|A drawing by an artist with alexithymia depicting confusion about one's own emotions|
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by the subclinical inability to identify and describe emotions experienced by one's self. The core characteristic of alexithymia is marked dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relation. Furthermore, people with high levels of alexithymia can have difficulty distinguishing and appreciating the emotions of others, which is thought to lead to unempathic and ineffective emotional responses.
High levels of alexithymia occur in approximately 10% of the population and can occur with a number of psychiatric conditions as well as any neurodevelopmental disorder. When the difficulty with recognizing and talking about their emotions appears at subclinical levels in men who conform to western cultural notions of masculinity (such as thinking that sadness is a feminine emotion), it has been called normative male alexithymia by some researchers. However, both alexithymia itself and its association with traditionally masculine norms are consistent across genders.
Alexithymia is considered to be a personality trait that places affected individuals at risk for other medical and psychiatric disorders while reducing the likelihood that these individuals will respond to conventional treatments for the other conditions. Alexithymia is not classified as a mental disorder in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It is a dimensional personality trait that varies in intensity from person to person. A person's alexithymia score can be measured with questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ), the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ), the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), the Online Alexithymia Questionnaire (OAQ-G2), the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), or the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). It is distinct from the psychiatric personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder.
Traditionally, alexithymia has been conceptually defined by four components:
- difficulty identifying feelings (DIF)
- difficulty describing feelings to other people (DDF)
- a stimulus-bound, externally oriented thinking style (EOT)
- constricted imaginal processes (IMP)
However, there is some ongoing disagreement in the field about the definition of alexithymia. When measured in empirical studies, constricted imaginal processes are often found not to statistically cohere with the other components of alexithymia. Such findings have led to debate in the field about whether IMP is indeed a component of alexithymia. For example, in 2017, Preece and colleagues introduced the attention-appraisal model of alexithymia, where they suggested that IMP be removed from the definition and that alexithymia be conceptually composed only of DIF, DDF, and EOT, as each of these three are specific to deficits in emotion processing. In practice, since the constricted imaginal processes items were removed from earlier versions of the TAS-20 in the 1990s, the most used alexithymia assessment tools (and consequently most alexithymia research studies) have only assessed the construct in terms of DIF, DDF, and EOT.
Studies (using measures of alexithymia assessing DIF, DDF, and EOT) have reported that the prevalence rate of high alexithymia is less than 10% of the population. A less common finding suggests that there may be a higher prevalence of alexithymia amongst males than females, which may be accounted for by difficulties some males have with "describing feelings", but not by difficulties in "identifying feelings" in which males and females show similar abilities.
Psychologist R. Michael Bagby and psychiatrist Graeme J. Taylor have argued that the alexithymia construct is inversely related to the concepts of psychological mindedness and emotional intelligence and there is "strong empirical support for alexithymia being a stable personality trait rather than just a consequence of psychological distress".
Signs and symptoms
Typical deficiencies may include problems identifying, processing, describing, and working with one's own feelings, often marked by a lack of understanding of the feelings of others; difficulty distinguishing between feelings and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal; confusion of physical sensations often associated with emotions; few dreams or fantasies due to restricted imagination; and concrete, realistic, logical thinking, often to the exclusion of emotional responses to problems. Those who have alexithymia also report very logical and realistic dreams, such as going to the store or eating a meal. Clinical experience suggests it is the structural features of dreams more than the ability to recall them that best characterizes alexithymia.
Some alexithymic individuals may appear to contradict the above-mentioned characteristics because they can experience chronic dysphoria or manifest outbursts of crying or rage. However, questioning usually reveals that they are quite incapable of describing their feelings or appear confused by questions inquiring about specifics of feelings.
According to Henry Krystal, individuals exhibiting alexithymia think in an operative way and may appear to be superadjusted to reality. In psychotherapy, however, a cognitive disturbance becomes apparent as patients tend to recount trivial, chronologically ordered actions, reactions, and events of daily life with monotonous detail. In general, these individuals can, but not always, seem oriented toward things and even treat themselves as robots. These problems seriously limit their responsiveness to psychoanalytic psychotherapy; psychosomatic illness or substance abuse is frequently exacerbated should these individuals enter psychotherapy.
A common misconception about alexithymia is that affected individuals are totally unable to express emotions verbally and that they may even fail to acknowledge that they experience emotions. Even before coining the term, Sifneos (1967) noted patients often mentioned things like anxiety or depression. The distinguishing factor was their inability to elaborate beyond a few limited adjectives such as "happy" or "unhappy" when describing these feelings. The core issue is that people with alexithymia have poorly differentiated emotions limiting their ability to distinguish and describe them to others. This contributes to the sense of emotional detachment from themselves and difficulty connecting with others, making alexithymia negatively associated with life satisfaction even when depression and other confounding factors are controlled for.
