Ali Hassan Mwinyi
|Ali Hassan Mwinyi|
Former Second President of The United Republic of Tanzania Dr. Ali Hassan Mwinyi.
|2nd President of Tanzania|
5th November 1985 – 23rd November 1995
|Prime Minister||Joseph Warioba (1985–91) |
John Malecela (1991–93)
Cleopa Msuya (1993–95)
|Vice President||Joseph Warioba|
|Preceded by||Julius Kambarage Nyerere|
|Succeeded by||Benjamin William Mkapa|
|3rd President of Zanzibar|
30 January 1984 – 24 October 1985
|Preceded by||Aboud Jumbe|
|Succeeded by||Idris Abdul Wakil|
|Born||8 May 1925|
Kivure, Pwani Region, British Tanganyika (now Tanzania)
|Spouse(s)||Mrs. Siti Mwinyi (m. 1960)|
|Relations||Hussein Mwinyi (son)|
Ali Hassan Mwinyi (born 8 May 1925 in Kivure, Pwani Region, Tanzania) is a retired politician who served as the second President of the United Republic of Tanzania from 1985 to 1995. During Mwinyi's terms Tanzania took the first steps to reverse the socialist policies of Julius Nyerere. He relaxed import restrictions and encouraged private enterprise. It was during his second term that multi-party politics were introduced under pressure from foreign donors. Often referred to as Mzee Rukhsa ("Everything goes"), he pushed for liberalization of morals, beliefs, values (without breaking the law) and the economy. Many argue that during Mwinyi's tenure the country was in transition from the failed socialist orientation of Julius Nyerere that brought its economy to its knees. It was during Mwinyi's administration that Tanzania made some of the crucial decisions towards the liberalization of its economy that paved the way for short-term economic growth.
President Julius Nyerere retired in October of 1985 and handpicked Zanzibar-born Ali Hassan Mwinyi to be his successor.Nyerere remained chairman of the ruling party Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), until 1990, which would later cause tensions between the government and the party regarding economic reform ideology.When the transition of power took place, Tanzania's economy was in the midst of a slump. From 1974 to 1984, the GDP was growing at an average of 2.6 percent per year while the population was increasing at a faster rate of 3.4% each year.Furthermore, the currency was overpriced, basic goods were scarce, and the country had over three billion dollars of foreign debt. Agricultural production was low, and the general opinion was that Nyerere's Ujamaa socialist policies had failed economically.
Such policies included the nationalization of major production, the forced re-villagization of the rural population into communal farms, and the banning of any opposition parties. Nyerere's supporters were opposed to involving the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank in domestic economic reforms, believing it would cause instability and conflict with their socialist values. Conversely, Ali Hassan Mwinyi's followers called for economic and political reform to liberalize the market and review traditional socialist ideologies.He surrounded himself with reformists, even replacing three cabinet members and other ministers who were opposed to change.The Prime Minister at the time, Joseph Warioba, along with the finance minister Clement Msuya were also quite supportive of new policies.During his first address to Tanzania's Parliament in 1986, he promised to resume negotiations with the IMF and World Bank, assuming that any resulting agreement would be beneficial to the citizens of Tanzania.
In 1986, Mwinyi made an agreement with the IMF to receive a $78 million standby loan, which was Tanzania's first foreign loan in over six years. Bilateral donors approved this austerity plan, and agreed to reschedule Tanzania's debt payments. Mwinyi claimed that his negotiations with the IMF were on behalf of the people: for example, he agreed to the Fund's request that he decrease the amount of public institutions, but only when doing so was necessary and could be done gradually. Furthermore, he declined their recommendation to freeze pay raises within the government and to cut free public services.
The following year, Mwinyi negotiated Tanzania's first structural adjustment facility (SAF) with the IMF, followed by subsequent agreements in 1988 and again in 1990. In addition to these developments, the World Bank provided structural adjustment credits for reforms in the agricultural, industrial, and financial sectors. in 1989, President Mwinyi began the second phases of his reform program with the intention of reforming social sectors, specifically by increasing government spending on education and healthcare.
In 1991, the first stages of the transition towards multipartyism began when Mwinyi appointed Chief Justice Francis Nyalali to lead a commission to gage the amount of popular support for the current single-party system. This commission submitted their report to the President in 1992, recommending that the government transition into a multi-party system. They made this recommendation despite the fact that only twenty-one percent out of the 36,299 Tanzanians who were interviewed favored this change. However, fifty-five percent of the seventy-seven percent who supported the current system were in favor of some sort of reform. So, Mwinyi supported their recommendation and the CCM Extraordinary National Party Conference ratified these changes through constitutional amendments in February of 1992.
Honours and awards
|Order of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere||Tanzania||2011|
|The Open University of Tanzania||Tanzania||Doctor of Letters||2012|
|The East African University||Kenya||Doctor of Philosophy in Business Management||2013|
- Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road, one of the major roads in Dar es Salaam
- Ali Hassan Mwinyi Stadium, Tabora
- Profile of Ali Hassan Mwinyi
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- "Why OUT awarded Mzee Ruksa a honorary degree". IPP Media. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Former President Mwinyi conferred with PhD". in2eastafrica.net. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.