Ali Hassan Mwinyi

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Ali Hassan Mwinyi
Ali Hassan Mwinyi 2.jpg
2nd President of Tanzania
In office
5 November 1985 – 23 November 1995
Prime Minister Joseph Warioba (1985–90)
John Malecela (1990–94)
Cleopa Msuya (1994–95)
Vice President Joseph Warioba
John Malecela
Cleopa Msuya
Preceded by Julius Nyerere
Succeeded by Benjamin Mkapa
3rd President of Zanzibar
In office
30 January 1984 – 24 October 1985
Preceded by Aboud Jumbe
Succeeded by Idris Abdul Wakil
Personal details
Born (1925-05-08) 8 May 1925 (age 92)
Kivure, Pwani Region, British Tanganyika
Nationality Tanzanian
Political party CCM
Spouse(s) Siti Mwinyi (m. 1960)
Relations Hussein Mwinyi (son)
Children 12
Nickname(s) Mzee Ruksa

Ali Hassan Mwinyi (born 8 May 1925[1] in Kivure, Pwani Region, Tanzania) is a retired politician who served as the second President of the United Republic of Tanzania from 1985 to 1995.[2][2]

Previous posts include Interior Minister and Vice President.[2] He also was chairman of the ruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) from 1990 to 1996.[2]


During Mwinyi's terms Tanzania took the first steps to reverse the socialist policies of Julius Nyerere. [3] He relaxed import restrictions and encouraged private enterprise. It was during his second term that multi-party politics were introduced under pressure from foreign donors. Often referred to as Mzee Rukhsa ("Everything goes"), he pushed for liberalization of morals, beliefs, values (without breaking the law) and the economy.[4] Many argue that during Mwinyi's tenure the country was in transition from the failed socialist orientation of Julius Nyerere that brought its economy to its knees. It was during Mwinyi's administration that Tanzania made some of the crucial decisions towards the liberalization of its economy that paved the way for short-term economic growth.[5]

Personal life[edit]

Mwinyi married Siti Mwinyi in 1960, with whom he has six sons and six daughters. In retirement, Mwinyi has stayed out of the limelight and continues to live in Dar es Salaam.[2]

Honours and awards[edit]


Order Country Year
Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere (Tanzania) - ribbon bar.png Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere  Tanzania 2011

Honorary degrees[edit]

University Country Degree Year
The Open University of Tanzania  Tanzania Doctor of Letters 2012[6]
The East African University  Kenya Doctor of Philosophy in Business Management 2013[7]




  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e Europa Publications (2003). The International Who's Who 2004. Routledge. p. 1193. ISBN 1-85743-217-7. 
  3. ^ Brennan, James R.; Burton, Andrew (2007). Dar es Salaam: histories from an emerging African metropolis. African Books Collective. p. 252. ISBN 9987-449-70-0. 
  4. ^ Cowen, Michael; Laakso, Liisa (2002). Multi-party elections in Africa. James Currey. p. 295. ISBN 0-85255-843-0. 
  5. ^ Pike, John. "Tanzania - Ali Hassan Mwinyi". Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  6. ^ "Why OUT awarded Mzee Ruksa a honorary degree". IPP Media. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  7. ^ "Former President Mwinyi conferred with PhD". 2 June 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.