Algiers, New Orleans

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Algiers
15th Ward
New Orleans Neighborhood
Au58.jpg
The corner of Vallette & Homer Streets in Algiers, New Orleans.
Country United States
State Louisiana
City New Orleans
Police District District 4, Algiers
Elevation 0 ft (0.0 m)
Coordinates 29°55′30″N 90°00′50″W / 29.92500°N 90.01389°W / 29.92500; -90.01389Coordinates: 29°55′30″N 90°00′50″W / 29.92500°N 90.01389°W / 29.92500; -90.01389
Area 0.62 sq mi (1.6 km2)
 - land 0.62 sq mi (2 km2)
 - water 0.00 sq mi (0 km2), 0%
Population 50,995 (2010)
Density 82,250/sq mi (31,757/km2)
Founded 1719
Timezone CST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code 504

Algiers /ælˈɪərz/ is the second oldest neighborhood in New Orleans and the only Orleans Parish community located on the West Bank of the Mississippi River. Algiers is also known as the 15th Ward, one of the 17 Wards of New Orleans.[1]

History[edit]

Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, was granted a large tract of land on the west bank of the river opposite New Orleans in 1719. This date is sometimes given as the year of the town's founding, making it one of the oldest neighborhoods in what is now New Orleans, but development as a town as opposed to a private plantation did not actually occur until about 1800. The name is believed to have come from the proximity to the city as compared to France and Algeria. Another theory is that a soldier returning from fighting in Algeria decided it looked just like that country when viewed from a ship.[2]

Algiers sign (Algiers Point, New Orleans, Louisiana) 001.jpg

Others claim some connection to Arabs or Egypt and Algeria and Tunisia in the far past for the area. Some Arab groups were and are related not only to North Africa and Moors, but also to Asia as well as India. Columbus reported flags on ships of other powers on some of his travels to the Americas. Towns in the South named Egypt or Little Egypt or Tunica are real. It is possible, even likely, that some of this tradition is real.

A powder magazine was built here for safety reasons and because it stood on higher ground. A slaughterhouse was also established and Algiers went by the name of Slaughterhouse Point for some time.

With the importation of African slaves in the 18th century, this area was used as a holding area until those who survived the sea voyage recovered enough to be dispatched across the river to be sold. Algiers was also a holding area for the Cajuns who survived the Great Upheaval, when the British expelled them from Nova Scotia.[2] The oldest part of Algiers is Algiers Point, across the river from the French Quarter.

Old Duverje Plantation House before its destruction in the Great Algiers Fire of 1895

The Duverjes built their plantation home in Algiers in about 1812. They would become the first family of Algiers and their home would later become the Algiers Courthouse. Algiers Point has been connected with the foot of Canal Street in downtown New Orleans by the Canal Street Ferry since 1827. It is one the oldest continuously operated ferry services in North America. Part of the Battle of New Orleans, in January 1815, was fought on the West Bank in what is now Algiers. Original earthworks remain, marked with a historical marker on General Meyer Avenue in the Aurora neighborhood. Much land in Algiers and elsewhere in south Louisiana was owned by John McDonogh, who was one of the world's largest private land owners until his death in 1850. His estate was willed to public schools in Baltimore and New Orleans.[3][4]

[5] McDonogh's home was located on the river south of Algiers point, but the land has since been washed away.[6] McDonogh's grave is in the McDonogh Cemetery in Gretna. Algiers was incorporated as a city in 1840. Shipbuilding was an important industry here.

In the 1850s, Algiers became a major railroad center and eastern terminus of the New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad. Ferries were utilized for nearly a century to carry passengers, freight, and rail cars across the Mississippi River between the West Bank (including Algiers) and the East Bank (Central Business District of New Orleans).[7] Later, the railroad yard at Algiers would be the eastern repair shop for the Southern Pacific Railroad. The SPRR shop employed 4000 and had the capability to build mechanical parts for steamships.[6]

Troops head to the old U.S. Marine Hospital building in Algiers

In April 1862, during the American Civil War, flames arose from the shipyards in Algiers as Confederate officials destroyed property that might benefit the invading Union troops. Historian John D. Winters, in his The Civil War in Louisiana (1963), notes that the New Orleans populace was "'amazed and could scarcely realize the awful fact, and ran hither and thither in speechless astonishment.' . . . Shocked out of their dumb disbelief, many people joined in the destruction. Cotton was rolled from the warehouses, ships loaded with produce were boarded, and fire was set to the lot. Crowds of the city poor broke open warehouses and carried away baskets, bags, and carts spilling over with rice, bacon, sugar, molasses, corn, and other foods. What they could not carry away they attempted to destroy by dumping in the river, burning, or throwing into the open gutters. A mob broke into the powder and gun factories in the Marine Hospital and carried away rifles and ammunition. The city was a frenzy of disorganized activity."[8]