Alexithymia frequently co-occurs with other disorders. Research indicates that alexithymia overlaps with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In a 2004 study using the TAS-20, 85% of the adults with ASD fell into the "impaired" category and almost half fell into the "severely impaired" category; in contrast, among the adult control population only 17% were "impaired", none "severely impaired". Fitzgerald & Bellgrove pointed out that, "Like alexithymia, Asperger's syndrome is also characterised by core disturbances in speech and language and social relationships". Hill & Berthoz agreed with Fitzgerald & Bellgrove (2006) and in response stated that "there is some form of overlap between alexithymia and ASDs". They also pointed to studies that revealed impaired theory of mind skill in alexithymia, neuroanatomical evidence pointing to a shared etiology and similar social skills deficits. The exact nature of the overlap is uncertain. Alexithymic traits in AS may be linked to clinical depression or anxiety; the mediating factors are unknown and it is possible that alexithymia predisposes to anxiety. On the other hand, while the total alexithymia score as well as the difficulty in identifying feelings and externally oriented thinking factors are found to be significantly associated with ADHD, and while the total alexithymia score, the difficulty in identifying feelings, and the difficulty in describing feelings factors are also significantly associated with symptoms of hyperactivity/
There are many more psychiatric disorders that overlap with alexithymia. One study found that 41% of US veterans of the Vietnam War with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were alexithymic. Another study found higher levels of alexithymia among Holocaust survivors with PTSD compared to those without. Higher levels of alexithymia among mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD were found in one study to have proportionally less caregiving sensitivity. This latter study suggested that when treating adult PTSD patients who are parents, alexithymia should be assessed and addressed also with attention to the parent-child relationship and the child's social-emotional development.
Single study prevalence findings for other disorders include 63% in anorexia nervosa, 56% in bulimia, 45% to 50% in major depressive disorder, 34% in panic disorder, 28% in social phobia, and 50% in substance abusers. Alexithymia is also exhibited by a large proportion of individuals with acquired brain injuries such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.
Alexithymia is correlated with certain personality disorders, particularly schizoid, avoidant, dependent and schizotypal, substance use disorders, some anxiety disorders and sexual disorders as well as certain physical illnesses, such as hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease and functional dyspepsia. Alexithymia is further linked with disorders such as migraine headaches, lower back pain, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, nausea, allergies and fibromyalgia.
An inability to modulate emotions is a possibility in explaining why some people with alexithymia are prone to discharge tension arising from unpleasant emotional states through impulsive acts or compulsive behaviors such as binge eating, substance abuse, perverse sexual behavior or anorexia nervosa. The failure to regulate emotions cognitively might result in prolonged elevations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and neuroendocrine systems, which can lead to somatic diseases. People with alexithymia also show a limited ability to experience positive emotions leading Krystal (1988) and Sifneos (1987) to describe many of these individuals as anhedonic.
It is unclear what causes alexithymia, though several theories have been proposed.
Early studies showed evidence that there may be an interhemispheric transfer deficit among people with alexithymia; that is, the emotional information from the right hemisphere of the brain is not being properly transferred to the language regions in the left hemisphere, as can be caused by a decreased corpus callosum, often present in psychiatric patients who have suffered severe childhood abuse. A neuropsychological study in 1997 indicated that alexithymia may be due to a disturbance to the right hemisphere of the brain, which is largely responsible for processing emotions. In addition, another neuropsychological model suggests that alexithymia may be related to a dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex. These studies have some shortcomings, however, and the empirical evidence about the neural mechanisms behind alexithymia remains inconclusive.
French psychoanalyst Joyce McDougall objected to the strong focus by clinicians on neurophysiological explanations at the expense of psychological ones for the genesis and operation of alexithymia, and introduced the alternative term "disaffectation" to stand for psychogenic alexithymia. For McDougall, the disaffected individual had at some point "experienced overwhelming emotion that threatened to attack their sense of integrity and identity", to which they applied psychological defenses to pulverize and eject all emotional representations from consciousness. A similar line of interpretation has been taken up using the methods of phenomenology. McDougall has also noted that all infants are born unable to identify, organize, and speak about their emotional experiences (the word infans is from the Latin "not speaking"), and are "by reason of their immaturity inevitably alexithymic". Based on this fact McDougall proposed in 1985 that the alexithymic part of an adult personality could be "an extremely arrested and infantile psychic structure". The first language of an infant is nonverbal facial expressions. The parent's emotional state is important for determining how any child might develop. Neglect or indifference to varying changes in a child's facial expressions without proper feedback can promote an invalidation of the facial expressions manifested by the child. The parent's ability to reflect self-awareness to the child is another important factor. If the adult is incapable of recognizing and distinguishing emotional expressions in the child, it can influence the child's capacity to understand emotional expressions.
