Alishan Forest Railway

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Alishan Forest Railway
JhushanDL-26.jpg
The back of a train on the Zhushan Line
Overview
LocaleChiayi County, Taiwan
Coordinates23°30′36″N 120°48′15″E / 23.510092°N 120.804239°E / 23.510092; 120.804239Coordinates: 23°30′36″N 120°48′15″E / 23.510092°N 120.804239°E / 23.510092; 120.804239
TerminiChiayi
Chushan
Connecting linesChiayi Station: TRA Western Line
Daily ridership5500[1]
Operation
Opened1912 (1912)
Operator(s)Forestry Bureau
Technical
Line length86 km (53 mi)
Track gauge2 ft 6 in (762 mm)
Highest elevation2,216 m (7,270 ft)
Route map

Chiayi
Beimen
Lumachan
Zhuqi
Lumachan
Jhangnaoliao
Dulishan
Liyuanliao
Jiaoliping
Shueisheliao
Fenqihu
Duolin
Shizilu
Pingzhena
First Reverse
Erwanping
Shenmu
Alishan
Shuishan
Zhaoping
Chushan
Tashan
Shihou
Alishan Forest Railway
Traditional Chinese阿里山森林鐵路

The Alishan Forest Railway (Chinese: 阿里山森林鐵路; pinyin: Ālǐshān Sēnlín Tiělù; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: A-lí-san Sim-lîm Thih-lō͘) is an 86 km network of 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge railways running up to and throughout the popular mountain resort of Alishan in Chiayi County, Taiwan. The railway, originally constructed for logging, has become a tourist attraction with its unique Z-shaped switchbacks, and over 50 tunnels and 77 wooden bridges.[2]

History[edit]

Japanese rule period[edit]

Class B 28t Shay locomotive No.31

The narrow gauge lines were originally constructed by the Japanese Colonial Government in 1912 to facilitate the logging of cypress and Taiwania wood. Passenger carriages were first added to the trains in 1918. The first motive power was a Shay locomotive purchased second hand from the Kiso Forest Railway in Japan. Eventually the railway acquired 20 Shay locomotives.

Eventually, diesel railcars supplemented the steam engines on the passenger services. In the 1980s, 10 Hitachi-built diesel-hydraulic locomotives were delivered and replaced the railcars and remaining steam engines.

Since 1945[edit]

The completion of the Alishan Highway in 1982 led to the loss of many rail passengers to faster and cheaper buses and the rail became primarily a tourist attraction.[2]

Accidents on the line have resulted in a number of fatalities over the years. On 24 April 1981, a collapsed tunnel resulted in nine deaths and 13 injuries. On 1 March 2003, 17 people were killed and 156 injured when a train derailed near Alishan Railway Station.[3] On 27 April 2011, five tourists, including three from mainland China, were killed and 113 people injured in a derailment.[4]

A damaged portion of the Alishan Line visible from Alishan National Scenic Area.

The railway line was severely damaged by landslides due to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot and has been partially closed since. In August 2015, the Chiayi-Fenqihu section was again damaged due to Typhoon Soudelor, but the section opened again on 12 August 2015.[5]

In order to further boost tourism in the region, on the 5th of December, 2018 the Alishan Forest Railway commenced a "sister railway" partnership with Čierny Hron Railway in Slovakia[6], making the Alishan Forest Railway to maintain such relationships with nine other companies across five different countries.[7]

Operation[edit]

The railway was privatized through a build-operate-transfer (BOT) in June 2008[8] and maintained by the Hungtu Alishan International Development Corporation.[9] On 1 May 2013, the management of the railway was taken over by Taiwan Railways Administration. On 1 July 2018, the railway was taken over by the newly established Alishan Forest Railway and Cultural Heritage Office of the Forestry Bureau.[10]

The system is currently operated using diesel locomotives, although there are occasional special public runs using the old steam powered Shay locomotives.[11] Taiwan's government has listed the forest railway as a potential World Heritage Site. However, Taiwan's exclusion from the United Nations means it is unlikely to be formally recognized as a heritage site in the near future.

Lines[edit]

Spiral loop in the Alishan Line

The main line originally ran from the city of Chiayi (elevation 30 m), to Alishan (elevation 2,216 m), but is currently partially closed past Shizilu. The vegetation along the way changes from tropical to temperate and finally alpine. The line features many switchbacks on the way up the mountain.[12]

  • Main line
ChiayiShizilu
Includes several steep gradients (max. 6.26%), a spiral and four switchbacks; longest line with most dramatic climate change.
Reopened between Chiayi and Fenqihu (approximately the halfway point) following typhoon damage repairs in January 2014,[13] and to Shizilu in 2017.
  • Shenmu line
Alishan–First Reverse via Shenmu
Runs frequently all day, a short (5 minute) ride downhill to Shenmu station.
  • Chushan line
Alishan–Chushan
Early morning trains, popular for viewing the sunrise over Jade Mountain
  • Zhaoping line
Alishan–Zhaoping
Runs frequently all day, a short (5 minute) ride uphill to Zhaoping station
  • Mianyue line
Alishan–Shihou
Closed indefinitely due to earthquake damage
  • Shuishan line
Alishan–Shuishan

