Alitagtag is politically subdivided into 19 barangays. In 1957, the following barrios were created: Pingas, composed of Sitios Pingas and Corral; Tadlak, composed of sitios Tadlak and Malukan; and Sambi composed of the sitio of Sambi.
The town is notable for being the original location where a replica of the True Cross was erected in the Spanish Era. Known as the Holy Cross of Alitagtag, the image which was supposedly hewn from the post of a fallen house made of anubing (a hardwood), is venerated in surrounding towns for its allegedly mystical powers.
The Sublî dance, now popular throughout the province and beyond, is the most widely-recognised ritual associated with the Catholic devotion to the Holy Cross of Alitagtag.