Molecular genetic research into alexithymia remains minimal, but promising candidates have been identified from studies examining connections between certain genes and alexithymia among those with psychiatric conditions as well as the general population. A study recruiting a test population of Japanese males found higher scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale among those with the 5-HTTLPR homozygous long (L) allele. The 5-HTTLPR region on the serotonin transporter gene influences the transcription of the seretonin transporter that removes serotonin from the synaptic cleft, and is well studied for its association with numerous psychiatric disorders. Another study examining the 5-HT1A receptor, a receptor that binds serotonin, found higher levels of alexithymia among those with the G allele of the Rs6295 polymorphism within the HTR1A gene. Also, a study examining alexithymia in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder found higher alexithymia levels associated with the Val/Val allele of the Rs4680 polymorphism in the gene that encodes Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine. These links are tentative, and further research will be needed to clarify how these genes relate to the neurological anomalies found in the brains of people with alexithymia.
Although there is evidence for the role of environmental and neurological factors, the role and influence of genetic factors for developing alexithymia is still unclear. A single large scale Danish study suggested that genetic factors contributed noticeably to the development of alexithymia. However, such twin studies are controversial, as they suffer from the "equal environments assumption" and the "heritability" estimates in no way correspond to actual DNA structures. Traumatic brain injury is also implicated in the development of alexithymia, and those with traumatic brain injury are six times more likely to exhibit alexithymia.
Alexithymia can create interpersonal problems because these individuals tend to avoid emotionally close relationships, or if they do form relationships with others they usually position themselves as either dependent, dominant, or impersonal, "such that the relationship remains superficial". Inadequate "differentiation" between self and others by alexithymic individuals has also been observed. Their difficulty in processing interpersonal connections often develops where the person lacks a romantic partner.
In a study, a large group of alexithymic individuals completed the 64-item Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64) which found that "two interpersonal problems are significantly and stably related to alexithymia: cold/distant and non-assertive social functioning. All other IIP-64 subscales were not significantly related to alexithymia."
Chaotic interpersonal relations have also been observed by Sifneos. Due to the inherent difficulties identifying and describing emotional states in self and others, alexithymia also negatively affects relationship satisfaction between couples.
In a 2008 study alexithymia was found to be correlated with impaired understanding and demonstration of relational affection, and that this impairment contributes to poorer mental health, poorer relational well-being, and lowered relationship quality. Individuals high on the alexithymia spectrum also report less distress at seeing others in pain and behave less altruistically toward others.
Some individuals working for organizations in which control of emotions is the norm might show alexithymic-like behavior but not be alexithymic. However, over time the lack of self-expressions can become routine and they may find it harder to identify with others.
In 2002, Kennedy and Franklin found that a skills-based intervention is an effective method for treating alexithymia. Kennedy and Franklin's treatment plan involved giving the participants a series of questionnaires, psychodynamic therapies, cognitive-behavioral and skills-based therapies, and experiential therapies. After treatment, they found that participants were generally less ambivalent about expressing their emotion feelings and more attentive to their emotional states.
In 2017, based on their attention-appraisal model of alexithymia, Preece and colleagues recommended that alexithymia treatment should target trying to improve the developmental level of people's emotion schemas and reduce people's use of experiential avoidance of emotions as an emotion regulation strategy (i.e., the mechanisms hypothesized to underlie alexithymia difficulties in the attention-appraisal model of alexithymia).
In 2018, Löf, Clinton, Kaldo, and Rydén found that mentalisation-based treatment is also an effective method for treating alexithymia. Mentalisation is the ability to understand the mental state of oneself or others that underlies overt behavior, and mentalisation-based treatment helps patients separate their own thoughts and feelings from those around them. This treatment is relational, and it focuses on gaining a better understanding and use of mentalising skills. The researchers found that all of the patients' symptoms including alexithymia significantly improved, and the treatment promoted affect tolerance and the ability to think flexibly while expressing intense affect rather than impulsive behavior.
