Ali Gomaa

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Ali Gomaa
علي جمعة
Ali Gomaa.JPG
Grand Mufti of Egypt
In office
28 September 2003 – 11 February 2013
PresidentHosni Mubarak
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)
Mohamed Morsi
Preceded byAhmed el-Tayeb
Succeeded byShawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam
Personal details
Born (1952-03-03) 3 March 1952 (age 69)
Beni Suef, Egypt
Alma materAl-Azhar University (B.A.) (M.A.) (P.H.D.)
Ain Shams University (B.Com.)
University of Liverpool (H.D.)
OccupationIslamic scholar

Ali Gomaa[3] (Arabic: علي جمعة‎, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈʕæli ˈɡomʕæ]) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar, Jurist, and public figure who has taken a number of controversial political stances.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] He specializes in Islamic Legal Theory. He follows the Shafi`i school of Islamic jurisprudence[12] and the Ash'ari school of tenets of faith.[13][14] Gomaa is a Sufi.[15] Gomaa is also a supporter of the 2013 Military Coup.

He served as the eighteenth Grand Mufti of Egypt (2003–2013) through Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah succeeding Ahmed el-Tayeb. He has, in the past, been considered a respected Islamic jurist, according to a 2008 U.S. News & World Report report[16] and The National,[17] and "a highly promoted champion of moderate Islam," according to The New Yorker.[18] In more recent years, however, he has been characterized by Western scholarly observers as a supporter of "authoritarian" forms of government,[5] and The New York Times notes in 2013 that he encouraged security forces to kill protesters against the Egyptian coup of that year.[4]

He was succeeded as Grand Mufti by Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam in February 2013.


Ali Gomaa was born in the Upper Egyptian province of Beni Suef on 3 March 1952 (7 Jumadah al-Akhirah 1371 AH). Gomaa is married and has three adult children.[19] In person, Gomaa's appearance has been described as "tall and regal, with a round face and a trim beard."[18]


Gomaa graduated from high school in 1969, at which point he enrolled at Ain Shams University in Egypt's capital, Cairo. Having already begun to memorize the Quran, he delved deeper into his studies of Islam, studying Hadith and Shafi'i jurisprudence in his free time while at university. After completing a B.Comm. (Bachelor of Commerce) at Ain Shams in 1973, Gomaa enrolled in Cairo's al-Azhar University, the oldest active Islamic institution of higher learning in the world. He received a second bachelor's degree (B.A.) from al-Azhar, then an M.A., and finally a PhD with highest honors in Juristic Methodology (usul al-fiqh) in 1988.[20] Since he had not gone through the al-Azhar High School curriculum, he took it upon himself in his first year at the college to study and memorize all of the basic texts, which many of the other students had already covered.


Gomaa taught in the faculty of Islamic and Arabic Studies at al-Azhar University from the time he received his M.A. until he was appointed Grand Mufti, first as an assistant professor and then as a full professor.[21] In addition to being a teacher of Aqida, Tafsir, Hadith, legal theory and Islamic history,[22] Gomaa is also a highly respected Sufi master.[23][24][25]

In addition to the courses he taught at the University, Gomaa also revived the tradition of open classes held in a mosque where he taught a circle of students six days a week from after sunrise until noon. Gomaa established these lessons in 1998 [26] with the aim of protecting the Islamic intellectual tradition from being lost or misinterpreted: "I want people to continue in the tradition of knowledge reading the classical texts the way they were written, not the way people want to understand them."[27]

In addition to the lessons in al-Azhar, Gomaa also began giving the Friday sermon (khutbah) in Cairo's Sultan Hassan Mosque in 1998 after which he would give a short lesson in Islamic jurisprudence for the general public followed by a question-and-answer session. In addition Gomaa speaks fluent English, and he was a former chairman of Al-Azhar University's Islamic Jurisprudence Department.

Work with Jihadi Prisoners[edit]

Gomaa has told American journalist Lawrence Wright that he worked with Islamic Group prisoners who later embraced the "Nonviolence Initiative" and denounced violence. "I began going into the prisons in the 1990s.... We had debates and dialogues with the prisoners, which continued for more than three years. Such debates became the nucleus for the revisionist thinking."[18]

Grand Mufti[edit]

Ali Gomaa was appointed Grand Mufti in late September 2003.[28] by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, replacing former Mufti Mohamed Ahmed El-Tayeb. El-Tayeb was appointed Al-Azhar University president, taking over from Ahmed Omar Hashem.[29]

His office, the Dar al Ifta (literally, the House of Fatwas), a government agency charged with issuing religious legal opinions on any question to Muslims who ask for them, issued some 5,000 fatwas a week, including both official ones, which he would personally work on, about important issues and more routine ones handled via phone and Internet by a dozen or so subordinate muftis.[30]

Conclusion of term[edit]

Despite having a one-year extension of his term because of the political situation in post-revolutionary Egypt, Gomaa's term was allowed to expire. A committee decided Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam to be the Mufti's successor.[31]


On selling pork and alcohol in the West and 'non-Muslim countries'[edit]

In a fatwa issued by Dar-al-ifta,[32] approved and signed by Ali Gomaa, the Egyptian Mufti stated that selling pork and alcohol is permitted in the West because "it is allowed taking the opinion of the scholars from the Hanafi madhhab, who allow to deal with wrong contracts in non-Muslim countries."

Another justification was that the Prophet let his uncle Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib take usury in Mecca when it was a non-Muslim city, and he did not prohibit him except in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage.

During the fatwa, which was a reply to a question from a Muslim in Europe asking about whether it would be allowed for him to work in stores that sell alcohol and pork along with other products because he cannot find another job, Gomaa mentioned the terms "Dar-al-Harb" (House of War) and "Ahl al-Harb" (people of war) several times, and he gave a response that not only dealt with what the questioner had asked but also considered further points such as the taking of interest and gambling.

On female circumcision[edit]

Since taking office, Gomaa issued a number of fatwas and statements that have made an impact in the media. He has issued a fatwa asserting that men and women enjoy equal political rights in Islam, including the right to become president of a modern state.[33]

He recently[when?] stated on national television that it is permissible in Islam for a woman to have hymen restoration surgery for any reason since Islam promotes protecting one's privacy and reputation and does not require a woman to provide proof of her virginity.[34]

In November 2006, he ruled that female circumcision (also referred to as female genital mutilation or FGM) should not be applied; this ruling is in accordance with Egyptian law, which also forbids female circumcision. This ruling came about after a conference instigated by research and a documentary on FGM in Somalia by the German action group Target. The fatwa is now also used in Western Europe to combat FGM.

On 24 June 2007, after an 11-year-old died under the knife undergoing circumcision, he decreed that female circumcision was not just "un-Islamic" but forbidden.[35]

Views on women[edit]

According to Dr James Dorsey of Nanyang Technological University, "Gomaa asserted in 2015 that women did not have the strength to become heart surgeons, serve in the military, or engage in sports likes soccer, body building, wrestling and weightlifting. A year later, Gomaa issued a fatwa declaring writer Sherif El-Shobashy an infidel for urging others to respect a woman’s choice on whether or not to wear the veil."[36]

Other views[edit]

Before the Arab revolutions, Gomaa stated that Islam does not call for and has never known a theocratic state and that there is no contradiction between Islam and liberal democracy: "I consider myself a liberal and a Muslim, but this does not mean I am a secularist. The Egyptian [historical] experience has combined liberalism and Islam in the best of ways."[37] After the Arab revolutions, he has been a staunch advocate for authoritarianism.[5]

He is a signatory of the Amman Message, which gives a broad foundation for defining Muslim orthodoxy, unequivocally states that nobody has the right to excommunicate a Muslim, and it restricts the issuing of fatwas to those with the scholarly qualifications to do so.[38]

In 2007, he "unequivocally told The Washington Post that the death penalty for apostasy simply no longer applies."[39]

Ramadan al-Sherbini of Gulf News later reported Gomaa clarifying that Muslims are not free to change their faith: "What I actually said is that Islam prohibits a Muslim from changing his religion and that apostasy is a crime, which must be punished."[40]

However, the Mufti still rejects the death penalty for apostasy. In 2009, posted on his website that he does not believe that apostasy is punishable by death. In fact, it was only two years ago that Sheikh Ali Gomaa made clear statements to the effect that apostasy is not punishable by death in Islam, a position that he holds to this day.[41]

Gomaa has publicly asserted that the anti-Semitic The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a forgery and made an official court complaint concerning a publisher who falsely put his name on an introduction to its Arabic translation.[42]

Views on extremism[edit]

Gomaa has taken a very clear stance against extremist interpretations of Islam. "He has become the most explicitly anti-extremist cleric in mainstream Sunni Islam."[43]

He says that the use of violence to spread Islam is prohibited and extremists have not been educated in genuine centers of Islamic learning: "Terrorists are criminals, not Muslim activists."[44]

He indicates, about religion in general including Islam: "Terrorism cannot be born of religion. Terrorism is the product of corrupt minds, hardened hearts, and arrogant egos, and corruption, destruction, and arrogance are unknown to the heart attached to the divine."[45]

Gomaa believes the best antidote to Islamic extremism is "traditional conception of sharia law — along with knowledge of Islamic jurisprudence"[30]

Views on ISIL[edit]

Gomaa is highly critical of the rebel group ISIL. In September 2014, he, alongside 226 other prominent Sunni scholars, was a signatory to an open letter denouncing ISIL and its religious tenets.[46]

In February 2015, he was noted for statements regarding the burning to death of Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh by ISIL in which he claimed to have proof that the burning was photoshopped and that the pilot was not in fact burned to death. He stated as proof of his claim that in the video published by ISIS, Al-Kasabeh stands still while being burned, something that would seem impossible.[47]

On sculptures[edit]

On 18 April 2006, an article entitled "Egypt's grand mufti issues fatwa: no sculpture" appeared stating: "Artists and intellectuals here say the edict, whose ban on producing and displaying sculptures overturns a century-old fatwa, runs counter to Islam. They also worry that extremists may use the ruling as a pretense for destroying Egypt's ancient relics, which form a pillar of the country's multibillion-dollar tourist industry."[48] Jay Tolson defended Gomaa, saying that "while Gomaa did say that it was un-Islamic for Muslims to own statues or to display them in their homes, he made it very clear that the destruction of antiquities and other statues in the public sphere was unacceptable and indeed criminal. He is also on record deploring the Taliban's destruction of the great Buddhist statuary in Afghanistan."[16]

Egyptian Revolution[edit]

Dr. Ali Gomaa made several public statements in relation to the massive uprising that began on 25 January 2011 and led to the stepping down of former Egyptian President Mubarak on 11 February 2011. His general position was one of caution addressing the potential for mass bloodshed and chaos.[49] He was clear that public protest to address grievances is a fundamental human right,[50] but cautioned that mass demonstrations leading to a disruption of day-to-day life could be considered impermissible (haram) from an Islamic legal point of view.[50]

On 3 February 2011, Gomaa went on national TV to answer "hundreds of calls he received that day" with concerns about attending Friday prayer services.[51] He issued a fatwa allowing people who feared physical harm from further mass protests to pray at home and not attend Friday prayer services.

Under Morsi[edit]

In March 2011, Gomaa's 60th birthday and the official retirement age of Egyptian government employees, the SCAF issued him a one-year extension to help with the continuity of government. In June of the following year Muhammad Morsi was elected Egypt's new president.[52][53][54][55][56] On 20 July 2012, Gomaa held a national press conference to announce the start of the holy month of Ramadan and announced the month in the name of Egypt's new president.[57] In March 2013, Gomaa retired from his position of Grand Mufti of Egypt, and Dr. Shawqi Allam became Egypt's new Grand Mufti.

Views on future of Islam in Egypt[edit]

In an op-ed in The New York Times, he supported the passage of the 2011 Constitutional referendum, calling it a "milestone" for Egyptian democracy.[58]

He also stated that since Egypt is a very religious society, "it is inevitable that Islam will have a place in our democratic political order". However, he reassured that Muslims believe that "Islamic law guarantees freedom of conscience and expression (within the bounds of common decency) and equal rights for women."[58]

He also stated that there was no contradiction between Articles 2 and 7 of the constitution, the former saying that Islam was the official religion of the state and that legislation was based on principles of Islamic jurisprudence, the latter guaranteeing full citizenship before the law to members of Egyptian society regardless of religion, race or creed.[58]

He also stated that Islamists would stay within mainstream, and that radicalism would "not only run contrary to the law, but will also guarantee their political marginalization".[58]

An opponent believes that Gomaa is not necessarily committed to democracy. Following the Egyptian coup, he expressed hostility towards Western democracy in a television interview and stated that it was contrary to Islamic law. Specifically, he argued that the Muslim Brothers should be following Islamic law, not Western democracy.[59]

2013 Egyptian Coup[edit]

Following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, Gomaa expressed his support for the coup encouraging soldiers to kill those protesting the coup and cancelled a visit to London out of fear of prosecution for this.[60] According to Dr David H. Warren of University of Edinburgh, Ali Gomaa was one of "the most prominent supporters of the coup and its bloody aftermath." Warren notes that Gomaa referred to anti-coup protestors as the "dogs of hell" and seemed to justify the army's mass killing of these protestors.[7] Dr Usaama al-Azami of the University of Oxford also notes that Gomaa told the army shortly before the Rabaa massacre that they "should not hesitate to kill those who oppose them." After the massacre, al-Azami adds, Gomaa justified the army's actions.[6]

Urging military to shoot protestors[edit]

Professor Mohammad Fadel of the University of Toronto Faculty of Law argues that Gomaa is representative of "authoritarian forms of political Islam."[5] According to Fadel, Gomaa "incited the Egyptian military, in a sermon given to the armed forces in the presence of its senior leadership, to kill supporters of the deposed president, urging them to "shoot to kill" (iḍrab fī’l-malyān)."[5] Fadel adds: "ʿAlī Gomaa exhorts the armed forces to cleanse Egypt of the former president’s supporters, even claiming that the army’s position was vindicated by, among other things, the "innumerable visions (tawātarat al-ruʾā) of the Prophet of God" that came to Egypt's living saints in which he communicated to them his support for the military against the former president."[5]

In the lead up to the coup, Gomaa made several statements, both public and private, in support of the coup. This included a video message to the security forces in which he tells soldiers who are supporting the coup "When somebody comes who tries to divide you, then kill them, whoever they are."[4] During this period, he described protesters against the coup as the "dogs of hell."[61]

Original writings[edit]

The author of "over 50 books, as well as hundreds of articles",[62] his published works include:

  • ‘Alaqah Usul al-Fiqh bil al-Falsafah
  • Aliyat al-Ijtihad
  • Athr Dhihab al-Mahal flllli al-Hukm
  • al-Bayan
  • al-Hukm al-Shar’i
  • al-Ijma’ ‘ind al-Usūliyyīn
  • al-Imām al-Shāfi’i wa Madrasatuhu al-Fiqhiyyah
  • al-Imām al-Bukhāri
  • al-Islām wa al-Musāwāh baina al-Wāqi' wa al-Ma'mūl
  • al-Kalim al-Tayyib vol. 2
  • Mabāhith al-Amr ‘ind al-Usūliyyin
  • al-Madkhal ila Dirāsah al-Madhāhib al-Fiqhiyyah
  • al-Mustalah al-Usūli wa al-Tatbiq ‘ala Ta'rif al-Qiyas
  • al-Nadhariyyāt al-Usuliyyah wa Madkhal li Dirāsah ‘Ilm al-Usūl
  • Qadiyyah Tajdīd Usūl al-Fiqh
  • al-Qiyas ‘ind al-Usūliyyīn
  • al-Ru’yah wa Hujjiyyatuha al-Usūliyyah
  • Taqyīd al-Mubāh
  • al-Ṭarīq ilá al-turāth al-Islāmī : muqaddimāt maʻrifīyyah wa-madākhil manhajīyyah. Giza: Nahḍat Miṣr. 2004. ISBN 9771428918.
  • al-Dīn wa-al-ḥayāh : al-fatāwá al-ʻaṣrīyah al-yawmīyah. Giza: Nahḍat Miṣr. 2004. ISBN 9771426966.
  • al-Kalim al-ṭayyib : fatāwá ʻaṣrīyah. 1. Cairo: Dār al-Salām. 2005. ISBN 9773422607.
  • al-Naskh ʻinda al-uṣūlīyyīn. Giza: Nahḍat Miṣr lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr wa-al-Tawziʻ. 2005. ISBN 9771430076.
  • al-Kāmin fī al-ḥaḍārah al-Islāmīyyah. Cairo: Sharikat al-Wābil al-Ṣayyib lil-Intāj wa-al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr. 2006. ISBN 9776214002.
  • Simāt al-ʻaṣr : ruʼyat muhtamm. Giza: Dār al-Fārūq. 2006. ISBN 9774083040.
  • al-Mar'ah fī al-hạdārah al-Islāmiyyah : Bayna nusūs ̣al-sharʻ wa turāth al-fiqh wa-al-wāqiʻ al-maʻīsh. Cairo: Dār al-Salām lil-Tịbāʻah wa-al-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Tarjamah. 2006. ISBN 9773423492.
  • al-Ṭarīq ilā Allāh. Cairo: al-Wābil al-Ṣayyib li-al-Intāj wa-al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr. 2007. ISBN 978-9776214033.
  • al-Nabī ṣalla Allāh ʻalayhi wa-sallam. Cairo: al-Wābil al-Ṣayyib lil-Intāj wa-al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr. 2007. ISBN 978-9776214095.
  • Aqīdat ahl al-sunnah wa-al-jamāʻah. Cairo: al-Muqaṭṭam lil-Nashr wa-al-Tawzi. 2011. ISBN 9789774780462.


His sheikhs and teachers include in alphabetical order:

  1. ‘Abd al-Hafidh al-Tijani
  2. ‘Abd al-Hakim ‘Abd al-Latif
  3. ‘Abd al-Hamid Mayhub
  4. Ahmad Jabir al-Yamani
  5. ‘Abd al-Jalil al-Qaranshawi
  6. Ahmad Hammadah al-Shafi’i
  7. Ahmad Mursi
  8. ‘Ali Ahmad Mar’i
  9. Hasan Ahmad Mar’i
  10. al-Husayni Yusuf al-Shaykh
  11. Ibrahim Abu al-Khashab
  12. ‘Iwad Allah al-Hijazi
  13. ‘Iwad al-Zabidi
  14. Ismail Sadiq al-’Adwi
  15. Ismail al-Zayn al-Yamani
  16. Jad al-Haqq ‘Ali Jad al-Haqq
  17. Jad al-Rabb Ramadan
  18. Muhammad Abu Nur Zuhayr
  19. Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki
  20. Muhammad Ismail al-Hamadani
  21. Muhammad Mahmud Farghali
  22. Muhammad Shams al-Din al-Mantiqi
  23. Muhammad Zaki Ibrahim
  24. Sha’ban Muhammad Ismail
  25. Said ‘Abd Allah al-Lajhi
  26. al-Sayiid Salih ‘Iwad
  27. Salih al-Ja’fari
  28. Yasin al-Fādāni

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sedgwick, Mark. "The Modernity of Neo-Traditionalist Islam." Muslim Subjectivities in Global Modernity. Brill, 2020. 121-146.
  2. ^ Martin, Gianstefano C. The Dhimmi Narrative: A Comparison between the Historical and the Actual in the Context of Christian-Muslim Relations in Modern Egypt. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS, 2009. "Ali Gomaa, the Grand Mufti of Egypt and a modernist prefers to focus on the spirit of the law..."
  3. ^ Ethar El-Katatney The People's Mufti Archived 18 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine Egypt Today October 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Kirkpatrick, David D. (25 August 2013). "Egypt Military Enlists Religion to Quell Ranks". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Fadel, Mohammad (1 January 2016). "Islamic Law and Constitution-Making: The Authoritarian Temptation and the Arab Spring". Osgoode Hall Law Journal. 53 (2): 472–507. ISSN 0030-6185.
  6. ^ a b al-Azami, Usaama; Writer, ContributorGuest (23 December 2015). "Muslim Scholars and Autocrats (Part I)". HuffPost. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b Warren, David H. (August 2017). "Cleansing the Nation of the 'dogs of Hell': ʿali Jumʿa's Nationalist Legal Reasoning in Support of the 2013 Egyptian Coup and its Bloody Aftermath" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 49 (3): 457–477. doi:10.1017/S0020743817000332. ISSN 0020-7438.
  8. ^ Dorsey, James (21 June 2019). "Al-Azhar Struggles to Balance Politics and Tradition". LobeLog. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Ali Gumah: Sisi's most loyal Islamic scholar". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  10. ^ Elmasry, Mohamad (27 June 2015). "Ali Gumah: Sisi's most loyal Islamic scholar". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  11. ^ "Ali Gomaa: Kill them, they stink". Middle East Monitor. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  12. ^ Asthana, N. C.; Nirmal, Anjali (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Pointer Publishers. p. 117. ISBN 978-8171325986.
  13. ^ Maged, Amani (3 November 2011). "Salafis vs Sufis". Al-Ahram Weekly Online. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  14. ^ el-Beheri, Ahmed (9 May 2010). "Azhar sheikh warns West against double standards". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  15. ^ Islamopedia: "Ali Goma" Archived 8 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 20 January 2015
  16. ^ a b Jay Tolson (2 April 2008). "Finding the Voices of Moderate Islam". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  17. ^ al-Hashemi, Bushra Alkaff; Rym Ghaza (February 2012). "Grand Mufti calls for dialogue about the internet". The National. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  18. ^ a b c "The Rebellion Within". The New Yorker. 2 June 2008.
  19. ^ al-Kalim al-Tayyib vol. 2, p. 417
  20. ^ Grewal, Zareena (2010). Islam Is a Foreign Country: American Muslims and the Global Crisis of Authority. New York University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1479800902.
  21. ^ Islamica Magazine, Issue # 12, Spring 2005
  22. ^ Marranci, Gabriele (2013). Studying Islam in Practice. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 978-1317914242.
  23. ^ Egypt Independent: "Opposing currents: Internal rifts may risk the credibility of Egypt’s religious institutions" by Mai Shams El-Din 25 February 2013
  24. ^ Carnegie Endowment: "Salafis and Sufis in Egypt" by Jonathan Brown December 2011 | p 12 | "...the current Grand Mufti of Egypt and senior al-Azhar scholar Ali Gomaa is also a highly respected Sufi master.
  25. ^ Ali Gomaa website: Fatwa on Sufism retrieved 29 June 2013
  26. ^ al-Ahram 1 October 2005
  27. ^ Islamica Magazine, Issue #12, Spring 2005
  28. ^ " – Egypt news, Cairo tourism, Global headlines, Arabic press". Archived from the original on 12 April 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
  29. ^ Reem Leila. "Al-Ahram Weekly – Egypt – Newsreel". Archived from the original on 15 April 2008.
  30. ^ a b Jay Tolson (6 March 2008). "Egypt's Grand Mufti Counters the Tide of Islamic Extremism". US News & World Report.
  31. ^ Abdel-Baky, Mohamed (13 February 2013). "Moderate mufti". Al-Ahram. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  32. ^ (fatwa number 4189)
  33. ^ Mufti not against women presidents after all? at The Arabist Archived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Broadsheet: Women's Articles, Women's Stories, Women's Blog –". Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  35. ^ "Laying down religious law: Islam's authority deficit". The Economist.
  36. ^ Dorsey, James (21 June 2019). "Al-Azhar Struggles to Balance Politics and Tradition". LobeLog. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  37. ^ Nahdah Masr, 3 February 2007
  38. ^ " – The Official Site". Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  39. ^ "When Muslims become Christians".
  40. ^ "Top cleric denies 'freedom to choose religion' comment". Gulf News. 25 July 2007.
  41. ^ "False Accusations Regarding the Grand Mufti and Sayyid al-Qimni". 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  42. ^ al-Ahram, 1 January 2007
  43. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, July/August 2005
  44. ^ Down For Maintenance Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ "Terrorism has no religion". Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  46. ^ Heneghan, Tom (25 September 2014). "Muslim scholars present religious rebuttal to Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  47. ^ "Former Egyptian Mufti Ali Gomaa: ISIS Did Not Immolate the Jordanian Pilot – It Was Photoshopped". 5 February 2015.
  48. ^ The Christian Science Monitor. "Egypt's grand mufti issues fatwa: no sculpture". The Christian Science Monitor.
  49. ^ "مفتي مصر". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 August 2014 – via YouTube.
  50. ^ a b "مفتى الجمهورية مصر محسودة وعلى ناصية". Al Jazeera. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2014 – via YouTube.
  51. ^ "فتوى د.علي جمعة بخصوص تظاهرات يوم الجمعة". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 August 2014 – via YouTube.
  52. ^ "For Islamists in Egypt, Morsi Victory Is a Symbolic Win". The New York Times. 24 June 2012.
  53. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood's Morsi urges 'unity' in first speech as Egypt's president-elect". CNN News. 24 June 2012.
  54. ^ "Egypt's new president: U.S.-educated Islamist". CNN News. 24 June 2012.
  55. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood's Mursi declared Egypt president". BBC News. 24 June 2012.
  56. ^ "Mohammed Morsi, New Egyptian President, Says He Wants Unity, Peace". 24 June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013.
  57. ^ AlMasry AlYoum (19 July 2012). ""الإفتاء": الجمعة أول أيام رمضان". Retrieved 18 August 2014 – via YouTube.
  58. ^ a b c d Gomaa, Ali (1 April 2011). "In Egypt's Democracy, Room for Islam". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  59. ^ "#Momken – ممكن – 23-8-2013 – الحوار الكامل للشيخ علي جمعه مع خيري رمضان". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  60. ^ "Sheikh Ali Gomaa, former mufti of Egypt, cancels London visit for fear of prosecution". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  61. ^ Warren, David H. (August 2017). "Cleansing the Nation of the 'dogs of Hell': ʿali Jumʿa's Nationalist Legal Reasoning in Support of the 2013 Egyptian Coup and its Bloody Aftermath" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 49 (3): 457–477. doi:10.1017/S0020743817000332. ISSN 0020-7438.
  62. ^ Profile on The Muslim 500
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed el-Tayeb
Grand Mufti of Egypt
Succeeded by
Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam