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The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali). Shia Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph.
Lines of descent
Primarily Sunnis in the Arab world reserve the term sharif or "sherif" for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali and his daughter Fatima. However ever since the post-Hashemite era began, the term sayyid has been used to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. Arab Shiites use the terms sayyid and habib to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn; see also ashraf.
To try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs during the 19th Century C.E. attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope (some lines might have been excluded due to lack of proof, although no false lines are included) the resulting "Kitab al-Ashraf" (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.
There are several dynasties of Alid origin:
- Ali ibn Abi Talib
- Hasan ibn Ali
- Zayd ibn Hasan
- Hasan ibn Hasan al-Mu'thannā
- Abd Allah al-Kāmil
- Daud ibn Hasan
- Ibrahim ibn Hasan
- Abdallah ibn Hassan
- Djafar ibn Abdallah of the Sharifs of Sousse, Tunisia
- Muhammad ibn Abdallah of the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco
- Idris ibn Abdallah of the Idrisid dynasty of Morocco
- Sulayman ibn Abdallah of the Sulaymanid dynasty of, Tlemcen, Archgoul, Tenes (West-Algeria)
- Musa ibn Abdallah
- Husayn ibn Ali of the Shia Imams
- Ismaili Imams
- The Safavid dynasty claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali, sharing the first five original rulers with the Fatimids. Many scholars have cast doubt on this claim, and there seems to be consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan.
- Al Qasimi (Qawasim) dynasty of Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah, claims descent from the 10th Imam, Ali al-Hadi.
- Hasan ibn Ali
Dynasties with clear lines of descent
- The Alid Dynasty of the Isaaq clan or Banu Isaaq clan of Somalia, who are descended from Ali through their ancestor Isaaq ibn Ahmad al Hashimi. Today, the Isaaq clan form the majority of the state of Somaliland.
- The Alid Dynasty of the Muse clan or Banu Muse clan of Somalia, who are descended from Ali through there ancestor Muse ibn Mohammed al Hashimi. Today, the Muse clan formed the minority of the state of Somaliland.
This is a table of the interrelationships between the different parts of the Alid dynasties:
Below is a simplified family tree of Husayn ibn Ali. For the ancestors of ibn Ali see the family tree of Muhammad and the family tree of Ali. People in italics are considered by the majority of Shia and Sunni Muslims to be Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House). Twelver Shia also see the 4th to 12th Imamah as Ahl al-Bayt.
Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali
|Muhammad||Khadijah bint Khuwaylid|
1st Shia Imam
4th Rashidun Caliph
|Muhsin ibn Ali||Hasan ibn Ali |
2nd Twelver/Zaidi and 1st Musta'li Imam
|Husayn ibn Ali|
3rd Twelver/Zaidi and 2nd Musta'li/Nizari Imam
|Umm Kulthum bint Ali||Zaynab bint Ali|
|Shahrbanu||Rubab bint Imra al-Qais||Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi||Umm Ishaq bint Talhah|
|Fatima Sughra||Sakinah bint Husayn||Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn||Sukayna bint Husayn||Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn||Fatimah bint Husayn|
|Mother of ‘Umar||Ali ibn Husayn|
4th Twelver/Zaidi and 3rd Musta'li/Nizari Imam
|Fatimah bint al-Hasan||Jayda al-Sindhi||Umar ibn Husayn|
|‘Umar al-Ashraf||Muhammad al-Baqir|
5th Twelver and 4th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
|Farwah bint al-Qasim |
|Zayd ibn Ali|
5th Zaidi Imam
|Abu Bakr ibn Husayn|
|‘Alī||Hamidah Khatun||Ja'far al-Sadiq|
6th Twelver and 5th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
|Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram bin al-Hasan bin Ali||Zaynab bint Husayn|
7th Twelver Imam
|Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq||Isma'il ibn Jafar|
6th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
|Unknown||Umm Kulthum bint Husayn|
|‘Alī||Ummul Banīn Najmah|
|al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr||Ali ar-Ridha|
8th Twelver Imam
|Sabīkah a.k.a. Khayzurān||Muhammad ibn Ismail|
7th Sevener/Musta'li/Nizari Imam
9th Twelver Imam
8th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
10th Twelver Imam
|Hâdise (Hadīthah) / Suzan (Sūsan) / Sevil (Savīl)||Other issue||Muhammad at-Taqi|
9th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
11th Twelver Imam
10th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
12th Twelver Imam
Family tree of Hasan ibn Ali
Genealogoical chart of the descent from Muhammad of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, and the Senussi dynasty, founders and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil.
- Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib
- Family tree of Ali
- Family tree of Muhammad
- Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali
- Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters
- Kaysanites Shia
- Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères, 2003, Berti, Alger.
- Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran, Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London : Harvard University Press, 2002. p. 143: "It is true that during their revolutionary phase (1447-1501), Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet. The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order, Shaykh Safi al-Din Safvat al-Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350-was tampered with during this very phase. An initial stage of revisions saw the transformation of Safavi identity as Sunni Kurds into Arab blood descendants of Muhammad."
- R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids."
- RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed.
- Daftary, Farhad. "ʿAlids." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Brill Online, 2014.
- Al-Yasin, Shaykh Radi. "1". Sulh al-Hasan. Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 4.
- Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792
- The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
- Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London.
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.
- Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York.
- The Hashemites, 1827-present
- "Morocco (Alaoui Dynasty)". Usa-morocco.org. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1980). Burke's Royal Families of the World: Africa & the Middle East. Burke's Peerage.