Alfred Carlton Gilbert
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AC Gilbert as a young fraternity man at Pacific University in 1902
|Born||February 15, 1884|
|Died||January 24, 1961 (aged 76)|
Alfred Carlton Gilbert (February 15, 1884 – January 24, 1961) was an American inventor, athlete, magician, toy-maker and businessman. Gilbert is best known as the inventor of the Erector Set and manufactured American Flyer Trains.
Early life and education
Gilbert was educated at the Tualatin Academy and attended Pacific University in nearby Forest Grove, Oregon, where he was a brother of the Gamma Sigma Fraternity. He left Pacific after 1902 and transferred to Yale University, financing his education by working as a magician, and earning a degree in sports medicine.
An accomplished athlete, he broke the world record for consecutive chin-ups (39) in 1900 and distance record for running long dive in 1902. He invented the pole vault box and set two world records in the pole vault including a record for 12' 3" (3.66 meters) at the Spring meet of the Irish American Athletic Club, held at Celtic Park, Queens, New York, in 1906. He tied for gold with fellow American Edward Cook at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London for pole vaulting.
Choosing not to pursue a medical career, Gilbert co-founded Mysto Manufacturing, a manufacturer of magic sets, in 1907. This company later became the A. C. Gilbert Company. Gilbert developed the Erector Set, a construction toy, in 1913 (preceded by the similar Meccano set conceived by Frank Hornby in 1898 which he developed and patented as "Mechanics Made Easy" in 1901). His inspiration was steel construction girders used on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. In 1918, with the United States embroiled in World War I and the Council of National Defense considering a ban on toy production, Gilbert argued successfully against it. The press gave him the nickname "The man who saved Christmas."
By 1935, he had sold more than 30 million of the sets. He also added chemistry sets, microscope sets, and other educational toys to his product line, accumulating more than 150 patents during his 50-year career. In 1938, he acquired the rights to the American Flyer toy train line from W. O. Coleman and moved their production from Chicago to New Haven. At the same time, he adopted a 3/16 scale for this train line while keeping the three-rail O-gauge track now associated with Lionel. Following World War II, O-gauge track was abandoned in favor of two-rail S-gauge track. Gilbert was lauded for his adherence to scale realism, making American Flyer trains look more real and less toylike.
Frustrated that invention was an important part of American society not taught in schools, in 1941 Gilbert opened the Gilbert Hall of Science in New York City, a science and technology museum. It served the dual purpose of promoting interest in science and selling Gilbert's products.
In 1950–1951 he marketed the Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Laboratory, which contained radioactive ore samples.
In 1908, he married Mary Thompson, whom he had met at Pacific University. They had three children: two girls and a boy.
Upon his retirement in 1954, Gilbert turned his company over to his son. The same year, he published his autobiography, titled The Man Who Lives in Paradise. After his death in 1961, the family sold its remaining shares in the A. C. Gilbert Company to Jack Wrather. It went out of business six years later.
A museum in Gilbert's birthplace of Salem, Oregon, A. C. Gilbert's Discovery Village, is named in his honor. The museum comprises several historic structures, including the house of Gilbert's uncle Andrew T. Gilbert. It opened in 1989. A biography titled The Man Who Changed How Boys and Toys Were Made was published in 2002.
The television movie The Man Who Saved Christmas is a dramatization of Christmas during the years 1917 and 1918 when America was involved in World War I. He was portrayed by Jason Alexander. The film takes several historical liberties. It debuted December 15, 2002.
Pacific University in Forest Grove, OR, has a residential hall named after him that was opened in 2009.
- Gilbert Mysto Magic (1919)
- Gilbert Chemical Magic (1920)
- Gilbert Handkerchief Tricks for Boys (1920)
- Gilbert Hydraulic and Pneumatic Engineering (1920)
- Gilbert Knots & Splices with Rope-Tying Tricks (1920)
- Gilbert Magnetic Fun and Facts (1920)
- Roar of the Rails (1944)
- Fun With Gilbert Chemistry (1946)
- American Flyer Instruction Book (1952)
- The Man Who Lives in Paradise (1954)
- Gilbert, Alfred Carlton. (1954). The Man who Lives in Paradise: The Autobiography of A. C. Gilbert. Rhinehart. p. 6
- Pacific University Heart of the Oak, 1902, page 85.
- "World's Record Vault by Gilbert of Yale; Collegian Clears Bar at Celtic Park at 12 Feet 3 Inches." New York Times, May 31, 1906.
- Yale Alumni Magazine, July/August 2008
- Walsh, Tim (2005). Timeless Toys: Classic Toys and the Playmakers who Created Them. Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9780740755712. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- The Eli Whitney Museum's extensive A. C. Gilbert Project includes essays[permanent dead link], pictures of Gilbert, pictures of the products produced by Gilbert and a bibliography
- A. C. Gilbert's Discovery Village
- The A. C. Gilbert Heritage Society
- A. C. Gilbert Papers (MS 1618). Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library.