Aligarh

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Aligarh
Skyline of Aligarh
Aligarh is located in Uttar Pradesh
Aligarh
Aligarh
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Aligarh is located in India
Aligarh
Aligarh
Aligarh (India)
Aligarh is located in Asia
Aligarh
Aligarh
Aligarh (Asia)
Coordinates: 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08Coordinates: 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DivisionAligarh
DistrictAligarh
Founded byKoil-Dor Rajputs
Government
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodyAligarh Nagar Nigam
 • MayorMohammad Furqan, (Bahujan Samaj Party)
Elevation
178 m (584 ft)
Population
 (2017)[1]
 • Total1,240,896
 • Rank55
Language
 • OfficialHindi[2]
 • Additional officialUrdu[2]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
202001,202002
Telephone code0571
Vehicle registrationUP-81
Websitealigarh.nic.in

Aligarh ( (About this soundlisten); formerly Allygurh and Koil) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for its lock industries. It is the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 307 kilometres (191 mi) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 130 kilometres (81 mi)southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is the 8th largest city in Uttar Pradesh and 55th largest city in India.[3]

History[edit]

Moat at the Aligarh Fort

Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol. The history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure.[4]

Some time before the Muslim conquest, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple. In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Kol.[citation needed]

Kol is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341.[5] According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country".[citation needed]

In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad.[citation needed] Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.[4]

During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of Umar, was the governor of Kol. He built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town Sabitgarh, after himself.

The ruler of Koil was Bargujar King Rao Bahadur Singh who, in 1753, rose against the destruction of Hindu temples. The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. Bahadur Singh continued the battle from another fort and died fighting in what is known as the "Battle of Ghasera". It was re-named Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured Kol, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the control of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.[4]

Battle of Aligarh (1803)[edit]

General Lord Gerard Lake who oversaw the Battle of Ally Ghur

The Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district.[6]

Administration[edit]

Aligarh district is divided into five tehsils, namely Kol Tehsil, Khair Tehsil, Atrauli, Gabhana and Iglas. These tehsils are further divided into 12 blocks.

The city is administered by Nagar Nigam Aligarh (Municipal Corporation), which is responsible for performing civic administrative functions administered by Mayor and Municipal Commissioner (PCS Officer). Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Aligarh Development Authority (ADA) administered by Divisional Commissioner (Chairman) and Vice-Chairman (PCS Officer).

Aligarh is the headquarters of Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division. A DIG looks after Aligarh for legal condition and law; a Commissioner looks for four district of Aligarh Division (Aligarh, Etah, Hathras, Kasganj).

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08.[7] It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G.T. Road passes through it via NH-91 is 134 km from capital of India.

Climate[edit]

Aligarh has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, typical of north-central India. Summers start in April and are hot with temperatures peaking in May. The average temperature range is 28–38 °C (82–100 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, continuing till early October, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of 800 millimetres (31 in) during these months. Temperatures then decrease, and winter sets in December, and continues till February. Temperatures range between 5–11 °C (41–52 °F). Winters in Aligarh are generally mild, but 2011–12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1 °C. The fog and cold snaps are extreme.

Climate data for Aligarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
33.3
(91.9)
41.7
(107.1)
44.8
(112.6)
47.5
(117.5)
46.7
(116.1)
44.5
(112.1)
42.1
(107.8)
40.2
(104.4)
41.7
(107.1)
36.1
(97.0)
32.8
(91.0)
47.5
(117.5)
Average high °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
23.6
(74.5)
30.0
(86.0)
36.8
(98.2)
40.1
(104.2)
39.3
(102.7)
34.6
(94.3)
33.2
(91.8)
33.8
(92.8)
33.0
(91.4)
28.3
(82.9)
22.5
(72.5)
31.3
(88.3)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
9.5
(49.1)
14.1
(57.4)
20.1
(68.2)
24.5
(76.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.4
(77.7)
23.8
(74.8)
18.8
(65.8)
12.9
(55.2)
8.5
(47.3)
18.1
(64.6)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
1.7
(35.1)
3.9
(39.0)
10.9
(51.6)
15.5
(59.9)
18.6
(65.5)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
14.8
(58.6)
11.0
(51.8)
2.9
(37.2)
1.2
(34.2)
0.0
(32.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.2
(0.60)
13.9
(0.55)
8.5
(0.33)
8.8
(0.35)
21.0
(0.83)
68.5
(2.70)
217.7
(8.57)
247.4
(9.74)
104.1
(4.10)
31.4
(1.24)
4.2
(0.17)
11.0
(0.43)
751.8
(29.60)
Average rainy days 1.5 1.4 1.0 0.9 2.2 4.1 10.2 11.6 5.2 1.4 0.5 0.8 40.7
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8][9]

