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Alister MacKenzie (30 August 1870 – 6 January 1934) was a Scottish golf course architect whose course designs span four continents. Originally trained as a surgeon, MacKenzie served as a civilian physician with the British Army during the Boer War where he first became aware of the principles of camouflage. During the First World War, MacKenzie made his own significant contributions to military camouflage, which he saw as closely related to golf course design. He is a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame. He designed more than 50 golf courses including three that remain in the 2016 top 10 golf courses in the world: Augusta National Golf Club and Cypress Point Club in the US, and Royal Melbourne Golf Club (West Course) in Australia.
Early years and education
MacKenzie was born on 30 August 1870 in Normanton, near Leeds in Yorkshire, England, to parents of Scottish extraction. His mother, Mary Jane Smith MacKenzie, had family roots in Glasgow. His father, William Scobie MacKenzie, a medical doctor, had been born and raised in the Scottish Highlands near Lochinver. Although christened after his paternal grandfather Alexander, he was called "Alister" (Gaelic for Alexander) from birth. As a youth, MacKenzie and his family spent summers near Lochinver, on what had been traditional Clan MacKenzie lands from 1670 to 1745. MacKenzie's strong identification with his Scottish roots featured prominently in many aspects of his later life.
MacKenzie attended Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield, before going to Cambridge University, where he initially trained as a medical doctor, graduating in 1891 with a B.A. (Natural Science Tripos Part 1), with honours, third class, before the next year undertaking and passing a second MB (Bachelor of Medicine. Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus) Anatomy. After a period working in Leeds, he returned to Cambridge in 1895 where he undertook the third MB examination (Part 1) before passing the London Licentiate examinations for Royal College of Surgeons the same year. Finally, in 1897 he graduated from Cambridge University, with MB BacS (Bachelor of Surgery), and MA degrees.
During his wartime service, MacKenzie became interested in camouflage, which was effectively used by the Boers. As a result, during the First World War, when he once again served in the army, he worked not as a surgeon but as a camoufleur. In a lecture he gave on the subject,[when?] he said that "the brilliant successes of the Boers [during his service in South Africa] were due to great extent to their making the best use of natural cover and the construction of artificial cover indistinguishable from nature."
Golf course design
MacKenzie had been a member of several golf clubs near Leeds, dating back as far as the late 1890s. These included Ilkley between 1890 and 1900 and Leeds Golf Club from 1900 to 1910. In 1907, he was one of the founding members of The Alwoodley Golf Club, where he was both honorary secretary (1907-1909) and club captain (1912-1913), and he remained on its green committee until 1930. As the course was MacKenzie's original design when Alwoodley was laid out, it was his first opportunity to put many of his design theories to practical test. However, the committee at the time thought that some of his ideas were too expansive, so it called in Harry Colt for a second opinion. Colt was one of the leading golf course architects of the time and was also the secretary of Sunningdale Golf Club. Colt visited on two occasions only: first on 31 July 1907, when he met MacKenzie for the first time, and later on 6 October 1909. On the first occasion, four months after the course opened for play, having stayed at MacKenzie's house overnight, he realized that MacKenzie's ideas were very much an extension of his own, and he gave great support for MacKenzie's ideas at the meeting with the committee. He did, however, mention the bunkering as MacKenzie's ideas had taken into account the new technology of the day, which was the Haskell wound ball (which bounced and rolled) and was now being used instead of the old gutta-percha golf ball. Some of MacKenzie's modern ideas under discussion included undulating greens, long and narrow greens angled from the center of the fairway, fairly large and free-form bunker shapes, and substantial additional contouring. All of these remained part of his "signature style" throughout his career.
In 1914, MacKenzie won a golf hole design competition organized by Country Life; the adjudicator was Bernard Darwin. MacKenzie then took an active interest in course improvements at his own clubs, gaining experience in the newly emerging discipline of golf course design. He charted the Old Course at St. Andrews in great detail; by 1915 he had become a member of the R&A. In March 1924, he produced a map which remains well-known to the present day.
Following the First World War, MacKenzie left medicine and began to work instead as a golf course designer in the United Kingdom, in association with Harry Colt and Charles Alison in 1919, with whom he formed the London firm of Colt, MacKenzie & Alison. Four years later, MacKenzie went his own way.
