Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland)
Alice in one of John Tenniel's illustrations for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
|First appearance||Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865)|
|Last appearance||Through the Looking-Glass (1871)|
|Created by||Lewis Carroll|
Alice is a fictional character and protagonist of Lewis Carroll's children's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871). A mid-Victorian era child, Alice unintentionally goes on an underground adventure after accidentally falling down a rabbit hole into Wonderland; in the sequel, she steps through a mirror into the Looking-Glass Land.
Alice's character has her origins in stories told by Carroll to entertain the Liddell sisters while rowing on the Isis with his friend Robinson Duckworth, and on subsequent rowing trips. Although she shares her name with Alice Liddell's given name, scholars disagree about whether or not she can be identified as being strictly based upon Liddell. Carroll characterised her as "loving and gentle", "courteous to all", "trustful", and "wildly curious". His illustrations of her in Alice's Adventures Under Ground, the first version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland are influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite artists.
Alice is a fictional child living during the middle of the Victorian era. In Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), which takes place on 4 May,[nb 1] the character is widely assumed to be seven years old; Alice gives her age as seven and a half in the sequel, which takes place on 4 November. In the text of the two Alice books, author Lewis Carroll often did not remark on the physical appearance of his protagonist, offering only "very few details". Details of her fictional life can be discovered from the text of the two books. At home, she has a significantly older sister, a pet cat named Dinah, an elderly nurse, and a governess, who teaches her lessons starting at nine in the morning. Additionally, she had gone to a day school at some point in the past. Alice has been variously characterised as belonging to the upper class, middle class, or part of the bourgeoisie. Her social class is reflected in her "educated speech, dress, and surroundings".
When writing on her personality in "Alice on the Stage" (April 1887), Carroll described her as "loving and gentle", "courteous to all", "trustful", and "wildly curious, and with the eager enjoyment of Life that comes only in the happy hours of childhood, when all is new and fair, and when Sin and Sorrow are but names — empty words signifying nothing!" Commentators characterise her as "innocent", "imaginative", introspective, generally well-mannered, "outspoken and forthright in challenging authority", and "witty and intelligent". Others see less positive traits in Alice, writing that she frequently shows "casual cruelty" in her conversations with the animals in Wonderland, takes violent action against the character Bill the Lizard by kicking him into the air, and reflects her social upbringing in her lack of sensitivity and impolite replies. According to Donald Rackin, "In spite of her class- and time-bound prejudices, her frightened fretting and childish, abject tears, her priggishness and self-assured ignorance, her sometimes blatant hypocrisy, her general powerlessness and confusion, and her rather cowardly readiness to abandon her struggles at the ends of the two adventures—[....] many readers still look up to Alice as a mythic embodiment of control, perseverance, bravery, and mature good sense."
The degree to which the character of Alice can be identified as Alice Liddell is controversial. Some critics identify the character as Liddell, or write that she inspired the character. Others argue that Carroll considered his protagonist and Liddell to be separate. According to Carroll, his character was not based on any real child, but was entirely fictional.
Alice debuted in Carroll's first draft of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Alice's Adventures Under Ground. Under Ground originated from stories told to the Liddell sisters during an afternoon[nb 2] on 4 July 1862 while rowing on the Isis with his friend Robinson Duckworth, and on subsequent rowing trips. At the request of ten-year-old Alice Liddell, Carroll wrote down the stories as Alice's Adventures Under Ground, which he completed in February 1864. Under Ground contains thirty-seven illustrations, twenty-seven of which Alice is depicted in. As his drawings of Alice bear little physical resemblance to Alice Liddell, whose given name she shares, it has been suggested that Alice's younger sister, Edith, might have been his model. He portrays his protagonist as wearing a tunic, in contrast to the "fitted children's dresses with soft trim" that the Liddell sisters might have worn. His illustrations drew influence from the Pre-Raphaelite painters Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Arthur Hughes, whose painting Girl with the Liliacs (1863) he possessed and visually alluded to in one drawing in Under Ground. He gave the hand-written Alice's Adventures Under Ground to Alice Liddell in November 1864.
