Agora of Alinda
|Location||Near Karpuzlu, Aydın Province, Turkey|
Alinda (Ancient Greek: Ἄλινδα) was an inland city and bishopric in ancient Caria, in Asia Minor (Anatolia). Modern scholars identify Alinda with the Hellenistic foundation of Alexandria ad Latmum (Ἀλεξάνδρεια πρὸς τῷ Λάτμῳ) noted by Stephanus of Byzantium.
Location and remains
The non-restored but very well preserved ruins are much visited, especially within the circuit of organized tours (locally called "safaris") with departure from either the international tourism center of Bodrum or from Milas and reaching Karpuzlu through a mountain road from the south.
Alinda has perhaps been an important city since the second millennium BC and has been associated with Ialanti that appear in Hittite sources (J. Garstang, p. 179). It was a member of the Delian League.
It was this fortress which was held by the exiled Carian Queen Ada. She greeted Alexander the Great here in 334 BC. When Alexander captured Caria, he granted Ada to be the ruler of the whole region.
The city was apparently renamed "Alexandria by the Latmos" (Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια στη Λάτμο) shortly afterwards, and was recorded as thus by Stephanus of Byzantium, although sources disagree as to the exact location of the settlement of that name. The prior name of Alinda was restored by 81 BC at the latest. It appears as "Alinda" in Ptolemy's Geographia (Book V, ch. 2) of the 2nd century AD.
Alinda remained an important commercial city, minting its own coins from the third century BC to the 3rd century AD. Stephanus records that the city had a temple of Apollo containing a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles.
Alinda has a necropolis of Carian tombs and has been partially excavated. Alinda also had a major water system including a Roman aqueduct, a nearly-intact market place, a 5,000-seat Roman amphitheater in relatively good condition, and remains of numerous temples and sarcophagi.
It was nominally restored as a Latin titular see of the Roman Catholic Church but has been vacant since the death of the last bishop in 1976, having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :
- Alexandre-Louis-Victor-Aimé Le Roy, Holy Ghost Fathers (C.S.Sp.) (1892.07.03 – 1921.05.13), as Apostolic Vicar of Gabon (Gabon) (1892.07.03 – 1896.05.24), later Superior General of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Spiritans, Holy Ghost Fathers) (1896.07 – 1926), Titular Archbishop of Caria (see) (1921.05.13 – 1938.04.21)
- Edward Komar (1921.06.16 – 1943.09.29)
- Juan Hervás y Benet (1944.01.13 – 1947.12.22)
- Eris Norman Michael O’Brien (1948.02.05 – 1951.01.11) as Auxiliary Bishop of Sydney (Australia) (1948.02.05 – 1951.01.11); later Titular Archbishop of Cyrrhus (1951.01.11 – 1953.11.16), Coadjutor Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn (Australia) (1951.01.11 – 1953.11.16), succeeding as Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn (1953.11.16 – 1966.11.20), emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Apamea in Syria (1966.11.20 – 1974.02.28)* Gabriel Manek, Divine Word Missionaries (S.V.D.) (1951.03.08 – 1961.01.03) as Apostolic Vicar of Larantuka (Indonesia) (1951.03.08 – 1961.01.03), later Metropolitan Archbishop of Endeh (Indonesia) (1961.01.03 – 1968.12.19), emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Bavagaliana (1968.12.19 – 1976.05.15)
- Charles Alexander Grant (1961.02.06 – 1967.03.14)
- Robert Lebel (1974.03.11 – 1976.03.26)
- Juan Hervás y Benet (1976.09.30 – 1982.06.06)
- Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Ἀλεξάνδρειαι.
- Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
- Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
- Ancient road destroyed to make way for villagers’ olive groves in Aydın
- Athenian Tribute Lists
- Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, §1.23.8
- Cobb Institute of Archaeology. "Museum object: Coin". Mississippi State University. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01.
- Professor Fikret Yegül. "Roman Building Technology and Architecture: Water supply systems: Cisterns, reservoirs, aqueducts". University of California. Archived from the original on 2005-11-20.
- Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408–450) (University of California Press, 2006) p100[permanent dead link].
- Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 (Liverpool University Press, 1 Jan. 2005) p451
- Biographical Index of the Middle Ages / Biographischer Index des Mittelalters / Index Biographique du Moyen-Âge (Walter de Gruyter,2008) p1068.