Alexis Tsipras

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Alexis Tsipras
Αλέξης Τσίπρας
Alexis Tsipras 2013.jpg
Prime Minister of Greece
Assumed office
21 September 2015
President Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Deputy Yannis Dragasakis
Preceded by Vassiliki Thanou
In office
26 January 2015 – 27 August 2015
President Karolos Papoulias
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Deputy Yannis Dragasakis
Preceded by Antonis Samaras
Succeeded by Vassiliki Thanou
Leader of the Opposition
In office
20 June 2012 – 26 January 2015
Prime Minister Antonis Samaras
Preceded by Antonis Samaras
Succeeded by Antonis Samaras
Leader of Syriza
Assumed office
4 October 2009
Preceded by Alekos Alavanos
Personal details
Born (1974-07-28) 28 July 1974 (age 44)
Athens, Greece
Political party Syriza (2013–present)
Other political
affiliations
Communist Party (before 1991)
Synaspismos (1991–2013)
Domestic partner Peristera Baziana
Children 2
Residence Maximos Mansion
Alma mater National Technical University of Athens
Signature

Alexis Tsipras (Greek: Αλέξης Τσίπρας, pronounced [aˈleksis ˈt͡sipras]; born 28 July 1974)[1] is a Greek politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Greece and the Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2015 and October 2018, respectively.

A socialist, Tsipras has been leader of the Greek political party Syriza since 2009. Tsipras is the fourth Prime Minister who has governed in the context of the 2010s Greek government-debt crisis. Originally an outspoken critic of the austerity policies implemented during the crisis, his tenure in office has been marked by an intense austerity policy, mostly in the context of the third EU bailout to Greece (2015–18).

Tsipras was born in Athens in 1974. He joined the Communist Youth of Greece in the late 1980s and in the 1990s was politically active in student protests against education reform plans, becoming the movement's spokesperson. He studied civil engineering at the National Technical University of Athens, graduating in 2000, and later undertook post-graduate studies in urban and regional planning. He worked as a civil engineer in the construction industry, based primarily in Athens.

From 1999 to 2003, Tsipras served as the secretary of Synaspismos Youth. He was elected as a member of the Central Committee of Synaspismos in 2004 and later the Political Secretariat. In the 2006 local election, he ran as Syriza's candidate for Mayor of Athens, winning 10.5%. In 2008, he was elected as leader of Syriza, succeeding Alekos Alavanos. He was first elected to the Hellenic Parliament representing Athens A in the 2009 election and was re-elected in May and June 2012, subsequently becoming Leader of the Opposition and appointing his own shadow cabinet.

In January 2015, Tsipras led Syriza to victory in a snap legislative election, winning 149 out of 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament and forming a coalition with the Independent Greeks. On 20 August 2015, seven months into his term as Prime Minister he lost his majority after intraparty defections, announced his resignation, and called for a snap election to take place the following month. In the September 2015 election that followed, Tsipras led Syriza to another victory, winning 145 out of 300 seats and re-forming the coalition with the Independent Greeks. As Prime Minister, he has overseen negotiations regarding the Greek government-debt crisis, initiated the Greek bailout referendum, and responded to the European migrant crisis. In 2015, he was voted by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people globally.[2]

As Prime Minister of Greece, Tsipras has been accused among other things of having been forced to accept increasingly harsh austerity measures to keep his country on the surface in contrast with his pre-election promises and also of having exacerbated problems that already existed in the Greek economy, with the country having lost about 25% of its GDP since the start of the crisis.[3]

Early life and career[edit]

Tsipras was born 28 July 1974 in Athens. His family has its roots in a village near Babaeski in an area of Eastern Thrace which was transferred from Turkey to Greece during the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[4] His father, Pavlos, was born in Epirus and was a contractor of big public works.[5][6][7] His mother was born in Eleftheroupoli.[8]

Tsipras joined the Communist Youth of Greece in the late 1980s. In the early 1990s, as a student at Ampelokipoi Multi-disciplinary High School, he was politically active in the student uprising and the school occupations[9] against the controversial law of Education Minister Vasilis Kontogiannopoulos. He rose to prominence as a representative of the student movement when he was featured as a guest on a television show hosted by journalist Anna Panagiotarea. During the interview, Panagiotarea implied that Tsipras was being disingenuous in defending middle and high school students' right to absenteeism without parental notification in the context of protests.[10] Newspapers and opposition politicians contrasted his early activism for the free state education to his choice to enroll his children in private schools when he became Prime-Minister.[11][12]

Tsipras studied civil engineering at the National Technical University of Athens, graduating in 2000, before undertaking postgraduate studies in Urban and Regional Planning following an inter-departmental MPhil at the School of Architecture of NTUA. Alongside his postgraduate studies, he began working as a civil engineer in the construction industry. He wrote several studies and projects on the theme of the city of Athens.[10][13][14]

As a university student, Tsipras joined the ranks of the renascent left-wing movement, particularly the "Enceladus" (Greek: Εγκέλαδος) group, and as member of it, he was elected to the executive board of the students' union of the Civil Engineering School of NTUA and also served as student representative on the University Senate. From 1995 to 1997 he was an elected member of the Central Council of the National Students Union of Greece (EFEE).[10]

Political career, 1999–2015[edit]

Tsipras in Bologna giving a speech for The Other Europe alliance.

After the departure of the Communist Party of Greece from Synaspismos in 1991, Tsipras remained in the coalition. In May 1999 he became the first political secretary of Synaspismos' youth-wing, the Synaspismos Youth. During this period he was described as a centrist, different from the very clear radical, left-wing profile he would later maintain as leader of Synaspismos. He won many awards during this time. In November 2003 he was succeeded by Tasos Koronakis and moved on to the mother party. He managed quite efficiently to maintain a strong adherence to the policy of the party, effectively out talking both the left and right political wings. As secretary of Synaspismos Youth, he took an active part in the process of creating the Greek Social Forum and attended many of the international protests and marches against neoliberal globalization. In December 2004, at the 4th Congress of Synaspismos, he was elected a member of the party's Central Political Committee and consequently to the Political Secretariat, where he was responsible for educational and youth issues.[10]

Tsipras first entered the limelight of mainstream Greek politics during the 2006 local election when he ran for Mayor of Athens under the "Anoikhti Poli" (Greek: Ανοιχτή Πόλη, "Open City") Syriza ticket that gained 10.51% of the Athenian vote, finishing third overall. Tsipras won a seat on the Municipality of Athens council by virtue of him being first on the Syriza list.[10][15] He did not run for the Greek Parliament in the 2007 election, choosing to continue the completion his term as a member of the municipal council of Athens.

Tsipras was elected Leader of Synaspismos during its 5th Congress on 10 February 2008, after its previous Leader Alekos Alavanos decided not to stand for election again due to personal reasons.[16] Tsipras became leader of Synaspismos at the age of 33, thus becoming the youngest leader of a Greek political party since 1931. In the 2009 election, he was elected to the Hellenic Parliament for Athens A and was subsequently voted unanimously to be the head of the Syriza parliamentary group.[17][18] Tsipras led SYRIZA through the 2012 elections, overseeing a swing of over 22% to the party and becoming the Leader of the Opposition and head of the Shadow Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras.

Alexis Tsipras giving his speech as a presidential candidate at the 5th Congress of Synaspismos.

In December 2013, Tsipras was the first candidate proposed for the position of President of the Commission of the European Union by the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL). The vote was a EU member states election to the European Parliament in May 2014.

Tsipras campaigned as the only candidate of the south periphery countries. At the beginning of May 2014, in a speech in Berlin, he clarified many of his positions, in opposition to the allegedly Merkel-dominated neoliberal political course in Europe. Tsipras declared a substantial change for a better future for all Europeans is visible within 10 years. He addressed those who lost out in the fallout of the financial crises from 2008 to 2014, which produced unexpectedly high jobless rates in most of the EU. The speech was given in English to a German audience and intended to be listened to throughout Europe.[19] Although the GUE/NGL won in Greece, winning six of the 21 Greek seats in the European Parliament, it finished fifth in Europe overall.

Prime Minister[edit]

First term (January–August 2015)[edit]

Alexis Tsipras laying down red roses at the Kaisariani Memorial.

Tsipras led Syriza to victory in the general election held on 25 January 2015, falling short of an outright majority in Parliament by just two seats. The following morning, Tsipras reached an agreement with the right-wing populist Independent Greeks party to form a coalition.

On the same day he was sworn in by President Karolos Papoulias as the youngest Prime Minister in Greek history since 1865, using the words "I declare in my name, honour and conscience to uphold the Constitution and its laws."[20] Tsipras was also the first prime minister to take a civil rather than a religious oath of office, marking a rupture with Greek orthodox ceremonial culture.[21] While reaffirming the good relations between his party and the Church, he generated further religious controversy during a meeting with Archbishop Ieronymos. Tsipras explained that as an atheist who neither married in a religious ceremony nor baptised his children, he would not take a religious oath of office.[22]

In his first act after being sworn in, Tsipras visited the Resistance Memorial in Kaisariani, laying down red roses to commemorate the 200 members of the Greek Resistance executed by the German Wehrmacht on 1 May 1944.[23]

During the first meeting of the new cabinet, Tsipras declared the priorities of his government to be the fight against the "humanitarian crisis" in Greece, negotiations with the EU and the International Monetary Fund on restructuring the Greek debt, and the implementation of promises made by SYRIZA such as the abolition of the previous government's privatization policies.[24]

On 3 February, Tsipras made his first official state visit, meeting with his Italian counterpart Matteo Renzi in Rome. They held a joint press conference expressing concerns about austerity measures imposed by the Juncker Commission and stated that economic growth is the only way to exit from the crisis. After the press conference, Renzi presented Tsipras with an Italian tie as a gift. Tsipras, who is notable for never wearing ties, thanked Renzi and said that he would wear the gift in celebration when Greece had successfully renegotiated the austerity measures.[25]

Tsipras and President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker, 13 March 2015

On 20 February, the Eurogroup came to an agreement with Greece to extend the Greek bailout for four months.[26] Tsipras had also announced a trip to Moscow on 8 April, in a bid to secure Russian support.[27]

On 31 May, Tsipras laid out his complaints and outlined his plan in a recap of events since his election. He concluded that there were at least two competing visions for the integration of Europe, both of which he seemed to reject, and that certain unnamed institutional actors had "an obsession" with their own technocratic programme.[28]

On 22 June, Tsipras presented a new Greek proposal, which included raising the retirement age gradually to 67 and curbing early retirement. It also offered to reform the value-added-tax system to set the main rate at 23 percent.[29] On 29 June Greek banks stayed shut and Tsipras said they would remain so to impose capital control. Trading in Greek stocks and bonds halted as well.[30][31]

Bailout referendum[edit]

On 27 June 2015, Tsipras announced a referendum to decide whether or not Greece should accept the bailout conditions proposed jointly by the Juncker Commission, the International Monetary Fund and the European Central Bank.

Tsipras recommended a "No" vote. On 3 July, during an address to at least 250,000 people gathered in the capital's Syntagma Square in front of parliament, he rejected some leaders' warnings that a "No" result in Sunday's plebiscite could see Greece forced to leave the eurozone. He declared "On Sunday, we are not simply deciding to remain in Europe—we are deciding to live with dignity in Europe".[32] The result of the referendum was 61.3 percent voting "No."[33]

Fidel Castro sent a letter to Tsipras congratulating him for the victory of "NO". In that letter he said that the courage of Greece was admired by the people of Latin America and Caribbean.[34]

Bailout agreement[edit]

After several days of negotiation, on 13 July 2015, Tsipras came to an agreement with lenders.[35] Greece was to get a loan of 82 to 86 billion euros, which would be handed to Greece gradually from 2015 until June 2018. In return, Greece would have to increase the VAT, reform the pension system, assure the independence of ELSTAT, automatically cut public spending to get primary surpluses, reform justice so decisions can be made faster, follow the reforms proposed by OECD, revoke the laws passed by Tsipras except for the one concerning the "humanitarian crisis", recapitalize the banks, privatize 50 billion of state assets, and decrease the cost of the public sector. In return, Greece would be given the Juncker package, 35 billion euros, which is meant to help the Greek economy grow.[36] The Syriza-led government of Greece accepted a bailout package that contains larger pension cuts and tax increases than the one rejected by Greek voters in the referendum.[37]

On 14 August, the Greek parliament backed the country's new bailout deal, although more than 40 MPs from Syriza voted against the deal and Tsipras had to rely on the support of the pro-EU opposition: New Democracy, To Potami and PASOK. Tsipras told MPs they were facing a choice between "staying alive or suicide". He also said: "I have my conscience clear that it is the best we could achieve under the current balance of power in Europe, under conditions of economic and financial asphyxiation imposed upon us."[38]

Resignation[edit]

On 20 August 2015, Tsipras resigned from position of the Prime Minister of Greece due to the rebellion of MPs from his own party Syriza and called for a snap election.[39] He made the announcement in a televised state address. After opposition parties failed to form a government, Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou was appointed as an interim Prime Minister until elections can be held.

