Alkylglycerol monooxygenase

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alkylglycerol monooxygenase
EC number1.14.16.5
CAS number37256-82-9
IntEnzIntEnz view
ExPASyNiceZyme view
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene OntologyAmiGO / QuickGO

Alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of alkylglycerols, a specific subclass of ether lipids. This enzyme was first described in 1964 as a pteridine-dependent etherlipid cleaving enzyme.[1] In 2010 finally, the gene coding for alkylglycerol monooxygenase was discovered as transmembrane protein 195 (TMEM195) on chromosome 7.[2] In analogy to the enzymes phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase, alkylglycerol monooxygenase critically depends on the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin and iron.

The reaction catalyzed by alkylglycerol monooxygenase:

  • 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2 1-hydroxyalkyl-sn-glycerol + 6,7[8H]-dihydrobiopterin + H2O

The unstable intermediate product 1-hydroxyalkyl-sn-glycerol rearranges into the fatty aldehyde and the free glycerol derivative. The fatty aldehyde is then further oxidized to the corresponding acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Alkylglycerol monooxygenase is a membrane-bound mixed-function oxidase and harbours a fatty acid hydroxylase motif. The iron is believed to be coordinated by a diiron center composed of eight histidines, which can be found in all enzymes containing this motif.


The systematic name for this enzyme is 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol,tetrahydrobiopterin:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in use are glyceryl-ether monooxygenase, glyceryl-ether cleaving enzyme, glyceryl ether oxygenase, glyceryl etherase, and O-alkylglycerol monooxygenase.


  1. ^ Tietz, AA; Lindberg, M; Kennedy, EP (December 1964). "A New Pteridine-Requiring Enzyme System For The Oxidation Of Glyceryl Ethers". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 239: 4081–90. PMID 14247652.
  2. ^ Watschinger, K (2010). "Identification of the gene encoding alkylglycerol monooxygenase defines a third class of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107 (31): 13672–13677. doi:10.1073/pnas.1002404107. PMC 2922233. PMID 20643956.

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