A significant issue impacting alexithymia treatment is that alexithymia has comorbidity with other disorders. Mendelson's 1982 study showed that alexithymia frequently presented in people with undiagnosed chronic pain. Participants in Kennedy and Franklin's study all had anxiety disorders in conjunction with alexithymia, while those in Löf et al. were diagnosed with both alexithymia and borderline personality disorder. All these comorbidity issues complicate treatment because it is difficult to examine people who exclusively have alexithymia.
The term alexithymia was coined by psychotherapists John Case Nemiah and Peter Sifneos in 1973. The word comes from Greek: ἀ- (a-, 'not', privative prefix, alpha privative) + λέξις (léxis, 'words') + θῡμός (thȳmós, 'heart' or 'emotions' or 'seat of speech') (cf. dyslexia), literally meaning "no words for emotions".
Another etymology: Greek: Αλεξιθυμία ἀλέξω (to ward off) + θῡμός. Means to push away emotions, feelings
- Amplification (psychology)
- Asperger syndrome
- Body-centred countertransference
- Borderline personality disorder
- Psychological mindedness
- Somatization disorder
- Somatosensory amplification
- Sifneos PE (1973). "The prevalence of 'alexithymic' characteristics in psychosomatic patients". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 22 (2): 255–262. doi:10.1159/000286529. PMID 4770536.
- Bagby, R (1994). "The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 38 (1): 23–32. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(94)90005-1. PMID 8126686.
- Preece, D (2017-12-01). "Establishing the theoretical components of alexithymia via factor analysis: Introduction and validation of the attention-appraisal model of alexithymia". Personality and Individual Differences. 119: 341–352. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.003. ISSN 0191-8869.
- FeldmanHall O, Dalgleish T, Mobbs D (2013). "Alexithymia decreases altruism in real social decisions". Cortex. 49 (3): 899–904. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.10.015. PMID 23245426. S2CID 32358430.
- Taylor GJ, Bagby, M.R., Parker, J.D.A. Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in Medical and Psychiatric Illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999
- Karren, Keith (2014). Mind/body health: The effects of attitudes, emotions and, relationships. Boston, MA: Pearson. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-321-88345-2.
- Karakis, Emily N.; Levant, Ronald F. (2012-09-01). "Is Normative Male Alexithymia Associated with Relationship Satisfaction, Fear of Intimacy and Communication Quality Among Men in Relationships?". The Journal of Men's Studies. 20 (3): 179–186. doi:10.3149/jms.2003.179. ISSN 1060-8265. S2CID 147645682.
- Nadal, Kevin L. (2017-04-15). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. SAGE Publications. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4833-8427-6.
- Haviland MG, Warren WL, Riggs ML (2000). "An observer scale to measure alexithymia". Psychosomatics. 41 (5): 385–92. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.41.5.385. PMID 11015624. Archived from the original on 2007-09-17. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- Preece, D (2018-10-01). "The psychometric assessment of alexithymia: Development and validation of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire". Personality and Individual Differences. 132: 32–44. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.011. ISSN 0191-8869.
- Vorst HC, Bermond B (2001). "Validity and reliability of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire". Personality and Individual Differences. 30 (3): 413–434. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00033-7.
- Lane, Richard D.; Quinlan, Donald M.; Schwartz, Gary E.; Walker, Pamela A.; Zeitlin, Sharon B. (1990-09-01). "The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale: A Cognitive-Developmental Measure of Emotion". Journal of Personality Assessment. 55 (1–2): 124–134. doi:10.1080/00223891.1990.9674052. ISSN 0022-3891. PMID 2231235.
- Paula-Perez I (Mar 2010). "Alexitimia y sindrome de Asperger". Rev Neurol. 50 (Suppl 3): S85–90. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27.
- Bagby, R. Michael; Taylor, Graeme J.; Parker, James D. A.; Dickens, Susan E. (2006). "The Development of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia: Item Selection, Factor Structure, Reliability and Concurrent Validity". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 75 (1): 25–39. doi:10.1159/000089224. ISSN 0033-3190. PMID 16361872. S2CID 28825301.
- Bach, Michael; De Zwaan, Martina; Ackard, Diann; Nutzinger, Detlev O.; Mitchell, James E. (1994-05-01). "Alexithymia: Relationship to personality disorders". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 35 (3): 239–243. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(94)90197-X. ISSN 0010-440X. PMID 8045115.
- Taylor (1997), p. 29
- Taylor, Graeme J.; Bagby, R. Michael (2021). "Examining Proposed Changes to the Conceptualization of the Alexithymia Construct: The Way Forward Tilts to the Past". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 90 (3): 145–155. doi:10.1159/000511988. ISSN 0033-3190. PMID 33285546.