MacKenzie thought he had learned a lot about golf course planning from having designed camouflage. There are references to the latter in his first book on course design, called Golf Architecture (MacKenzie 1920), such as when he writes that "there is an extraordinary resemblance between what is now known as the camouflage of military earthworks and golf-course construction", or later, when he states that there "are many other attributes in common between the successful golf architect and the camoufleur. Both, if not actually artists, must have an artistic temperament, and have had an education in science." In the same book, he also writes that "the chief object of every golf course architect worth his salt is to imitate the beauties of nature [and presumably also the hazards] so closely as to make his work indistinguishable from nature itself." His book was later included in Herbert Warren Wind's Classics of Golf Library.
MacKenzie worked in an era before large scale earth moving became a major factor in golf course construction, and his designs are notable for their sensitivity to the nature of the original site.
Ability as a golfer
As a player, MacKenzie was self-described as a "good putter, but a mediocre ball striker" for most of his life. It was not until after his move to California, when he was already in his 60s, that MacKenzie had what he described as his "golfing epiphany". This was an improvement in his ball striking which enabled him to often score in the high 70s to low 80s for 18 holes. He described this in one of his books as "in the 70s after 60". MacKenzie was one of the first prominent golf course designers who had not been a leading player.
In the late 1920s, he moved to the United States, where he carried out some of his most notable work, although he continued to design courses outside that country as well. Today, he is remembered as the designer of some of the world's finest courses, among them Century Country Club (Purchase, New York), as MacKenzie was partners with Colt & Alison at the time the two built Century, from mid-1923 he was working with other partners when he designed Augusta National Golf Club (Augusta, Georgia), Cypress Point Club (Monterey Peninsula, California), Royal Melbourne Golf Club (Melbourne, Australia), Pasatiempo Golf Club (Santa Cruz, California), Crystal Downs Country Club (Frankfort, Michigan), Lahinch Golf Course (Lahinch, Ireland), and Meadow Club (Fairfax, California) [see extended list of his courses below].
MacKenzie died in Santa Cruz, California, in January 1934, two months before the inaugural Masters Tournament (then known as the Augusta National Invitational Tournament). Discovered after his death was an unpublished manuscript on golf and golf course design, which was posthumously published as The Spirit of St. Andrews (MacKenzie 1995).
- Alwoodley Golf Club, Leeds, England (1907)
- Augusta National Golf Club, Augusta, Georgia, United States (1933)
- Bingley St Ives Golf Course, Harden, Bingley, West Yorkshire (1931)
- Burning Tree Club, Bethesda, Maryland (1924)
- Bolton Old Links Golf Club, Bolton, Lancashire (1924).
- Cavendish Golf Club, Buxton, Derbyshire, England (1925); its design has been largely unaltered
- Claremont Country Club, Oakland, California (1929), located in the Oakland hills
- Cork Golf Club, Cork, Ireland (1927)
- Crystal Downs Country Club, Frankfort, Michigan (1929), 10th best Course in U.S. Golf Digest 2007–08
- Cypress Point Club, Monterey Peninsula, California (1928)
- Dewsbury District Golf Club, West Yorkshire, England 1913
- Fulwell Golf Club, England 1905
- Garforth Golf Club, Leeds, England (1913)
- Galway Golf Club, Galway, Ireland (1925).
- Green Hills Country Club, Millbrae, California (1930)
- Haggin Oaks Golf Course, Sacramento, California
- Hazel Grove Golf Club, Cheshire UK, featuring a life-sized statue of MacKenzie
- The No. 1 course at Hazlehead Park, Aberdeen, Scotland
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (1931) Jockey Club.
- The Old Course at Lahinch Golf Club in Ireland (1927): Mackenzie reworked the original layout by Old Tom Morris.
- Meadow Club, Fairfax, California (1927); MacKenzie's first design in America.
- Moortown Golf Club, Leeds, England (1909)
- Nenagh Golf Club, Co. Tipperary in Ireland (1929)
- Northwood Golf Club, Monte Rio, California (1928)
- Oakdale Golf Club, Harrogate, England (1914)
- Pasatiempo Golf Club, Santa Cruz, California (1929)
- Pitreavie (Dunfermline) Golf Club, Fife, Scotland (1922)
- Pontefract and District Golf Club, West Yorkshire, England (1932) including a number of classic Mackenzie green designs
- The Portland Course at the Royal Troon Golf Club, in Troon, Scotland
- Reddish Vale Golf Course, Stockport, England
- Redlands Country Club, Redlands, California (1927); construction overseen by Raymond Hornby
- Rosemont Course at Blairgowie Golf Club, Perth and Kinross, Scotland (1927)
- Royal Adelaide Golf Club, Adelaide, Australia (1926)
- Seaton Carew Golf Club, Seaton Carew, Durham County, England (1925)
- The Scarlet Course at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (1931)
- St. Charles Country Club, Winnipeg, Manitoba; MacKenzie Nine (1931)
- Sand Moor Golf Club
- Sharp Park Golf Course, Pacifica, California (1932): municipally-owned by San Francisco, though located in the southern beachside suburb of Pacifica, Sharp Park.
- Sitwell Park Golf Club, Rotherham, England (1913)
- Skipton Golf Club, Skipton, North Yorkshire, England (1896)
- Stanley Park Golf Club, Stanley Park, Blackpool (1925), Blackpool, England
- Stanmore Links, North West London (1922), Stanmore, England; rebuilt over an earlier 1893 Tom Dun design
- Temple Newsam Golf Club (1923), Leeds, England
- Teignmouth Golf Club (1924), Devon, England
- Tijuana Country Club, Mexico (1929). (Disputed)
- Titirangi Golf Club, Titirangi, Auckland, New Zealand (1926)
- University of Michigan Golf Course, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1931)
- The Valley Club of Montecito Santa Barbara, California (1928)
- West Course at Royal Melbourne Golf Club, Melbourne, Australia (1931): regarded as the No.1 course in Australia
- MacKenzie, Alister (1915), "Military Entrenchments" in Golf Illustrated. Vol 3 No 1, pp. 42–45.
- MacKenzie, Alister [unsigned article, but authorship claimed by MacKenzie] (1919), "Entrenchments and Camouflage: Lecture by a British Officer Skilled in Landscape Gardening" in Professional Memoirs, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army and Engineer Department at Large. No 47, pp. 574–638.
- MacKenzie, Alister (1920), Golf Architecture: Economy in Course Construction and Green-Keeping. London UK: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co. Ltd.
- MacKenzie, Alister (1934), "Common Sense of Camouflage Defence" in The Military Engineer. Vol XXVI No 145 (January–February), pp. 42–44.
- MacKenzie, Alister (1995). The Spirit of St. Andrews. Sleeping Bear Press. ISBN 1-886947-00-7.
- Behrens, Roy R. (2009), CAMOUPEDIA: A Compendium of Research on Art, Architecture and Camouflage. Dysart, Iowa: Bobolink Books. ISBN 978-0-9713244-6-6.
- Doak, Tom (2001), The Life and Work of Dr. Alister MacKenzie. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 978-1-58536-018-5.
- Green, John (2011), The Royal Melbourne Golf Club, History of the Courses. ISBN 978-0-646-55588-1.
- Muirhead, Desmond (July 1995), "Symbols in Golf Course Architecture" in Executive Golfer.
- "Alister MacKenzie Links Designer, Dies; Golfers Have Praised Famous Courses Laid Out by Him in America and Scotland". The New York Times. 7 January 1934. p. 31.
- MacKenzie 1920, pp. 128–131; Behrens 2009
- Szurlej, Ron Whitten,Stephen. "The World 100 Greatest Golf Courses - Golf Digest". Golf Digest. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Doak, Tom, The Life and Work of Dr. Alister MacKenzie, Scott & Haddock, 2001 pp 22-28
- "The Dr AlisterMacKenzie Chronology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- MacKenzie 1934, p. 42
- Alister MacKenzie, The Spirit of St. Andrews, 1995
- (p. 56)
- Golf Architecture, p. 128
- Golf Architecture, p. 129–130
- Golf Architecture, page unknown
- "Heritage". Bury Golf Club. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "Our Heritage". Felixstowe Ferry Golf Club. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
- Taylor, Pat, & Valerie Carter (ed.) (1997) Hadley Wood: The Story of a Golf Club (1922-1997). Barnet: Hadley Wood Golf Club. p. 15.
- Cavendish Golf Club Website Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Skipton Golf Club Guide". Craven Herald & Pioneer. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Blake, Martin. "Royal Melbourne back at No.1". The Age. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
Media related to Alister MacKenzie at Wikimedia Commons