Alfred H. Colquitt
|Alfred H. Colquitt|
|United States Senator
March 4, 1883 – March 26, 1894
|Preceded by||Middleton P. Barrow|
|Succeeded by||Patrick Walsh|
|49th Governor of Georgia|
January 12, 1877 – November 4, 1882
|Preceded by||James M. Smith|
|Succeeded by||Alexander H. Stephens|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd district
March 4, 1853 – March 3, 1855
|Preceded by||James Johnson|
|Succeeded by||Martin J. Crawford|
|Member of the Georgia State Legislature|
|Born||Alfred Holt Colquitt
April 20, 1824
|Died||March 26, 1894
|Allegiance||Confederate States of America|
|Service/branch||Confederate States Army|
|Years of service||1861–1865|
Alfred Holt Colquitt (April 20, 1824 – March 26, 1894) was a lawyer, preacher, soldier, 49th Governor of Georgia (1877-1882) and two-term U.S. Senator from Georgia (1883-1894), dying in office. He served as an officer in the Confederate army, reaching the rank of major general.
Alfred Colquitt was born in Monroe, Georgia. His father, Walter T. Colquitt was a United States Representative and Senator from Georgia. The younger Colquitt graduated from Princeton College in 1844, studied law and passed his bar examination in 1846. He began practicing law in Monroe.
During the Mexican-American War, he served in the United States Army at the rank of major. After the war, Colquitt was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1853 to 1855. He next was elected to and served in the Georgia state legislature. Colquitt was a delegate to The Georgia Secession Convention of 1861—voting in favor of secession and signing Georgia's Ordinance of Secession on January 19, 1861.
At the beginning of the Civil War, Colquitt was appointed captain in the 6th Georgia Infantry. He saw action in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days' Battles. He rose through the ranks to become a brigadier general in 1862. He led his brigade under Stonewall Jackson in the Battle of South Mountain, Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, and the Battle of Chancellorsville. After Chancellorsville, some questions arose about Colquitt's performance during that battle, and his brigade was transferred to North Carolina in exchange for another. His brigade was transferred again in the summer of 1863 to protect Charleston, South Carolina. In February 1864, Colquitt marched his brigade south to help defend against the Union invasion of Florida, and was victorious in the Battle of Olustee. After this battle, Colquitt's brigade rejoined Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Late in the war, the brigade returned to defend North Carolina, where Colquitt surrendered in 1865.
After returning to political life, Colquitt in 1876 defeated Republican candidate Jonathan Norcross for Governor of Georgia, part of the regaining of power of white Democrats in the state. He was opposed to Reconstruction. Around that time, several thousand friends asked for about thirty open government jobs. Those who did not get one of the jobs tried to turn voters against Colquitt. There also were rumors that Colquitt had been involved in illegal dealings with the Northeastern Railroad. A legislative committee found the governor innocent.
He was reelected in 1880 to serve two years under the new state constitution, which reduced the term of governor. Under his term, debt was reduced. In 1883, Colquitt was elected by the state legislature as a Democrat to the US Senate from Georgia. He was re-elected in 1888 and served until his death in Washington, D.C. in 1894 of cardiac arrest. He is buried in Rose Hill cemetery in Macon.
- List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession
- Confederate States of America, causes of secession, "Died of states' rights"
- List of American Civil War generals (Confederate)
- Lewis, Felice Flanery (2010). Trailing Clouds of Glory : Zachary Taylor's Mexican War Campaign and His Emerging Civil War Leaders. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780817316785. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Burton, Brian K. (2001). Extraordinary Circumstances : The Seven Days Battles. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0253222770. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- Hartwig, D. Scott (2012). To Antietam Creek : The Maryland Campaign Of September 1862. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 301. ISBN 9781421406312. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- Toney, B. (1997). "Horrors of the Bloody Lane". America's Civil War. 10 (4). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Sears, Stephen W. (1996). Chancellorsville. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. p. 240. ISBN 0395634172. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Phalen, Anne Howard (1991). "In Defense of My Great Grandfather". American Heritage. 42 (1). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Wise, Stephen (1994). Gate of Hell : Campaign for Charleston Harbor, 1863. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780872499850. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Howland, Chris (2014). "Rebel rally in the Sunshine State". America's Civil War. 26 (6): 38. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Perman, Michael (1984). The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 207. ISBN 0807841412. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Welsh, Jack D. (2013). Medical Histories of Confederate Generals. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9781306303101. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- United States Congress. "Alfred H. Colquitt (id: C000647)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-13
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
- Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.
- General Alfred Colquitt at the Battle of Olustee
- Holt, Alfred H. "Letter to Wiley B. Burnett, Aug. 20, 1890". America's Turning Point: Documenting the Civil War Experience in Georgia. E. Merton Coulter manuscript collection II. MS 2345. Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "Alfred Holt Colquitt Residence". Atlanta History Photograph Collection, Atlanta History Center. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "International Cotton Exposition". Atlanta History Photograph Collection, Atlanta History Center. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "Memorial addresses on the life and character of Alfred Holt Colquitt : Delivered in the Senate and House of Representatives, fifty-third congress, third session". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "Newspaper clipping about Alfred H. Colquitt published March 29, 1894". Calhoun-Gordon County Library Obituary File, Calhoun-Gordon County Library, as presented in the Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Alfred Holt Colquitt historical marker
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd congressional district
March 4, 1853 – March 3, 1855
Martin J. Crawford
James M. Smith
|Governor of Georgia
Alexander H. Stephens
|United States Senate|
Middleton P. Barrow
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
Served alongside: Joseph E. Brown, John B. Gordon