Economy[edit]

The city is an agricultural trade centre.[10] Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.[11]

Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.[12]

Aligarh is famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.

Aligarh is a big centre of zinc dye-casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines.[citation needed] But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerized hot chamber machines. Indian Dye-casting Industries at Sasni Gate area is the most renowned[peacock term] manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.

Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power cuts are normal in Aligarh.

Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar mill on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltraTech Cement company. Indian Oil Bottling Plant exits at Andla in Khair. Wave Distillery (Kingfisher beer) is located at Atrauli in Aligarh.

Hicks thermometer has manufacturing in Industrial Estate, Aligarh

Development[edit]

Aligarh is the 55th fastest-growing city in India. Following major development projects are under construction in the city.

  • Govt. Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chherat
  • Super Speciality Trauma Center at AMU
  • Sports University
  • ISKCON Temple at Harduaganj
  • Shooting Range at Chherat
  • Astro Turf Hockey Stadium in AMU
  • NH-93 Kathpula-Jamalpur Crossing 4 Lane work
  • Aligarh-Khair-Palwal 4 Lane highway work is proposed (10 km. bypass at Khair City and 5 km bypass at Jattari)
  • Aligarh-Moradabad 4 Lane highway work is proposed
  • Golf Corse at AMU Aligarh
  • 5 Star Country Inn Hotel near Aligarh Junction(Will be ready in 2017)
  • A bypass railway line for Goods train
  • Defence corridor for making Defence equipments and ordinance factory

Education[edit]

Besides the Aligarh Muslim University and Aligarh College of Engineering and Technology, the city has several colleges and schools.

Locations[edit]

Cultural landmarks[edit]

Church of ascension, Aligarh

Aligarh has several popular landmarks. Most notable few of them are Aligarh fort, Khereshwar Temple which is the birth place of Swami Shri Haridas Ji, Teerthdham Mangalayatan Mandir and Dor fortress (1524), which is now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Fort (Balai Qila) and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque. The area Shah Jamal is very famous for a Sufi saint Syed Shah Jamal also known as Shamsul Arifeen, of whom the tomb is located at Shahjamal area and surrounded by a graveyard. The Sufi Saint is mentioned by Ibn Battuta in his book The Travels of Ibn Battuta. The saint is said to be of Sufi Chishtiya order.

The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February. The land Numaish Ground was donated By Nawab Rehmat Ullah Khan Sherwani. The cultural shows takes place at three grand stages (Kohinoor, Krishnanjali and Muktakash). In all, more than 150 stage events featuring artists from across India take place during a period of 28-30 days.[13]

Historical places[edit]

Aligarh fort, Aligarh
SS Masjid beside Strachey Hall, AMU Aligarh

Aligarh Muslim University[edit]

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is one of the oldest central universities. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875–78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government services in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. It is famous for its Law, Medical and Engineering College. Madrak ka qila

Museums[edit]

Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences maintains 'Museum on History of Medicine and Sciences' and 'Museum on Arts, Culture and Orientalism'. It was established by a family Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman and Syed Ziaur Rahman at the heart of the city and near a busy market of Dodhpur.[14][15]

Transport[edit]

By rail[edit]

Aligarh Junction railway station is the primary station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It is an A-Class railway station. It is one of the oldest railway station of this route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important stations of cities such as New Delhi railway station, Mumbai Central, Kolkata, Bhopal Junction railway station, Indore, Jammu, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur Central railway station, Etawah Junction railway station, Tundla Junction railway station, Phaphund railway station, Agra Cantonment railway station and Varanasi. Aligarh railway station handles over 136 trains daily (in both directions) and serves around 204,000 passengers everyday. Aligarh has one Branch Railway Line to Bareily.