In 1870, Algiers was annexed to the city as the 15th Ward, an arrangement which has remained although there have been repeated discussions of secession. Until the latter 1930s, rail yards housed large amounts of freight and rolling stock, which was brought back and forth across the Mississippi River by barge. Then, the Huey P. Long Bridge, which included a railway bridge, was built upriver at Bridge City, Louisiana. The largest railroad presence had been the Southern Pacific yard.[6] That location is still known to Algerines as "the SP yard." For decades it was largely a vacant strip. Portions of the tract were redeveloped for housing in the early 21st century. In the yard's active days, a steam-powered Southern Pacific train ferry brought railroad cars from there across the Mississippi River. The Algiers rail yards were known for their ability to repair or create replacements for any part needed for any type of locomotive and mechanical parts for ships.[6]

After the Great Fire of 1895

A fire destroyed most of the buildings in Algiers in 1895.[6] Most of the gingerbread-fronted houses seen in the neighborhood today date from the rebuilding that began almost immediately after that fire; although a small number of older buildings still survived. In the early decades of the twentieth century, Algiers was the home of Martin Behrman, the longest-serving mayor of New Orleans. In 1901, the U.S. Navy established a naval station in Algiers. From 1966 until 2009, the site was one of the two campuses of the Naval Support Activity New Orleans base. Now the shuttered facility's West Bank campus is being redeveloped as a federal city. For centuries, intensive settlement in Algiers extended little beyond Algiers Point. The completion of the Greater New Orleans bridge across the Mississippi River in 1958 (now the Crescent City Connection) and the construction of Victory Drive (now General DeGaulle) and General Meyer Avenue made significant new development possible, and Algiers grew rapidly for the next 25 years.

The Algiers/Canal Street Ferry on the Mississippi River, New Orleans: ferry Thomas Jefferson seen approaching Algiers side and ferry Frank X. Arminger docked at right foreground

An early history of Algiers is The Story of Algiers by William H. Seymour, published in 1896. The book was republished in 1971 and has been referenced in New Orleans and Louisiana histories.[6] An index of the book is online at the New Orleans Public Library website.[9]

Demographics[edit]

The Algiers neighborhood is predominately African American, with 89.4% of residents identifying as such in the 2000 Census.[10] Algiers' total population pre-Katrina, according to the census, was 28,385. 45.9 of that was male; 54.1 was female. The average age is 29.6 the population for children under 5 was 2,515. 18 and over was 19,204. 65 and over was 2,839. whites make up 21.8 of the population in Algiers Point, while African-Americans make up 73.6. Native Americans and Alaskan Natives are 0.2 of the population. Hawaiians barely registered, and Latino/as make up 4.3 percent. The average household size is 2.68; the average family size is 3.41. The total housing units in Algiers was 12,351. 83.9 of that is occupied, and 16.1 is vacant. 40.6 of those units are owned by home owners, while 59.4 are rented. Socially speaking, 72.3% are high school graduates, and 14.3% hold at least a bachelor's degree. The married population is 41.2 percent male, and 33.2 are female. Families that are below the poverty level are at 30.3%; individuals below the poverty level are 35.3%.[11]

Poverty[edit]

Algiers suffers from a high poverty rates: Between 14.3 percent and 40 percent in most census blocks, according to the most recent federal data collected between 2007 and 2011 and assessed by The Data Center, an organization that researches community demographics in Southeast Louisiana.[12] The 70114 section of Algiers is among the lowest income neighborhoods in America, below 91.3% of U.S. neighborhoods. With 54.4% of the children here below the federal poverty line, it also has a higher rate of childhood poverty than 92.5% of U.S. neighborhoods. While the 70131 zip code in Algiers contains affluent subdivisions such as English Turn, Woodland Heights, Packenham Oaks, Lakewoood, and Park Timbers.[10]

Crime[edit]