Tsipras and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 30 September 2015

Second term (2015–present)[edit]

Re-election[edit]

Despite a low turnout of only 57% versus 64% in previous elections, at the 20 September election, Tsipras received a solid vote of confidence, with Syriza achieving 35.50% of the vote,[40] enough to form a coalition with ANEL.[41] Among others, Tsipras appointed in his new government Dimitris Kammenos, a politician from ANEL, as deputy minister for infrastructure, transport and networks, causing reactions because of Kammenos' anti-Semitic, racist and homophobic comments on Twitter, such as accusations of 9/11 being a 'Jewish' plot.[42] The outcry against him eventually forced Kammenos to resign, being a minister for less than 12 hours.[43]

Second government[edit]

On 27 September, Tsipras talked in the Clinton Global Initiative to Bill Clinton about the need to restructure the Greek debt, to make reforms in public administration and bring investments.[44] On 30 September, Panos Kammenos, the Defense Minister, celebrated the Greek victory in the battle of Salamina, causing criticism by some due to its resemblance to the junta's celebrations of similar events with the same style.[45][46] On 9 October, Tsipras along with Panos Kammenos visited the military exercise named Parmenion, wearing a military jacket.[47]

On 22 October, Greece’s top tax collection official, Katerina Savvaidou, was sacked by Alexis Tsipras, because she had allegedly granted an extension to television stations to pay a 20 per cent tax on advertising.[48] The measures the government pushed through are causing a backlash. Farmers are threatening to bring their tractors into Athens and pharmacists have been on strike.[49] On 7 November, Tsipras received an angry reception at a refugee camp in Lesbos by around a hundred protesters, wearing life jackets and brandishing placards calling on the European Union to stop deaths by allowing asylum seekers safe and legal passage to Europe.[50] At the same day, Giannis Panousis, former Alternate Minister of Citizen Protection in the first cabinet, stated that there is connection between politicians and terrorists and that politicians of the current government want his political and physical extermination while he accused Tsipras of knowing about this. However, his accusations have not been proven.[51]

Tsipras and Russian President Vladimir Putin, 15 May 2017

On 17 November, after being jeered by anarchists, Tsipras compared them in his speech in Parliament to Golden Dawn and said that there was no need for uncalled saviors "who think that they can determinate life and death".[52] On 18 November, Tsipras, as the first Greek prime minister visiting Turkey's Aegean province of Izmir since the days of the Occupation of Smyrna, visited Turkey and met Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu; they agreed to cooperate and that there would be technical cooperation between Greek and Turkish coastal guards.[53]

On 8 May 2016, Tsipras passed in Parliament new austerity measures which included increasing taxes to middle and high level income earners and making cuts across the board that would save about three per cent of Greece’s GDP. The reforms also included removing value-added-tax discounts, cutting pensions and increasing deregulation. Tsipras called for calm on the streets but also defended the austerity package saying it fell in line with the agreement reached with the EU last year.[54] On 22 May Tsipras passed further austerity measures. Legislation included a provision for "contingency" measures, including wage and pension cuts, that would take effect automatically if budget targets were derailed next year. Taxes on cigarettes, coffee and craft beer were also raised, while an unpopular property tax was restructured to increase revenues from larger buildings. A new privatisation agency was set up which would have a 99-year remit to develop and sell state-owned property. Tsipras defended his adoption of new fiscal measures. "Spring may be almost over but we are looking forward to an economic spring and a return to growth this year," the prime minister told parliament.[55]

Tsipras and U.S. President Donald Trump, 18 October 2017

Ilias Kasidiaris from the Golden Dawn was present at an anti-mosque protest in Athens on 4 November 2016. The protest centred around the SYRIZA government's state funded mosque build that used Greek Navy land and state financing for its construction. This has received negative publicity both home across the political spectrum, and was reported abroad, as the government were cutting back public spending on Greek citizen who are predominately (over 98% [56]) Greek Orthodox Christians.[57] However both the government and opposition supported the construction of the first mosque in Athens despite general negativity within the parties due to the financial and constitutional implications. Further friction was caused by the SYRIZA government who sought to reduce the influence of the Greek Orthodox Church in the Hellenic society.