Aligarh City has following railway stations:

  • Aligarh Junction: an A-Class Railway Station
  • Somna (Gabhana) railway station
  • Mahrawal railway station
  • Kalua railway station
  • Daudkhan railway station
  • Mandrak railway station
  • Harduaganj railway station (Satha, near Kasimpur Power House)
  • Manjoorgarhi railway station (Chherat)

By road[edit]

Aligarh is 140 km from New Delhi. It is one of the Division of UPSRTC. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.

Aligarh City has two UPSRTC bus stations:

  • Aligarh Depot bus station
  • Masoodabad (Budh Vihar) Depot bus station
  • ISBT Rasualabad Sarsaul under construction

There are buses plying from Aligarh to Delhi at frequent intervals via

1) Khair, Tappal, Palval, Faridabad, Delhi - The route is under construction between Khair and Palval and should be strictly avoided by cars. No toll charges.

2) Khair, Tappal, Yamuna expressway, Noida, Greater Noida, Delhi, Gurgaon - Best and recommended route for Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon. Toll Charges are ₹120 between Aligarh and Delhi.

3) Old GT Road, Bulandshahr, Ghaziabad, Delhi - NH 91 - It is a 4-lane highway. Toll charges are ₹190.

Following Highways are connected to Aligarh:

Aligarh City has Mahanagar Bus Service (City Bus Service) which provides local transport to Aligarh.

  • Route-1 J N Medical-Uperkot
  • Route-2 Gandhi Park-Sarsaul
  • Route-3 Ghantarbagh-Quarsi
  • Route-4 Gandhi Park-Boner
  • Route-5 Etah Chungi-Collectrate

By air[edit]

The nearest international airport from Aligarh is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. It is 140 km from Aligarh.

Aligarh Airport, in Dhanipur, is under construction on NH 91. Dhanipur Air Strip is used as Flying Club. The Government of Uttar Pradesh signed a MoU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in February 2014 for the development of the airport.The land acquisition for airport will be initiated soon and after its development flight operations will be started under regional connectivity scheme.

Inter-city transport[edit]

The government has proposed to operate city buses in Aligarh with following routes:

  • Aligarh Fort–Law Faculty–Firdaus Nagar–Shamshad–Collectorate–University Circle–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat Road–Quarsi Crossing–Indrapuri/Great Mall–Mahaveer Nagar–DPS Civil Lines–St. Fidelis–Heritage–UPSIDC Harduaganj
  • Bannadevi Crossing–Methodist Church–Exhibition Ground–RMPS Park–Ghantaghar–Centre Point–Melrose-Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing
  • Railway Station–Ghantaghar Circle–Tibiyya College–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat–Quarsi Crossing–Jeevangarh–Dhorra–Jamalpur–Ayesha Tarin School

Notable People[edit]

Educationalists[edit]

Faculty of Arts, Aligarh Muslim University

Writers, poets and publishers[edit]

Historians[edit]

Victoria gate

Film actors[edit]

ZHCET's View at Night

Sports persons[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Medical professionals[edit]

Social activists[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aligarh City Population Census 2011 | Uttar Pradesh". Census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  2. ^ a b "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Top cities of India by population, Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Histor11". Aligarhdirectory.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2004. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  5. ^ The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215
  6. ^ Edwin T. Atkinson (1875). Descriptive and Historical Account of the Aligarh District. p. 348. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Aligarh". Fallingrain.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  8. ^ "Aligarh Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  9. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  10. ^ "India9.com". India9.com. 7 June 2005. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  11. ^ "Britannica". Britannica. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  12. ^ Pawan JainPawan Jain (3 June 2003). "Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  13. ^ "Dainik Jagran". Epaper.jagran.com. 29 January 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  14. ^ "World's 10 weirdest medical museums". Bryan Pirolli for CNN, Travel (24 May 2013). Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Ibn Sina Academy". Eram Agha for CNN-News18, (5 November 2017). Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Aligarh in My Days (Interviews of former Vice-Chancellors of Aligarh Muslim University), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1997.
  • Atkinson, Edward (2010) [1875]. Descriptive And Historical Account of the Aligarh District. Nabu Press. ISBN 1-147-42719-4.