- Preece, David A.; Becerra, Rodrigo; Robinson, Ken; Allan, Alfred; Boyes, Mark; Chen, Wai; Hasking, Penelope; Gross, James J. (2020). "What is alexithymia? Using factor analysis to establish its latent structure and relationship with fantasizing and emotional reactivity". Journal of Personality. 88 (6): 1162–1176. doi:10.1111/jopy.12563. ISSN 1467-6494. PMID 32463926.
- Bermond, Bob; Oosterveld, Paul; Vorst, Harrie C.M. (2015-01-01). "Measures of Alexithymia". Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs: 227–256. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00009-7. ISBN 9780123869159.
- Watters, Carolyn A.; Taylor, Graeme J.; Bagby, R. Michael (June 2016). "Illuminating the theoretical components of alexithymia using bifactor modeling and network analysis". Psychological Assessment. 28 (6): 627–638. doi:10.1037/pas0000169. ISSN 1939-134X. PMID 26168310.
- Watters, Carolyn A.; Taylor, Graeme J.; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael (2016-11-01). "An Examination of the Topology and Measurement of the Alexithymia Construct Using Network Analysis". Journal of Personality Assessment. 98 (6): 649–659. doi:10.1080/00223891.2016.1172077. ISSN 0022-3891. PMID 27217088. S2CID 2734992.
- Bermond, Bob; Clayton, Kymbra; Liberova, Alla; Luminet, Olivier; Maruszewski, Tomasz; Bitti, Pio E. Ricci; Rimé, Bernard; Vorst, Harrie H.; Wagner, Hugh; Wicherts, Jelte (2007-08-01). "A cognitive and an affective dimension of alexithymia in six languages and seven populations". Cognition and Emotion. 21 (5): 1125–1136. doi:10.1080/02699930601056989. ISSN 0269-9931. S2CID 143728880.
- Taylor, Graeme J.; Bagby, Michael; Parker, James D. A. (1992). "The Revised Toronto Alexithymia Scale: Some Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 57 (1–2): 34–41. doi:10.1159/000288571. ISSN 0033-3190. PMID 1584897.
- Fukunishi I, Berger D, Wogan J, Kuboki T (1999). "Alexithymic traits as predictors of difficulties with adjustment in an outpatient cohort of expatriates in Tokyo". Psychological Reports. 85 (1): 67–77. doi:10.2466/PR0.85.5.67-77. PMID 10575975. Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- Salminen JK, Saarijärvi S, Aärelä E, Toikka T, Kauhanen J (1999). "Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables in the general population of Finland". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 46 (1): 75–82. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(98)00053-1. PMID 10088984.
- Taylor & Taylor (1997), pp. 77–104
- Taylor (1997), p. 38
- Parker, JDA; Taylor, GJ; Bagby, RM (2001). "The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Alexithymia". Personality and Individual Differences. 30: 107–115. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00014-3.
- Taylor (1997), p. 37
- Bar-On, Reuven; Parker, James DA (2000). The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School, and in the Workplace. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-4984-6. pp. 40–59
- Krystal H (1979). "Alexithymia and psychotherapy". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 33 (1): 17–31. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.19126.96.36.199. PMID 464164.
- Nemiah et al. (1970), pp. 432–33
- Krystal (1988), p. 246; McDougall (1985), pp. 169–70
- Taylor (1997), pp. 29, 246–47
- Krystal (1988) pp. 246-247
- Nemiah, CJ (1978). "Alexithymia and Psychosomatic Illness". Journal of Continuing Education. 39: 25–37.
- Sifneos, PE (1967). "Clinical Observations on some patients suffering from a variety of psychosomatic diseases". Acta Medicina Psychosomatica. 7: 1–10.
- Mattila AK, Poutanen O, Koivisto AM, Salokangas RK, Joukamaa M (2007). "Alexithymia and Life Satisfaction in Primary Healthcare Patients". Psychosomatics. 48 (6): 523–529. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.48.6.523. PMID 18071100.
- Shah, Punit; Hall, Richard; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey (2016-08-01). "Alexithymia, not autism, is associated with impaired interoception". Cortex. 81: 215–220. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.03.021. PMC 4962768. PMID 27253723.
- Hill E, Berthoz S, Frith U (2004). "Brief report: cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 34 (2): 229–235. doi:10.1023/B:JADD.0000022613.41399.14. PMID 15162941. S2CID 776386.