In an interview with the Guardian that was published on 24 July 2017, Tsipras opined that the Greek economy was "on the up" and that "the worst is clearly behind us." He also expressed confidence that Greece will no longer have to rely on bailouts and international oversight in 2018.According to media reports from mid-July, Greece was considering rejoining the bond market for the first time since 2014 to borrow from the capital market.[58] It was speculated that the government could issue a five-year bond at a time when yields on Greek bonds are their lowest since the country left the market in 2014.[59] The announcement came a few days after the IMF "in principle" approved Greece for a conditional loan of up to  $1.8 billion.The IMF made the payment of the loans contingent on Greece's debt sustainability, demanding that euro-zone countries provide debt relief to the country.

On October 2017 Prime Minister Tsipras met with President Donald Trump in Washington DC. President Donald Trump told Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras that he supported a “responsible debt relief” plan for Greece. Standing alongside Mr Tsipras in the White House Rose Garden, Mr Trump said the American people “stand with the Greek people as they recover from the economic crisis” in the country.[60]Mr Trump said Greece had "gone through a lot" during its extended period of economic hardships but vowed the US would remain steadfast as the country executes its debt-relief plan. Mr Trump added his administration had informed Congress of a potential sale to upgrade the F-16 aircraft in Greece's Air Force, a deal that could be worth $2.4 billion. Mr Tsipras said the two leaders had a productive exchange, and "not a moment did I feel threatened at any time" during their encounter. The Greek leader said he shared "common values" with the US.[61]

Greece officially concluded its three-year European Stability Mechanism financial assistance programme on August 20 2018, following the disbursement of €61.9 billion by the ESM over three years to support the countriy's macroeconomic adjustment and bank recapitalization. ESM Members agreed on the financial assistance package in August 2015. "The conclusion of the ESM programme marks a very important moment and historic for all of us. We had eight very difficult years, often painful years, but now Greece can finally turn a page in a crisis that has lasted too long," according to EU Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs Pierre Moscovici.[62] A day after that Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, during a state address from the island of Ithaca said "A new day is dawning in our country, Today is the beginning of a new era," he said, adding that the country has regained its sovereignty to determine its own future. "We have reached our destination, we have come out of the memoranda, but we will not stop here. New battles are now ahead of us, Now that we have reached our destination, we have the strength to make our place as it deserves to be." [63]

Personal life[edit]