Unlike Algiers Point, the crime rate for Old Algiers has always been extremely high since the early 1970s. Statistically, parts of Algiers like Berhman are notorious for high-profile crimes, violence and drug activity. Before Hurricane Katrina, most of the crimes committed occurred in the deprived and run-down neighborhoods as well as in low income housing developments such as the infamous Fischer Projects, which was once considered one of the nation's toughest housing projects as it was home to the city's most dangerous criminals and thugs. Other housing areas like the troubled DeGaulle Manor complex, and Christopher Homes was also known for it's violence and killings.[13] The areas became dangerous after the effects Crack Epidemic in the mid 1980s. Crime increased 15% with a 12% increase in violent crimes and murder. In a 1993 article, it was stated that half the crimes committed were by youths, age ranging from 14-17.[14] At the end of 2012 Algiers murders skyrocket to 23 killings, a dramatic increase from the previous year. That same year crime began to spread into the middle income communities of Tall Timbers, Old Aurora and Garden Oaks.[15][16] Murders decreased in 2014 but crime reports showed an increase in robberies and violent crime. [17] In 2015, Algiers murder rate rose to 24 homicides, the highest since 2012. Majority of the homicides were African-American men between ages 17 and 40. The killings were either drug-related or domestic incidents. By the end of 2016 homicides went down to 15.[18][19] Although murders went down in 2016 violent crimes increased, with burglaries up 11%, shootings, fatal or non fatal, went up 4%. Auto theft jumped almost 30%. The biggest increase was rape and sexual battery increasing to nearly 50%.[20] in 2017 the 4th District teamed with the NOPD's street-gang unit to quell gun battles spurred by conflicts between neighborhood groups, NOPD officer Ruffin said. The groups were formed of loose associations among people, not stable enough to be considered traditional gangs, and had "some very petty, petty beefs that led to very violent encounters," he said.[21]

Today[edit]

A number of New Orleans carnival krewes have their "dens" (warehouses where their floats are constructed and stored) in Algiers. Algiers Point was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 and designated a local historic district in 1994.[22] People from Algiers have traditionally been known as "Algerines". Noted Algerines have included jazz musicians Jimmy Palao, Red Allen and Emmett Hardy, and R&B singer Clarence "Frogman" Henry. Political figures from Algiers include State Representative Jeff Arnold and State Senators Francis C. Heitmeier (1988-2008) and his brother, David Heitmeier (since 2008).

Algiers is home to many churches. There are numerous Catholic and Baptist congregations. The oldest Lutheran congregation, Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, was founded in 1875.[23] Trinity's steeple was blown off by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A Catholic congregation, as well as Methodist and Episcopalian congregations, are all on the Historic Register of New Orleans, and some Algiers churches are listed on the National Historic Landmark lists. There are two branches of the New Orleans Public Library located in Algiers.[24] The Cita Dennis Hubbell Branch was built in 1907 as the Pelican Avenue Branch, one of three Carnegie libraries in New Orleans. Following years of neglect and hurricane damage, the library's roof was found to be in imminent danger of collapse and the location was closed on May 2008.[25] The Hubbell Branch was temporarily located at the Algiers Courthouse Carriage House a few blocks away, until it re-opened in the summer of 2013 in the original Pelican Avenue location. The Algiers Regional Branch, two miles away, was a larger library built in 1966. This library was damaged extensively by Katrina. The building was demolished and a new library constructed, which opened in early 2013.[26]

The area upriver from the Point was historically known as McDonoghville (which extended into part of what is now Gretna). Downriver from the Point is the West Bank portion of Naval Support Activity New Orleans, the largest military installation in the Greater New Orleans area. Further downriver from this is the neighborhood of Aurora, lower Algiers (Cutoff, River Park) and further still, the English Turn area, which was not substantially developed until the late 20th century. On September 26, 2005, Algiers became the first major section of New Orleans to be reopened to residents after Hurricane Katrina. Although a number of buildings suffered wind damage from the storm, Algiers escaped the flooding which affected most of the East Bank.

Culture[edit]

Algiers has many nicknames including "A.L.G", "The Darkside" and "1.5". The 1.5 standing for 15th Ward in which the neighborhood is adjusted in. It was also referenced by rapper Gregory D in his 1987 single "Buck jump Time."[27][28]

Super Sunday have been held in the community since the 1970s. The gathering is an annual celebrations of Mardi Gras Indian tribes parading down Whitney and Newton Streets. It also includes picnics and music concerts which is held in the near by Fox Park. Over thousands of people attend the celebration which starts on Sunday Morning all the way to midnight. For many years shootings and physical conflict have occurred frequently during the event. NOPD threatened to shut down Whitney Avenue which is where the 15th Ward Indians parade down but residents of Algiers still attend the celebration yearly as it is apart of the culture.[29] On May 24, 2009 a man was shot in the head as he attending the event.[30] Algiers is also home to rappers Joe Blakk, Tre-8, G-Slimm and kilo G.