- Frith U (2004). "Emanuel Miller lecture: confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 45 (4): 672–86. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00262.x. PMID 15056300. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00262.x/pdf The study to which Frith refers is the Hill E, Berthoz S, Frith U (2004) referenced before this one.
- Fitzgerald M, Bellgrove MA (2006). "The Overlap Between Alexithymia and Asperger's syndrome". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36 (4): 573–6. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0096-z. PMC 2092499. PMID 16755385.
- Hill E, Berthoz S (May 2006). "Response to 'Letter to the Editor: The Overlap Between Alexithymia and Asperger's syndrome', Fitzgerald and Bellgrove, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(4)". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36 (8): 1143–1145. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0287-7. PMID 17080269. S2CID 28686022.
- Tani P, Lindberg N, Joukamaa M, et al. (2004). "Asperger syndrome, alexithymia and perception of sleep". Neuropsychobiology. 49 (2): 64–70. doi:10.1159/000076412. PMID 14981336. S2CID 45311366.
- Donfrancesco R, Di Trani M, Gregori P, Auguanno G, Melegari MG, Zaninotto S, Luby J (2013). "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and alexithymia: a pilot study". Psychiatry Investig. 5 (4): 361–367. doi:10.1007/s12402-013-0115-9. PMID 23864438. S2CID 20228527.
- Shipko S, Alvarez WA, Noviello N (1983). "Towards a teleological model of alexithymia: alexithymia and post-traumatic stress disorder". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 39 (2): 122–6. doi:10.1159/000287730. PMID 6878595.
- Yehuda R, Steiner A, Kahana B, Binder-Brynes K, Southwick SM, Zemelman S, Giller EL (1997). "Alexithymia in Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD". J Trauma Stress. 10 (1): 83–100. doi:10.1002/jts.2490100108.
- Schechter DS, Suardi F, Manini A, Cordero MI, Sancho Rossignol A, Gex-Fabry Merminod G, Moser DA, Rusconi Serpa S. "How do maternal PTSD and alexithymia interact to impact maternal behaviour?". Child Psychiatry and Human Development.
- Cochrane CE, Brewerton TD, Wilson DB, Hodges EL (1993). "Alexithymia in the eating disorders". The International Journal of Eating Disorders. 14 (2): 219–22. doi:10.1002/1098-108x(199309)14:2<219::aid-eat2260140212>3.0.co;2-g. PMID 8401555.
- Honkalampi K, Hintikka J, Laukkanen E, Lehtonen J, Viinamäki H (2001). "Alexithymia and depression: a prospective study of patients with major depressive disorder". Psychosomatics. 42 (3): 229–34. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.42.3.229. PMID 11351111.
- Kim JH, Lee SJ, Rim HD, Kim HW, Bae GY, Chang SM (2008). "The Relationship between Alexithymia and General Symptoms of Patients with Depressive Disorders". Psychiatry Investig. 5 (3): 179–85. doi:10.4306/pi.2008.5.3.179. PMC 2796028. PMID 20046363.
- Cox BJ, Swinson RP, Shulman ID, Bourdeau D (1995). "Alexithymia in panic disorder and social phobia". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 36 (3): 195–8. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(95)90081-6. PMID 7648842.
- Taylor GJ, Parker JD, Bagby RM (1990). "A preliminary investigation of alexithymia in men with psychoactive substance dependence". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 147 (9): 1228–30. doi:10.1176/ajp.147.9.1228. PMID 2386256.
- Williams C, Wood RL (March 2010). "Alexithymia and emotional empathy following traumatic brain injury". J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 32 (3): 259–67. doi:10.1080/13803390902976940. PMID 19548166. S2CID 34126700.
- Koponen S, Taiminen T, Honkalampi K, et al. (2005). "Alexithymia after traumatic brain injury: its relation to magnetic resonance imaging findings and psychiatric disorders". Psychosom Med. 67 (5): 807–12. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.533.7505. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000181278.92249.e5. PMID 16204442. S2CID 22630865.
- Becerra R, Amos A, Jongenelis S (July 2002). "Organic alexithymia: a study of acquired emotional blindness". Brain Inj. 16 (7): 633–45. doi:10.1080/02699050110119817. PMID 12119081. S2CID 13877968.
- Coolidge, Frederick L. (2012). "Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 54 (2): 141–148. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.07.005. PMID 23021894.
- Taylor (1997), pp. 162–165
- Li CS, Sinha R (1 March 2006). "Alexithymia and stress-induced brain activation in cocaine-dependent men and women". Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 31 (2): 115–21. PMC 1413961. PMID 16575427.
