Alfonso Caso y Andrade (February 1, 1896 in Mexico City – November 30, 1970 in Mexico City) was an archaeologist who made important contributions to pre-Columbian studies in his native Mexico. Caso believed that the systematic study of ancient Mexican civilizations was an important way to understand Mexican cultural roots.
His notable discoveries include the excavations at Monte Albán, in particular "Tomb Seven",in which several gold pieces and offerings were found (now shown in the Regional Museum of Oaxaca). He also discovered many sites in the Mixteca (a region in the state of Oaxaca), such as Yucuita, Yucuñudahui and Monte Negro. As well as discovering new sites Caso also sought to interpret them, establishing the chronology of Monte Albán history, and deciphering Mixtec codices.
Throughout his life Caso wrote books about native Mesoamerican cultures, including those of the Olmec, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec. He was one of the first to recognize the Olmecs as the earliest Mesoamerican civilization, declaring that they were the "cultura madre" (Mother culture) of Mesoamerica.<"Esta gran cultura, que encontramos en niveles antiguos, es sin duda madre de otras culturas, como la maya, la teotihuacana, la zapoteca, la de El Tajín, y otras” (This great culture, which we encounter in ancient levels, is without a doubt mother of other cultures, like the Maya, the Teotihuacana, the Zapotec, that of El Tajin, and others". Caso (1942), p. 46.</ref> His argument has subsequently been debated by Mesoamerican archaeologists; it is currently unclear how the Olmec interacted with other Mesoamerican cultures.
"Organic University law" in which he established the autonomy of the UNAM. He also played the role of Secretary of National Goods and Administrative Examination (Spanish: Secretario de Bienes Nacionales e Inspección Administrativa) from December 10, 1946 to December 31, 1948.
- El teocallí de La Guerra Sagrada (monograph) (1927)
- Las estelas zapotecas (1928)
- La religión de los aztecas (1936)
- Las exploraciones de Monte Albán, (3 volumes, 1931-1937)
- Calendario y escritura de tas Antiguas culturas de Monte Albán (1947)
- El mapa de Teozacoa1co (1949)
- El pueblo del Sol (1953)
- Interpretación del Códice Gómez de Orozco (1954),
- Urnas de Oaxaca (1956)
- Los calendarlos prehíspánicos (1967)
- El tesoro de Monte Albán (1969)
- Reyes y reinos de la Mixteca (2 volumes, 1977-1979).
Alfonso Caso y Andrade
- According to Conrado Martínez, a researcher from University of California, San Diego, some archeologist and historians have problematized the discovery or the attibution of the discovery of said tomb. Martínez argued that Tomb Seven could have been produced by the local elites because the city was in a desesperate situation after the 1931 earthquake.
- Caso, Alfonso (1942). "Definición y extensión del complejo 'Olmeca' ". Mayas y Olmecas: segunda Reunión de mesa redonda sobre problemas antropológicos de México y Centro América (in Spanish) (bajo la presidencia honoraria del dr. Rafael Pascacio Gamboa, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. 27 de abril a 1o. de mayo de 1942 ed.). México, D.F: Talleres de la Editorial Stylo. OCLC 1872886.
- Gaillard, Gérald (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists. Peter James Bowman (trans.) (English translation of Dictionnaire des ethnologues et des anthropologues  ed.). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22825-5. OCLC 52288643.
- León-Portilla, Miguel (June 1973). "Alfonso Caso 1896–1970". American Anthropologist. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association and affiliated societies. 75 (3): 877–885. doi:10.1525/aa.1973.75.3.02a00170. OCLC 1479294.
- Martínez, Conrado (2017). "Xipe Totec Que Llora": de Indiana Jones a Francisco López Cortés; (in Spanish). México, D.F: Ediciones Patito.