Tsipras is not married. His registered partner is Peristera "Betty" Baziana, an electrical and computer engineer. They met in 1987, at the age of 13, at Ampelokipoi Branch High School. Both eventually became members of the Communist Youth of Greece. They live together in Athens with their two sons.[64] Their younger son's middle name is Ernesto, a tribute to Che Guevara. Tsipras is an avid football fan and, having grown up near the stadium, supports Panathinaikos, attending every home game that he can.[7] Tsipras is a self-described atheist,[65][66], rare even in Europe, bar Czech President Miloš Zeman.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "What You Need To Know About Alexis Tsipras, The Greek Leader Who Wants To Change Europe". Huffington Post. 26 January 2015.
  2. ^ "Time 100 - Alexis Tsipras, by Pablo Iglesias - time.com". Alexis Tsipras | TIME. 16 April 2015.
  3. ^ "Τime: O Tσίπρας στη λίστα με τους πέντε λιγότερο δημοφιλείς αρχηγούς, μετά τον Τραμπ". 23 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  4. ^ "Dünyanın konuştuğu Yunan lider Çipras, Babaeskili çıktı". Hürriyet. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  5. ^ "Alexis Tsipras: Who is Greece's New Prime Minister? (Full Profile & Bio) - GreekReporter.com". greece.greekreporter.com. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  6. ^ Αλέξιος Παύλου Τσίπρας : ΠΡΟΕΔΡΟΣ ΤΗΣ Κ.Ο. ΤΟΥ ΣΥΝΑΣΠΙΣΜΟΥ ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΡΑΣ ΒΟΥΛΕΥΤΗΣ Α' ΑΘΗΝΩΝ (in Greek). Hellenic Parliament. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  7. ^ a b Andy Denwood (14 May 2012). "Profile: Alexis Tsipras, leader of Syriza". BBC News.
  8. ^ Apostolidis, Tasos (28 November 2007). Αλέξης Τσίπρας: "Καβαλιώτης" και μόλις 33 Μαΐων το φαβορί για την ηγεσία του ΣΥΝ. KavalaNet (in Greek). kavalanet.gr. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  9. ^ "How Greece's prime minister rose from high school activist to high politics". Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Alexis Tsipras". Synaspismos. syn.gr. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Tsipras exploits his state school education but chooses elitism for sons (pics)", Proto Thema, Sep, 14 2015
  12. ^ "Άφωνος ο Τσίπρας στην ομιλία Μητσοτάκη στη Βουλή για την Παιδεία" (Speechless Tsipras during Mitsotakis' talk in the Parliament on education), Elefteros Typos, 28/09/16. In Greek language.
  13. ^ Σχόλιο Γραφείου Τύπου του ΣΥΝ για τις προσωπικές επιθέσεις εναντίον του Προέδρου του ΣΥΝ – Επισύναψη επιστολών (in Greek). syn.gr. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  14. ^ Αλέξης Τσίπρας (in Greek). enet.gr. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  15. ^ "Coalition selects A. Tsipras for Athens mayorship". ANA-MPA. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  16. ^ "Tsipras new SYN leader, new CPC elected". ANA-MPA. ana.gr. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  17. ^ Ανανέωση αλλά και ηχηρές απουσίες στη νέα Βουλή. ANA-MPA (in Greek). 9 October 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  18. ^ "Alexis Tsipras to head SYRIZA Parliamentary group". Athina 9.84 Municipal Radio. athina984.gr. 8 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  20. ^ "Greek Elections: Alexis Tsipras sworn in as the new Greek Prime Minister". newsit.gr. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  21. ^ "A courteous distance". The Economist. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Tsipras explanation to Archbishop over lack of religious oath of office". Proto Thema. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  23. ^ Helena Smith (26 January 2015). "Alexis Tsipras pays homage to Greek communists at site of Nazi atrocity". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  24. ^ ""Ανατροπές παντού -Αλλάζουν όλα σε ΔΕΗ, Παιδεία, Δημόσιο, ιδιωτικοποιήσεις" (Total recall - Everything changes in Public Power Corp., Education, Public Sector and privatizations)". iefimerida.gr. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Tsipras, il tour anti-austerità a Roma. Padoan: "Crescita priorità per la Grecia"". Repubblica.it. 3 February 2015.
  26. ^ "Eurozone chiefs strike deal to extend Greek bailout for four months". theguardian.com. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  27. ^ Khan, Mehreen (6 April 2015). "Isolated Greece pivots east to Russia, China and Iran. But will it work?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  28. ^ lemonde.fr: "Alexis Tsipras : « Non à une zone euro à deux vitesses »", 31 May 2015
  29. ^ "Greece offers new plan to avert default, creditors see some hope", Reuters, 22 June 2015
  30. ^ Mark Thompson (28 June 2015). "Greece shuts banks in bid to prevent collapse". CNNMoney.
  31. ^ "Greek debt crisis: Banks to stay shut, capital controls imposed". BBC News.
  32. ^ "Greece PM urges 'No' vote to 'live with dignity in Europe'". Yahoo News UK. 3 July 2015.
  33. ^ Δημοψήφισμα Ιούλιος 2015, Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction. (accessed 5 July 2015)
  34. ^ ""Συγχαρητήρια επιστολή Φιντέλ Κάστρο στον Αλέξη Τσίπρα" (Congratulation letter by Fidel Castro to Alexis Tsipras)". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  35. ^ "Αναλυτικά τι προβλέπει η συμφωνία της Συνόδου Κορυφής". news247.gr. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  36. ^ "A new start for jobs and growth in Greece: Commission mobilises more than €35 billion from the EU budget". europa.eu. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  37. ^ German-Led Eurozone Launching Coup Against Greek Government. The Huffington Post. 12 July 2015.