The celebration ritual known as a "Second Line(parades)" or "Repass," is also a tradition in which a brass band parades through the area after a funeral service. The "main line" or "first line" is the main section of the parade, or the members of the actual club with the parading permit as well as the brass band. Those who follow the band just to enjoy the music are called the "second line." Although Second line parades celebrate the passing of a love one it can also turn into a block party. The origins of the second line dates back to the late 1800s.[31][32]

Krewe of NOMTOC[edit]

The Krewe of NOMTOC (New Orleans Most Talked Of Club) began parading on the Westbank (Orleans Parish) in 1970. Their inaugural parade had six floats, six bands, six marching units, one horse group and a motorcycle squadron. Today, this all-black krewe is composed of 400 male and female riders, 26 floats, ten bands and a number of marching and riding groups. Throws include ceramic medallion beads, jug banks and their signature Jug Man dolls. Their most popular throws for the 2013 parade include: Medallion Tri-Color Bead, Stuffed Baseball, Lighted Medallion Bead, Velour Spear with Krewe Crest, Top Hat Bead with Gold Pearls. The Krewe suggests that the best spots for family viewing are Holiday Dr. and Gen. Meyer Ave. in front of Behrman Stadium or along Mardi Gras Blvd. or at the intersection of Nunez St. and Mardi Gras Blvd. The Krewe’s sponsor, The Jugs Social Club has a rich heritage of civic activism, regularly donating funds to local schools, youth groups, and social programs. Each year a group of academic honor students is selected as guest riders in the parade.[33]

Neighborhoods[edit]

Algiers contains many neighborhoods such as

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Algiers is zoned to schools in the Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB), also known as New Orleans Public Schools (NOPS). The district has its headquarters in the Westbank area of Algiers.[34]

For the 2006-2007 school year, parents have a choice between the following NOPS operated schools:

As of 2016 some other agencies have supervision over public charter schools in Algiers. All public schools in New Orleans will return to supervision by OPSB by July 1, 2018.[35] Students may attend schools operated by the Algiers Charter Schools Association ([1])

The schools include:

  • Martin Behrman Elementary School (K-8)- Algiers Point
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Elementary School (K-8)- Tall Timbers/Brechtel
  • William J. Fischer Elementary School (K-8)- Fischer Development
  • McDonogh #32 Elementary School (K-8)- McDonogh
  • L.B Landry - O.P. Walker College and Career Preparatory High School - Old Algiers

The InspireNola Charter Schools operate

Crescent City Schools include

  • Harriet Tubman Charter Elementary School
  • Paul B Habans Elementary School

One campus of the International School of Louisiana (ISL) is in Algiers.[36]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Colleges and universities:

Public libraries[edit]

Algiers Regional Library
Cita Dennis Hubbell Library

New Orleans Public Library (NOPL) operates the Algiers Regional Library. It was first established in 1966.[37] Hurricane Katrina damaged the original building in 2005. Prior to the construction of the new library, Algiers residents used the temporary Cita Dennis Hubbell Branch, located in a museum, and a trailer adjacent to the damaged Algiers Regional Branch. The damaged building was demolished in 2010,[38] and a new 28,000-square-foot (2,600 m2), $9.25 million Algiers Regional Library was constructed in its place. The architectural firm was Gould Evans Associates of Kansas City, Missouri, and the construction company was Gibbs Construction.[39] Gould Evans worked with New Orleans firm Lee Ledbetter & Associates to design this library and four others.[40]

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was to pay for the costs of demolition of the previous library and construction of the new library since the previous facility had been, according to FEMA's estimation, over 50% damaged by Katrina. The features and amenities present in the new facility that were not in the previous facility were financed by other sources, including New Orleans municipal bond sales and funds from the Louisiana Recovery Authority. The "design-build" process, one specially allowed only in parishes affected by Hurricane Katrina under Louisiana law, was used to rebuild this library and four others.[41]

Construction on the new Algiers Regional Library was supposed to begin in the summer of 2010 but construction delays occurred.[42] By March 2012 construction was about 55% done. The opening was scheduled for the summer of 2012.[39]

NOPL also operates the Cita Dennis Hubbell Library (formerly Algiers Point Branch) in Algiers Point.[43]

Notable people[edit]