- Lumley MA, Downey K, Stettner L, Wehmer F, Pomerleau OF (1994). "Alexithymia and negative affect: relationship to cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and smoking cessation". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 61 (3–4): 156–62. doi:10.1159/000288884. PMID 8066152.
- Jones BA (1984). "Panic attacks with panic masked by alexithymia". Psychosomatics. 25 (11): 858–9. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(84)72947-1. PMID 6505131. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2006-12-17.
- Michetti PM, Rossi R, Bonanno D, Tiesi A, Simonelli C (2006). "Male sexuality and regulation of emotions: a study on the association between alexithymia and erectile dysfunction (ED)". Int. J. Impot. Res. 18 (2): 170–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901386. PMID 16151475.
- Jula A, Salminen JK, Saarijärvi S (1 April 1999). "Alexithymia: a facet of essential hypertension". Hypertension. 33 (4): 1057–61. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.33.4.1057. PMID 10205248.
- Verissimo R, Mota-Cardoso R, Taylor G (1998). "Relationships between alexithymia, emotional control, and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 67 (2): 75–80. doi:10.1159/000012263. PMID 9556198. S2CID 46763537.
- Jones MP, Schettler A, Olden K, Crowell MD (2004). "Alexithymia and somatosensory amplification in functional dyspepsia". Psychosomatics. 45 (6): 508–16. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.6.508. PMID 15546828. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2006-12-17.
- Taylor (1997), pp. 216–248
- Taylor (1997), pp. 31
- Taylor GJ & Taylor HS (1997). Alexithymia. In M. McCallum & W.E. Piper (Eds.) Psychological mindedness: A contemporary understanding. Munich: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates pp. 28–31
- Hoppe KD, Bogen JE (1977). "Alexithymia in twelve commissurotomized patients". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 28 (1–4): 148–55. doi:10.1159/000287057. PMID 609675.
- Jessimer M, Markham R (1997). "Alexithymia: a right hemisphere dysfunction specific to recognition of certain facial expressions?". Brain and Cognition. 34 (2): 246–58. doi:10.1006/brcg.1997.0900. PMID 9220088. S2CID 29419777.
- Lane RD, Ahern GL, Schwartz GE, Kaszniak AW (1997). "Is alexithymia the emotional equivalent of blindsight?". Biol. Psychiatry. 42 (9): 834–44. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00050-4. PMID 9347133. S2CID 10963766.
- Tabibnia G, Zaidel E (2005). "Alexithymia, interhemispheric transfer, and right hemispheric specialization: a critical review". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 74 (2): 81–92. doi:10.1159/000083166. PMID 15741757. S2CID 37677853.
- McDougall (1989), pp. 93, 103
- McDougall (1989), pp. 93–94
- Maclaren K (2006). "Emotional Disorder and the Mind-Body Problem: A Case Study of Alexithymia". Chiasmi International. 8: 139–55. doi:10.5840/chiasmi2006819.
- McDougall (1985), p. 161
- Kano, Michiko; Mizuno, Tomoko; Kawano, Yuko; Aoki, Masashi; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin (1 January 2012). "Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism and alexithymia". Neuropsychobiology. 65 (2): 76–82. doi:10.1159/000329554. ISSN 1423-0224. PMID 22222552. S2CID 26543708.
- Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Li, She; Zhou, Xiaolin (1 December 2014). "Serotonin receptor gene (5-HT1A) modulates alexithymic characteristics and attachment orientation". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 50: 274–279. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.001. ISSN 1873-3360. PMID 25247748. S2CID 7545489.
- Koh, Min Jung; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Su Young; Kim, Se Joo (1 May 2016). "Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Alexithymia in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder". Yonsei Medical Journal. 57 (3): 721–727. doi:10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.721. ISSN 1976-2437. PMC 4800363. PMID 26996573.
- Jørgensen MM, Zachariae R, Skytthe A, Kyvik K (2007). "Genetic and Environmental Factors in Alexithymia: A Population-Based Study of 8,785 Danish Twin Pairs". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 76 (6): 369–375. doi:10.1159/000107565. PMID 17917473. S2CID 5879112.
- Pam, A; Kemker, SS; Ross, CA; Golden, R (1996). "The "equal environments assumption" in MZ-DZ twin comparisons: an untenable premise of psychiatric genetics?". Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma). 45 (3): 349–60. doi:10.1017/S0001566000000945. PMID 9014000.