John Tenniel (1820-1914) illustrated Alice Adventures in Wonderland (1865) for a fee of £138, which was roughly a fourth of what Carroll earned each year and which he paid for himself. Tenniel was an already successful, well-known lead illustrator for the satirical magazine Punch, when Carroll employed him as an illustrator in April 1864. In contrast, "Carroll was a total unknown". Tenniel likely based the majority of his illustrations off those in Under Ground. Carroll carefully oversaw his work; among his suggestions was that Alice should have long, light-colored hair. Alice's clothes are typical of what a girl belonging to the middle class in the mid-Victorian era might have worn at home. Her pinafore, a detail created by Tenniel and now associated with the character, "suggests a certain readiness for action and lack of ceremony". Tenniel's depiction of Alice has its origins in a physically similar character which appeared in at least eight cartoons in Punch, during a four-year period that began in 1860. In an 1860 cartoon, this character wore "the full skirt, pale stockings, flat shoes, and a hairband over her loose hair". The character served as "one of Tenniel's prototypical representations of a nice middle-class girl"; she has been described as similar to Alice: "a pacifist and noninterventionist, patient and polite, slow to return the aggression of others".
Tenniel's fee for illustrating the sequel Through the Looking-Glass (1871) rose to £290, which Carroll again paid for out of his own pocket. Tenniel changed Alice's clothing slightly in the sequel, where she wears horizontal-striped stockings instead of plain ones and has a more ornate pinafore with a bow. The headband that she wears in Tenniel's illustrations is called an "Alice band", after the character. Originally, Alice wore a "crinoline-supported chessmanlike skirt" similar to that of the Red and White Queens, as a queen; the design was rejected by Carroll. Her clothing as a queen and in the railway carriage is a " 'polonaise' dress" with a bustle, which would have been fashionable at the time. The clothing worn by the characters in "My First Sermon" (1863) by pre-Raphaelite painter John Millais and "The Travelling Companions" (1862) by Victorian painter Augustus Leopold Egg have some elements in common with Alice's clothing in the railway carriage. Carroll felt that some of Tenniel's illustrations of Alice lacked proper proportions, with her "head decidedly too large and feet decidedly too small", as a result of Tenniel's refusal "to use a model". The evidence is lacking for the hypothesis that either Mary Hilton Badcock or Kate Lemon served as the visual model for Tenniel's Alice.
In February 1881, Carroll contacted his publisher about the possibility of creating The Nursery "Alice", a simplified edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with coloured and enlarged illustrations. Tenniel coloured the twenty chosen illustrations from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, in addition to revising some aspects of them; Alice's dress became pleated with a bow at the back of it, and she now wore a bow in her hair. Edmund Evans printed the illustrations in colour through chromoxylography, which "used a number of woodblocks for each image, with colours mixed to produce a variety of hues and tones". Alice is blonde and her dress is yellow, with blue stockings; The Nursery "Alice" marked the first time that Tenniel's illustrations had been colored.
Set in summer, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland opens with Alice on the riverbank with her elder sister. She falls down a rabbit hole into Wonderland after following the White Rabbit. Meeting many characters and changing her size several times, she eventually finds herself at the trial of the Knave of Hearts as a witness. Ordered to leave by the King and Queen of Hearts, Alice argues with them, eventually claiming that they are just a pack of cards. As they swarm her, Alice awakens on the riverbank and realizes that it was just a dream.
Set during autumn, Through the Looking-Glass begins with Alice indoors as she plays with the kittens of her pet cat, Dinah. Through a mirror, she travels to Looking-Glass Land, an alternate world where chess pieces are alive. Encountering various characters, she eventually becomes a queen, and attends a party celebrating her coronation, although it quickly grows chaotic. Grabbing and shaking the Red Queen, Alice awakens back indoors, holding one of the kittens. The novel concludes with Alice's speculation on whether or not it was her dream or the Red King's.
