He currently plays for Toulon in the French Top 14 after signing from Brive in 2011. He made his international debut for France on 28 June 2008 against the Wallabies. He also represented France in an U19 competition in Dubai.
In July 2011, Palisson featured in a topless pose in Têtu wearing a fake moko and holding a taiaha. This caused controversy in New Zealand, with some Maori saying that Palisson was being disrespectful to their culture and that permission should have been sought from a particular iwi as the moko usually represents iwi affiliation. Palisson was eventually forced to apologise for any offence caused and stressed that he respects tattoo traditions. He played as France reached the 2011 Rugby World Cup Final in New Zealand. In May 2013 he started as Toulon won the 2013 Heineken Cup Final by 16–15 against Clermont Auvergne.