- Williams C, Wood RL (June 2009). "Alexithymia and emotional empathy following traumatic brain injury". J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 32 (3): 259–67. doi:10.1080/13803390902976940. PMID 19548166. S2CID 34126700. Lay summary – Psychology Today (January 3, 2010).
- Hogeveen, J.; Bird, G.; Chau, A.; Krueger, F.; Grafman, J. (1 February 2016). "Acquired alexithymia following damage to the anterior insula". Neuropsychologia. 82: 142–148. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.01.021. ISSN 1873-3514. PMC 4752907. PMID 26801227.
- Vanheule S, Desmet M, Meganck R, Bogaerts S (2007). "Alexithymia and interpersonal problems". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 63 (1): 109–17. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.499.8287. doi:10.1002/jclp.20324. PMID 17016830.
- Blaustein JP, Tuber SB (1998). "Knowing the Unspeakable". Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 62: 351–365.
- Taylor (1997) pp. 26-46
- Holmgreen, Lucie, and Debra L. Oswald. "Men's sexual coerciveness, perceptions of women's attachment, and dating preferences." Violence and victims 32.5 (2017): 935-952.
- Sifneos PE (1996). "Alexithymia: past and present". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (7 Suppl): 137–42. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.7.137. PMID 8659637.
- Yelsma P, Marrow S (2003). "An Examination of Couples' Difficulties With Emotional Expressiveness and Their Marital Satisfaction". Journal of Family Communication. 3 (1): 41–62. doi:10.1207/S15327698JFC0301_03. S2CID 144200365.
- Hesse Colin; Floyd Kory (2008). "Affectionate experience mediates the effects of alexithymia on mental health and interpersonal relationships". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 25 (5): 793–810. doi:10.1177/0265407508096696. S2CID 144438014.
- Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2001) "Struggling with the Demon: Perspectives on Individual and Organizational Irrationality"
- Samur, Dalya; Tops, Mattie; Schlinkert, Caroline; Quirin, Markus; Cuijpers, Pim; Koole, Sander L. (2013). "Four decades of research on alexithymia: moving toward clinical applications". Frontiers in Psychology. 4: 861. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00861. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 3832802. PMID 24312069.
- Smith, R (2019-02-01). "The importance of identifying underlying process abnormalities in alexithymia: Implications of the three-process model and a single case study illustration". Consciousness and Cognition. 68: 33–46. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2018.12.004. ISSN 1053-8100. PMID 30605861. S2CID 58594332.
- Kennedy, Mataji; Franklin, John (2002). "Skills-based Treatment for Alexithymia: An Exploratory Case Series". Behaviour Change. 19 (3): 158–171. doi:10.1375/bech.19.3.158. S2CID 42495760.
- Löf, J.; Clinton, D.; Kaldo, V.; Rydén, G. (2018). "Symptom, alexithymia and self-image outcomes of Mentalisation-based treatment for borderline personality disorder: A naturalistic study". BMC Psychiatry. 18 (1): 185. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1699-6. PMC 5996479. PMID 29890960.
- Mendelson, George (1982). "Alexithymia and Chronic Pain: Prevalence, Correlates and Treatment Results". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 37 (3): 154–164. doi:10.1159/000287568. PMID 7178397.
- Stichwort Alexi|thymie. In: Duden. Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke. Software für PC-Bibliothek. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim
- "alexithymic - definition of alexithymic in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, ἀλέξω". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
- Nicholls MER; et al. (1999). "Laterality of expression in portraiture: putting your best cheek forward". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 266 (1428): 1517–1522. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0809. PMC 1690171. PMID 10467743.
- Mark A (2005). "Organizing emotions in health care". Journal of Health Organization and Management. 19 (4/5): 277–289. doi:10.1108/14777260510615332. PMID 16206913.
- Krystal, H (1988). Integration and Self Healing: Affect, Trauma, Alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press. ISBN 978-0-88163-070-1.
- Linden W, Wen F, Paulhaus DL (1994). Measuring alexithymia: reliability, validity, and prevalence. In: J. Butcher, C. Spielberger (Eds.). Advances in Personality Assessment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- McDougall, J (1989). Theaters of the Body: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Psychosomatic Illness, Norton.
- McDougall, J (1985). Theatres of the Mind: Truth and Illusion on the Psychoanalytic Stage. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-946960-70-5.
- Nemiah JC, Freyberger H, Sifneos PE, "Alexithymia: A View of the Psychosomatic Process" in O.W. Hill (1970) (ed), Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol 2.
- Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R. Michael; Parker, James DA (1997). Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in Medical and Psychiatric Illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45610-4.
|Look up alexithymia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|