References in popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://nolaba.org/living-in-new-orleans-neighborhoods.aspx
  2. ^ a b http://algierspoint.org/AHS/history.html algierspoint.org "Algiers History"
  3. ^ McDonogh, John (1851). The last will and testament of John McDonogh, late of MacDonoghville, state of Louisiana. New Orleans: Printed at the job office of The Daily Delta. LCCN 2002553168. 
  4. ^ Allan, William (1886). Life and Work of John McDonogh. Baltimore: I. Friedenwald. 152545752. 
  5. ^ Ciravolo, G. Leighton (2002). The legacy of John McDonogh. Lafayette LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette. ISBN 1-887366-48-2. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Seymour, William H. (1971). The story of Algiers, 1718-1896. Gretna LA: Pelican Publishing Company. LCCN 71162346. 
  7. ^ Dixon, Bill (2009). Last Days of Last Island: The Hurricane of 1856, Louisiana’s First Great Storm. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. ISBN 1-887366-88-1. 
  8. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, p. 96
  9. ^ "What's New in NUTRIAS". New Orleans Public Library. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved 2006-04-28. 
  10. ^ a b http://www.neighborhoodscout.com/la/new-orleans/algiers/
  11. ^ http://algierslouisiana.blogspot.com/2009/03/demogra.html
  12. ^ http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/26/new-orleans-battles-for-algiers.html
  13. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/11/us/new-orleans-struggles-with-a-homicide-rate-that-belies-its-size.html?_r=0
  14. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=KFIQUvoPKFAC&dat=19930401&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
  15. ^ http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2012/09/rash_of_killings_plagues_algie.html
  16. ^ http://neworleanscitybusiness.com/blog/2012/06/08/nola-version-of-tranquil-mayberry-copes-with-sporadic-crime/
  17. ^ http://www.wwltv.com/story/news/local/orleans/2014/10/29/algiers-armed-robberies-raise-new-gang-concerns/18152813/
  18. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/2/edit?authuser=2&mid=1IiU7y6ooQ9BvqZp_PlPNoEC-eG8
  19. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1taaNw2OangYGVGcxIQHLkS5Ff9E&ll=29.923790266223122%2C-90.06169869196913&z=12
  20. ^ http://www.wwltv.com/news/crime/crime-on-the-rise-in-algiers/380721695
  21. ^ http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2017/03/nopd_details_crime_plans_at_al.html
  22. ^ National Register of Historic Places - Algiers
  23. ^ Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church
  24. ^ Branches and Bookmobiles. New Orleans Public Library. Retrieved on March 31, 2010.
  25. ^ Hubbell Library
  26. ^ Hubbell Library
  27. ^ https://genius.com/153359
  28. ^ http://www.wheretheyatnola.com/mapinfo.php
  29. ^ http://www.neworleansonline.com/neworleans/multicultural/multiculturaltraditions/supersunday.html
  30. ^ http://www.nola.com/news/index.ssf/2009/05/man_shot_in_algiers_near_super.html
  31. ^ http://www.noladefender.com/content/second-line-sunday-treme-algiers
  32. ^ http://www.frenchquarter.com/secondline/
  33. ^ http://www.mardigrasneworleans.com/schedule/parade-info/parades-notmc.html
  34. ^ "Central Office Staff." New Orleans Public Schools. Retrieved on December 15, 2009.
  35. ^ "NOLA Schools Unification." Orleans Parish School Board. Retrieved on December 8, 2016.
  36. ^ Tan, Sarah. "The International School of Louisiana opens in Harahan." Times Picayune. November 23, 2012. Retrieved on May 18, 2014.
  37. ^ Valence, Kari Eve (2016-09-19). "Algiers Library celebrates 50 years of service to community". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  38. ^ Dequine, Kari (2010-06-07). "Demolition makes way for new Algiers Regional Library". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  39. ^ a b Donze, Frank (2012-03-12). "New Orleans libraries turn over a new leaf with state-of-the-art buildings". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  - See inset image showing the pictures of the libraries that lists the costs and square footage
  40. ^ Bruno, R. Stephanie. "Renovations to New Orleans area libraries bring them into 21st century." The Times-Picayune. June 24, 2011. Retrieved on March 31, 2013.
  41. ^ Krupa, Michelle (2009-08-12). "Public library rebuilding project set to begin". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  42. ^ Powell, Allen II (2011-05-09). "Algiers library construction delay upsets, puzzles residents". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  43. ^ "Cita Dennis Hubbell Library." New Orleans Public Library. Retrieved on December 11, 2016.
  44. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0091637/
  45. ^ http://www.subzin.com/quotes/M1229316ff/Blue+Chips/-+Where+is+he+at%3F+-+Algiers.
  46. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0109305/?ref_=rvi_tt
  47. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4955872/

External links[edit]