The two Alice books are among "the most-often illustrated books in the history of children's publishing". The expiration of the copyright of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland[nb 3] in 1907 resulted in eight new printings, including one illustrated in an Art Nouveau style by Arthur Rackham. The illustrators for the other editions published in 1907 include Charles Robinson, Alice Ross, W.H.Walker, Thomas Maybank, and Millicent Sowerby. Among the other notable illustrators are Blanche McManus (1896); Peter Newell (1901), who used monochrome; Mabel Lucie Atwell (1910); Harry Furniss (1926); and Willy Pogany (1929), who featured an Art Deco style.
Notable illustrators from the 1930s onwards include Edgar Thurstan (1931), and his visual allusions to the Wall Street Crash of 1929; D.R. Sexton (1933) and J. Morton Sale (1933), both of whom featured an older Alice; Mervyn Peake (1954); Ralph Steadman (1967), for which he received the Francis Williams Memorial award in 1972; Salvador Dali (1969), who used Surrealism; and Peter Blake with his watercolors (1970). By 1972, there were ninety illustrators of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and twenty-one of Through the Looking-Glass. Among the notable illustrators of Alice in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s are Barry Moser (1982); Greg Hildebrandt (1990); David Frankland (1996); Lisbeth Zwerger (1999), who used watercolors in her adaptation; Helen Oxenbury (1999), who won two awards, the Kurt Maschler Award in 1999 and the Kate Greenaway Medal in 2000, for her work; and DeLoss McGraw (2001), who used an "abstract style".
The first public stage adaptation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Alice in Wonderland, debuted at the Royal Polytechnic Institute in London, England, on 17 April 1876, and continued until 19 August. The musical Alice in Wonderland, a Dream Play for Children, in two acts, an adaptation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, appeared on 23 December 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London, and continued until 18 March 1887, to good reviews; it starred Phoebe Carlo as Alice. The musical was later revived and performed at the Globe Theatre from 26 December 1888 to 9 February 1889, with Carroll's friend, Isa Bowman, as Alice. The musical was frequently revived during the "Christmas season", being produced eighteen times from 1898 to 1930. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has since been adaptated for various forms of the stage, including "ballets, operas, experimental theatre, Broadway musicals, puppet plays, mime acts, and rock musicals".
Film and television
Directed and produced by Cecil Hepworth, the first film adaptation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland debuted in Great Britain in 1903 as a silent film and in January 1904 in the United States. It starred May Clark as Alice. Two more silent film adaptations of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland were produced: one in 1910 starring Gladys Hulette, and another in 1915 with Viola Savory as Alice. Ruth Gilbert starred as Alice in the first Alice film with sound (1931), followed by Charlotte Henry (1933), and Carol Marsh (1948), and Kathryn Beaumont voiced her in the Walt Disney's film (1951). Alice has also been portrayed by Fiona Fullerton (1972), Amelia Shankley and Coral Browne (1985), Kristyna Kohoutova (1988), and Mia Wasikowska, who notably played Alice as a teenager as opposed to a child (2010). Actors who portrayed or voiced Alice in television-film adaptations include Janet Waldo (1966), Anne-Marie Malik (1966), Natalie Gregory (1985), and Tina Majorino (1999).
The two Alice books have produced "a vast and profitable 'Alice industry'" which "has continued to produce countless spinoffs and sequels, comic books and manga, cartoons and anime, stage and film productions, board and video games as well as a vast array of collectibles". Examples in video games include American McGee's Alice (2000) and its sequel Alice: Madness Returns (2011), the first installment of the Kingdom Hearts series, and the visual novel Alice in the Country of Hearts (2003). Among the examples in manga (Japanese comics) and anime (Japanese animated cartoons) are Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, Key Princess Story: Eternal Alice Rondo, Alice in Murderland, Serial Experiments Lain, Are you Alice?, I Am Alice: Body Swap in Wonderland, and Pandora Hearts. Examples in literature include the young adult The Looking Glass Wars series; Alan Moore and Melinda Gebbie's pornographic graphic novel Lost Girls (1991); Automated Alice (1996) by Jeff Noon; and Alice Through the Needle's Eye (1984) by Gilbert Adair. Willow Shields dressed up as Alice for season 20 of the Dancing With the Stars presentation Disney night.