  38. ^ "Greek MPs back €85bn bailout after marathon talks". bbc.com. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  39. ^ "Greece crisis: PM Alexis Tsipras quits and calls early polls". BBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  40. ^ "Guardian". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  41. ^ "Voter Turnout in Greek Elections Drops to New Historic Low". Greek Reporter. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  42. ^ "Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras just appointed a minister with a horrendous record of anti-Semitic comments". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  43. ^ ""Dimitris Kammenos resigns" Παραιτήθηκε ο Δημήτρης Καμμένος". iefimerida.gr. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  44. ^ ""What Alexis Tsipras said to Bill Clinton" Τι είπε ο Αλέξης Τσίπρας στον Μπιλ Κλίντον". news247.gr/. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  45. ^ ""Kammenos in Salamina: rocky islets, fundamentalism and EPIC photos" Καμμένος στη Σαλαμίνα: Βραχονησίδες, φονταμενταλισμός και ΕΠΙΚΕΣ φωτογραφίες". news247.gr. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  46. ^ ""See Kammenos like another fighter of Salamina....against Xerxes" Δείτε τον Καμμένο σαν άλλο Σαλαμινομάχο κατά... Ξέρξη". www.protothema.gr. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  47. ^ ""In the military exercise Parmenion was Al. Tsipras" Στη στρατιωτική άσκηση "Παρμενίων" ο Αλ. Τσίπρας". www.naftemporiki.gr. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  48. ^ "Greece's top tax collector sacked by Tsipras". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  49. ^ "Tsipras' biggest stress tests yet to come". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  50. ^ "Alexis Tsipras receives angry reception at Lesbos refugee camp". Independent. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  51. ^ ""Panousis: politicians who are connected with terrorists threaten my life" "Βόμβες" Πανούση: Πολιτικοί που έχουν σχέση με τρομοκράτες απειλούν την ζωή μου". www.iefimerida.gr. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  52. ^ ""Tsipras for anarchists: Uncalled saviors who think that they can determinate life and death." Τσίπρας για δήθεν αντιεξουσιαστές: Αυτόκλητοι σωτήρες που νομίζουν ότι ορίζουν τη ζωή και το θάνατο". www.protothema.gr. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  53. ^ ""Tsipras: We must cooperate with Turkey on the refugee crisis" Αλ. Τσίπρας: Πρέπει να αντιμετωπίσουμε από κοινού με την Τουρκία το προσφυγικό". www.naftemporiki.gr. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  54. ^ "Tsipras defies protesters, austerity measures pass". thebricspost. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  55. ^ "Athens agrees fiscal measures in exchange for debt relief talks". ft. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  56. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  57. ^ Bouras, Stelios (4 November 2016). "Greek Police Clear Anti-Mosque Demonstrators as Golden Dawn Vows to Fight On". Retrieved 17 May 2018 – via www.wsj.com.
  58. ^ Amaro, Silvia (2017-07-18). "Greece could return to the bond markets as early as next week". Retrieved 2017-07-24.
  59. ^ "Greece looking at bond market return". Retrieved 2017-07-24.
  60. ^ "Trump welcomes Greece's Tsipras to White House". Financial Times. 2017-10-18. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  61. ^ "US President meets Greek Prime Minister". ABC News. 2017-10-18. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  62. ^ {{cite web |url=https://www.ft.com/content/aeb930e0-a475-11e8-926a-7342fe5e173f%7Cdate=20 August 2018|work=Financial Times |
  63. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.greeknewsagenda.gr/index.php/topics/politics-polity/6805-alexis-tsipras-state-address-from-ithaca-today-is-the-beginning-of-a-new-era-2%7Cdate=21 August 2018|work=Greek News Agenda |
  64. ^ Έγινε πατέρας ο Αλέξης Τσίπρας (in Greek). cosmo.gr. 17 May 2010. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  65. ^ Smith, Helena (18 September 2014). "Pope Francis the 'pontiff of the poor', says Greece's Alexis Tsipras". The Guardian. Alexis Tsipras – a radical leftist and self-described atheist
  66. ^ "Greece's far left: The company he keeps". The Economist. 4 October 2014. Mr Tsipras, an atheist
  67. ^ "These are the religious beliefs of Europe's leaders—including the atheists". Retrieved 28 January 2015.

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Alekos Alavanos
Leader of Syriza
2009–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Antonis Samaras
Leader of the Opposition
2012–2015
Succeeded by
Antonis Samaras
Prime Minister of Greece
2015
Succeeded by
Vassiliki Thanou
Acting
Preceded by
Vassiliki Thanou
Acting
Prime Minister of Greece
2015–present
Incumbent
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
as President of the Hellenic Republic
Order of precedence of Greece
as Prime Minister
Succeeded by
Nikos Voutsis
as Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament