Le Monde diplomatique – English edition". Mondediplo.com. 31 March 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  244. ^ "В столице отрепетировали "Русский марш" / Регионы России / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 24 October 2011. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  245. ^ Russia's Aleksei Navalny: Hope Of The Nation – Or The Nationalists? Archived 10 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine, by Robert Coalson. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 July 2013.
  246. ^ "Moscow nationalist rally hears attack on Putin party". BBC News. 4 November 2011.
  247. ^ a b "Alexei Navalny: Russia's vociferous Putin critic". BBC News. 20 August 2020.
  248. ^ a b Krzysztof Nieczypor (25 February 2012) Ukraine in "Big-Time Politics" of Alexey Navalny Archived 15 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Eastbook.eu.
  249. ^ Navalny: Integration with Belarus – Main Task for Russia Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Telegraf.by. 13 February 2012.
  250. ^ a b "Navalny Wouldn't Return Crimea, Considers Immigration Bigger Issue Than Ukraine". The Moscow Times. 16 October 2014.
  251. ^ "‘Putin is destroying Russia. Why base his regime on corruption?’ asks Navalny Archived 2 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine". The Guardian. 17 October 2014.
  252. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (14 December 2016). A Populist Challenge to Putin. Bloomberg.
  253. ^ "Navalny Proposes Sanctions List to the West". The Moscow Times. 20 March 2014.
  254. ^ "Why Navalny may not be a friend of the West". spectator.co.uk. 31 August 2020.
  255. ^ "Волков: команда Навального выступает за свободу слова и гей-браки". lrt.lt. 2 August 2017. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  256. ^ "Protesters In Russia's Far East Challenge Putin's Authority, Demand His Resignation". NPR. 24 July 2020.
  257. ^ Выборы мэра Москвы. Gazeta.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  258. ^ Вера Кичанова. "Навальный будет претендентом на второе место в президентской гонке". Slon.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  259. ^ Svolik, Milan (12 October 2013). "The best way to demoralize the opposition in Russia? Beat them in a fair election". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  260. ^ a b "Песков отказал Навальному в звании "серьезного политика": Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  261. ^ Ioffe, Julia (18 July 2013). "Aleksei Navalny Trial: Blogger Gets Five Years in Jail". New Republic. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  262. ^ "Песков: Путин не произносит имени Навального, чтобы не делать его популярнее". Mk.ru. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  263. ^ Meyer, Henry (23 July 2015). "Murder, Poisoning, Raids: It's Election Season in Russia". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  264. ^ "Песков опроверг запрет на упоминание имени Навального, не произнеся имени оппозиционера". Vedomosti. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  265. ^ Volkov, Dennis (5 April 2013). "Analysis of Navalny's Ratings". Levada Center. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  266. ^ Kravchenko, Stepan (5 April 2013). "Putin, Allies Threatened With Jail as Navalny to Seek Presidency". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  267. ^ "Protests on March 26 and Navalny". Levada Center. 6 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  268. ^ "Protests on March 26 and Navalny". Levada Center. 6 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  269. ^ "ДОВЕРИЕ ПОЛИТИКАМ И ПРЕЗИДЕНТСКОЕ ГОЛОСОВАНИЕ". levada.ru. 3 September 2020.
  270. ^ a b "More than half of Russians do not believe Alexey Navalny was poisoned, Levada Center poll says". meduza.io. 2 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  271. ^ "Алексей Навальный: отношение и отравление" [Alexei Navalny: attitude and poisoning]. Levada Center (in Russian). 2 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  272. ^ a b "Mr. Putin Tries to Crush Another Rival". The New York Times. 31 May 2015. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  273. ^ a b c d "Reaction to Russia's Jailing of Alexei Navalny". The Wall Street Journal. 19 July 2013. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  274. ^ a b Herszenhorn, David M. (18 July 2013). "Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  275. ^ Sudakov, Dmitry (19 July 2013). "Navalny verdict is a warning to the fifth column". Pravda.ru. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  276. ^ "On the Conviction and Sentencing of Alexey Navalniy and Pyotr Ofitserov". U.S. State Department. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  277. ^ "Statement by the Spokesperson of High Representative Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of Alexey Navalny and Pyotr Ofitserov" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 18 July 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  278. ^ "Germany criticizes verdict against Navalny | DW.COM | 19.07.2013". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  279. ^ "Новости NEWSru.com :: Венедиктов объяснил смысл вердикта братьям Навальным: Олега сделали заложником Алексея". Newsru.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  280. ^ "Реакция на приговор братьям Навальным". TASS. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  281. ^ Вендик, Юри (30 December 2014). Олег Навальный приговорён к 3,5 годам по делу "Ив Роше" (in Russian). BBC Russian. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  282. ^ "Российский Медиа-ландшафт: Телевидение, Пресса, Интернетt" [Russian Media Landscape: Television, Press, Internet] (PDF). Levada.ru (in Russian). 19 June 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  283. ^ a b "Навальный, "Болотное дело", Стрелков: знание и отношение". Levada.ru. 19 October 1926. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  284. ^ "Персоны года – 2009: Частное лицо года" [Person of the Year 2009: Individual of the Year]. Vedomosti (in Russian). 30 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  285. ^ "Персоны года — 2009: Частное лицо года" [Person of the Year 2009: Individual of the Year]. banki.ru. 30 December 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  286. ^ "The World Fellows: Alexey Navalny". Yale University. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  287. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  288. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  289. ^ Kasparov, Garry (18 April 2012). "Alexei Navalny". Time. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  290. ^ "The results of Prospect's world thinkers poll". Prospect. April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  291. ^ "Alexei and Oleg Navalny to receive Prize of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience 2015 | Platform of European Memory and Conscience". Memoryandconscience.eu. 2 May 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  292. ^ "The 25 Most Influential People on the Internet". Time. 26 June 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  293. ^ Navalnaya, Daria (27 June 2019). "What It's Like to Be a Teenager in Putin's Russia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  294. ^ "Biography". Navalny 2018. 2018. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  295. ^ The Akunin-Navalny interviews (part I) Archived 22 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Open Democracy website

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]