Alice has been described as a cultural icon. The Alice books have continued to remain in print, and the first book is available in a hundred languages. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has continued to maintain its popularity, placing on surveys of the top children's books. Alice placed on a 2015 British survey of the top twenty favorite characters in children's literature.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass were critically and commercially successful in Carroll's lifetime; more than 150,000 copies of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and 100,000 copies of Through the Looking-Glass had been printed by 1898. Victorian readers enjoyed the Alice books as light-hearted entertainment that omitted the stiff morals which other books for children frequently included. Alice's character has been highlighted by later literary critics as unusual or a departure from the typical mid-nineteenth-century child protagonists. The Alice books inspired "almost two hundred literary imitations, revisions, and parodies" for a half century after 1865, which featured one or more protagonists with characteristics similar to Alice's ("typically polite, articulate, and assertive"), regardless of gender. Notable examples include Mopsa the Fairy (1869) by Jean Ingelow, Speaking Likeness (1874) by Christina Rossetti, Davy and the Goblin (1885) by Charles E. Carryl, Wanted—A King; or How Merle Set the Nursery Rhymes to Right (1890) by Maggie Brown, The Westminster Alice (1900–02) by Saki, and Clara in Blunderland (1902) by Caroline Lewis. Considered "international classics" at the conclusion of the Victorian era, the Alice books were considered to be primarily for children.
By the 1920s and 1930s, the Alice books were thought to deal with heavy topics and adult concerns, and became the subject of serious literary criticism. Fewer parodies and inspired works appeared after the early 1930s. In the 1930s and 1940s, the books became a popular object of analysis with psychoanalytic literary critics. Freudians believed that the events in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland reflected the personality and desires of the author, because the stories which it was based on had been told "impromptu". In 1933, Anthony Goldschmidt introduced "the modern idea of Carroll as a repressed sexual deviant", theorizing that Alice served as Carroll's representation in the novel; Goldschmidt's influential work, however, may have been possibly meant as a hoax. Regardless, Freudian analysis found in the books symbols of "classic Freudian tropes": "a vaginal rabbit hole and a phallic Alice, an amniotic pool of tears, hysterical mother figures and impotent father figures, threats of decapitation [castration], swift identity changes".
In the 1960s, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was interpreted by the counterculture movement as a drug-drenched narrative, notably in the hit song "White Rabbit" by Jefferson Airplane. The song "offers a [...] chronicle of acid and magic mushroom use, locating the user in Carroll's mythic Wonderland, where one is directed by the dormouse to 'feed your head'".
The Pulitzer Prize winning contemporary American composer David Del Tredici has repeatedly turned to the Alice stories for inspiration. From early works such as Pop-Pourri and Adventures Underground to the theatrical opera-cantata Final Alice and the neo-romantic Child Alice, he has used Carroll's texts both for musical stimulus and source material for librettos. He credits Martin Gardner's book The Annotated Alice as introducing him to the world of Carrollian writings and poetry.
Alice's continuing appeal has been discussed by critics. In Men in Wonderland, Catherine Robson writes that, "In all her different and associated forms—underground and through the looking glass, textual and visual, drawn and photographed, as Carroll's brunette or Tenniel's blonde or Disney's prim miss, as the real Alice Liddell [...] in novel, poem, satire, play, film, cartoon, newspaper, magazine, album cover or song—Alice is the ultimate cultural icon, available for any and every form of manipulation, and as ubiquitous today as in the era of her first appearance." Robert Douglass-Fairhurst argues that Alice has taken on status of "something more like a modern myth", suggesting that "[s]he represented abstract hopes and fears that could only be made comprehensible only by the addition of a human face; she was an empty vessel to which new meanings could be added without any danger of her ever being filled up."
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