List of stations[edit]

Alishan line (Main line)[edit]

Alishan Station
Name Chinese Taiwanese Hakka Elevation
(m)
Distance
(km)
Transfers and Notes Location
Chiayi 嘉義 Ka-gī Kâ-ngi 30 0.0 AB-Kreuz.svg Taiwan Railways Administration West Coast line: Chiayi West Chiayi
Beimen 北門 Pak-mn̂g Pet-mùn 31 1.6 East
Lumachan 鹿麻產 Lo̍k-môa-sán Lu̍k-mà-sán 82 10.8 Zhuqi Chiayi
County
Zhuqi 竹崎 Tek-kiā Chuk-khì 127 14.2
Mulüliao 木履寮 Ba̍k-kia̍h-liàu Muk-kiak-liàu 324 18.9
Zhangnaoliao 樟腦寮 Chiuⁿ-ló͘-liâu Chông-nó-liàu 543 23.3
Dulishan 獨立山 To̍k-li̍p-soaⁿ Thu̍k-li̍p-sân 743 27.4
Liyuanliao 梨園寮 Lê-hn̂g-liâu Lài-yèn-liàu 905 31.4 Meishan
Jiaoliping 交力坪 Ka-le̍k-pêⁿ Kâu-li̍t-phiàng 997 34.9 Zhuqi
Shuisheliao 水社寮 Chúi-siā-liâu Súi-sa-liàu 1186 40.5
Fenqihu 奮起湖 Pùn-ki-ô͘ Fun-hí-fù 1403 45.8
Duolin 多林 To-lîm Tô-lìm 1516 50.9 Alishan
Shizilu 十字路 Si̍p-jī-lō͘ Sṳ̍p-sṳ-lu 1534 55.3
Pingzhena 屏遮那 Hè-sen-ná Phìn-châ-nâ 1711 60.5
First Switch 第一分道 Tē-it-pun-tō Thi-yit-fûn-tho 1827 63.0
Erwanping 二萬坪 Jī-bān-pêⁿ Ngi-van-phìn 2000 66.8
Shenmu 神木 Sîn-bo̍k Sṳ̀n-muk 2138 69.6 → Shenmu line
Alishan 阿里山 A-lí-san Â-lî-sân 2216 71.4
Zhaoping 沼平 Chau-pêng Cheu-phiàng 2274 72.7 → Mianyue line
→ Chushan line

Chushan line[edit]

Name Chinese Taiwanese Hakka Elevation
(m)
Distance
(km)
Transfers and Notes Location
Alishan 阿里山 A-lí-san Â-lî-sân 2216 0 Alishan Chiayi
County
Zhaoping 沼平 Chau-pêng Cheu-phiàng 2274 1.3 → Alishan line
→ Mianyue line
Shizifendao 十字分道 Si̍p-jī-pun-tō Sṳ̍p-sṳ-fûn-tho 2310 2.9
Duigaoyue 對高岳 Tuì-ko-ga̍k Tui-kô-ngo̍k 2350 4.9 Xinyi Nantou
County
Chushan 祝山 Chiok-soaⁿ Chuk-sân 2451 6.25 Highest railway station in Taiwan

Mianyue line[edit]

Name Chinese Taiwanese Hakka Elevation
(m)
Distance
(km)
Transfers and Notes Location
Alishan 阿里山 A-lí-san Â-lî-sân 2216 0 Alishan Chiayi
County
Zhaoping 沼平 Chau-pêng Cheu-phiàng 2274 1.3 → Alishan line
→ Zhushan line
Shizifendao 十字分道 Si̍p-jī-pun-tō Sṳ̍p-sṳ-fûn-tho 2310 2.9
Tashan 塔山 Thah-san Thap-sân 2344 5.5 Was the highest railway station in the Empire of Japan
Mianyue 眠月 Biân-goa̍t Mìn-ngie̍t 2303 8.0
Shihou 石猴 Chio̍h-kâu Sa̍k-hèu 2318 9.26

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shelley Shan (4 April 2016). "Alishan Forest Railway ticket prices to go up". The Taipei Times. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b Deborah Kuo. "Uncertain Future for Alishan Railway". Taipei Times. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
  3. ^ "Taiwan's Alpine Rail". Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  4. ^ Shelly Shan. "Tourists Killed in Train Derailment". Taipei Times. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
  5. ^ http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/local/chiayi/2015/08/11/442964/Alishan-Railway.htm
  6. ^ "Alishan signs sister deal with fellow Slovakian railway". Taipei Times. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  7. ^ "阿里山蒸汽火車 108年起每兩周行駛一天". UDN.com. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  8. ^ "阿里山森林鐵路移交民營 航向新紀元".
  9. ^ Shelly Shan. "TRA to Take Control of Alishan Forest Railway". Taipei Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
  10. ^ Huang, Kuo-fang; Lee, Hsin-yin (23 June 2018). "Forestry Bureau to take over operation of Alishan railway". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  11. ^ 阿里山SL-31號蒸汽機車運行記錄
  12. ^ http://www.railway.gov.tw/tw/Alishan/page.html
  13. ^ "Alishan tain goes to Fenqi Lake again".

External links[edit]